Sources and Diseases caused by Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency- PDF

Sources and Diseases caused by Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency- PDF

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Vitamins

  • Vitamins are the micro-nutrients required for the proper growth and maintenance of our body and organs.
  • They help with the metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates required for body development.
  • Vitamins are not developed/ synthesized inside the human body. Hence, our food should have appropriate amounts of vitamins to meet the required levels.

Sources and Diseases caused by Vitamin Deficiency

The following table contains the sources of all the important Vitamins:

  1. Vitamin A (Retinol)
    • Sources: Dark green and yellow colored vegetables and fruits, cod liver oil, Milk, Butter, and other dairy products.
    • Diseases: Night-blindness, Hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia.
    • Solubility:
  2. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
    • Sources: Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs.
    • Diseases: Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
    • Solubility:
  3. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
    • Sources: Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
    • Diseases: Ariboflavinosis
    • Solubility: Water
  4. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
    • Sources: Cereals, seeds, meat, fish – tuna, etc.
    • Diseases: Pellagra
    • Solubility: Water
  5. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)
    • Sources: Brocolli, sweet potatoes, beans, eggs, etc.
    • Diseases: Paresthesia
    • Solubility: Water
  6. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
    • Sources: Pistachio nuts, Sesame seeds, Chicken, etc.
    • Diseases: Anaemia peripheral neuropathy.
    • Solubility: Water
  7. Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
    • Sources: Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, certain vegetables
    • Diseases: Dermatitis, enteritis
    • Solubility: Water
  8. Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
    • Sources: Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
    • Diseases: Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects
    • Solubility: Water
  9. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)
    • Sources: Fish, Meat, Raw milk, Organic Yogurt
    • Diseases: Megaloblastic anemia
    • Solubility: Water
  10. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
    • Sources: Many fruits and vegetables, liver
    • Diseases: Scurvy
    • Solubility: Water
  11. Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol)
    • Sources: Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
    • Diseases: Rickets and Osteomalacia
    • Solubility: Fat
  12. Vitamin E (Tocopherols)
    • Sources: Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
    • Diseases: Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants.     
    • Solubility: Fat
  13. Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
    • Sources: Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks, liver.
    • Diseases: Bleeding diathesis.
    • Solubility: Fat

Pandemic deficiency diseases caused by Vitamin Deficiency

Deficiency diseases of five vitamins are called Pandemic deficiency diseases. These include:

  1. Niacin Deficiency (Pellagra)
  2. Vitamin C Deficiency (Scurvy)
  3. Thiamine Deficiency (Beriberi)
  4. Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets)
  5. Vitamin A Deficiency (Night Blindness)

Minerals

Minerals are specific kinds of nutrients that your body needs in order to function properly.

  • A mineral deficiency occurs when your body doesn’t obtain or absorb the required amount of a mineral.
  • There are five main categories of mineral deficiency: calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, and zinc.

Sources and Diseases caused by Mineral Deficiency

  1. Calcium
    • Sources: Milk and Milk Products, Eggs, Wheatgrass, etc.
    • Diseases: Osteoporosis, Hypocalcemia, Osteopenia
  2. Iron
    • Sources: Red Meat, Seafood, Egg Yolk, Bananas, Apple, Green Vegetables, Broccoli, Beans, Pumpkin Seeds, etc.
    • Diseases: Anaemia, Arrhythmia
  3. Magnesium
    • Sources: Nuts and Seeds, Green Vegetables, Dark Chocolate, Whole Grains, etc.
    • Diseases: Deterioration of Metabolism & Cellular Functioning, Heart Attacks, Insulin Resistance
  4. Potassium
    • Sources: Meat, Milk, Fruits, Vegetables, Whole Grains, etc.
    • Diseases: High Blood Pressure, Arrhythmia, Muscle Weakness, Myalgia, Muscle Cramps, Constipation, Respiratory Depression, Paralysis
  5. Zinc
    • Sources: Oysters, Crab, Lobster, Porkchop, Baked beans, Cashews, Cheese, etc
    • Diseases: Growth retardation, loss of appetite, and impaired immune function.
  6. Sodium
    • Sources: Salt, Fish, Meat, Vegetables, etc.
    • Diseases: Cognitive Impairment, Headaches, Nausea, Seizure, Coma, Electrolytic Imbalance
  7. Iodine
    • Sources: Iodised Salt, Sea Food, Green Vegetables, Raw Milk, Eggs, etc.
    • Diseases: Goitre, Cretinism, Deterioration of Metabolism & Cellular Functioning
  8. Phosphorus
    • Sources: Meat, Fish, Poultry, Eggs, Milk, Bananas, etc.
    • Diseases: hypophosphatemia, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults
  9. Protein
    • Sources: Meat, Seafood, Eggs, Pulses & Legumes, Milk & Milk Products, etc.
    • Diseases: Kwashiorkor
  10. Protein Energy
    • Sources: Grains, Pulses & Legumes, Meat, Milk & Milk Products, Eggs, Seafood, etc.
    • Diseases: Marasmus

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