Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher Vol 2
We have started a monthly magazine Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher, which will be released on the 10th of every month.
Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher will contain one chapter from each subject such as Maths, English, History, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Current Affairs, Environmental Science, Computer awareness, etc.
Pratiyogita Abhiyan refresher will also contain a full-length mock test of 100 marks. OMR sheet and answer key will be provided for self-evaluation.
The language of the Refresher magazine is English.
Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher study materials have been compiled by experienced teachers from respective fields.
Here, you can see a sample chapter from Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher Vol I (March 2019 Edition)
If you like the sample, you can buy PDF of Pratiyogita Refresher Magazine.
Purchase link is at the end of the article.
The Harappa Culture/Indus Valley Civilization
Before we begin, remember: Harappan Civilization is also known as Indus Valley Civilization
The Discoverers of Indus Valley Civilization:
- Alexander Cunningham – He was the first Director-General of ASI. He Began excavations around the mid-nineteenth century.
- John Marshall – He was the DG of ASI in 1927 and first professional Archaeologist of India. But he excavated horizontally and all finds were grouped together even when they were found at different stratigraphic layers. This caused loss of very valuable information regarding.
- R.E.M. Wheeler – He followed the stratigraphy of excavations rather than just excavating horizontally.
Important sites of Indus Valley Civilisations
Firstly, let’s look at major sites:
- Harappa was an urban center. It is in Punjab Province of Pakistan, located on an old river-bed of River Ravi.
- Mohenjo Daro is located in Sindh province of Pakistan, which is next to the river Indus.
- Dholavira is situated on ‘Khadir Beyt’, which is an island in Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India.
- Lothal is located near the Sabarmati river and the Arabian Sea, in the Gulf of Khambat, Gujarat, India.
- Rakhigarhi was discovered in Haryana, India only in 1990.
- Ganeriwala is located in Punjab province of Pakistan and is very near to the Indian border.
Minor Sites are also being excavated with reference to Indus Valley Civilization:
- ‘Gola Dhoro’ or Bagasara is a site located in Gujarat, India.
- Daimabad is located in Maharashtra near Mumbai.
- Chanhudaro is located just 80 miles south of Mohenjo Daro in Sindh, Pakistan. It has been established as a manufacturing center.
- Sutkagen Dor is located in Baluchistan. It is also the westernmost site of Harappan civilization.
Summary: The Harappa Culture/Indus Valley Civilization
- The Civilization was named Indus Valley Civilization by Sir John Marshal (1924), after its discovery by Daya Ram Sahni and Vatsa in 1921-22. However, Indus Valley Civilization is not limited to areas around Harappa or those lying in the Indus valley alone.
- The maximum number of sites were explored by R. Rao, in Gujarat (190 sites). At present, there are over 350 sites which have been excavated.
- The modern technique of carbon-14 dating has been employed to calculate the date of the Indus Valley Civilization. Harappan seals, which have been obtained from Mesopotamia provide additional help.
- The population was heterogeneous, and at Mohenjodaro four races have been discovered. The people were not of Dravidian origin. The population mostly belonged to the Mediterranean race.
- Indus Valley Civilization people had contacts with West Asia and Central Asia. Their contacts are proved by the discovery of terracotta figures of the mother goddess, bull seals, etc in West and Central Asia. Their weights and measures resemble those of Their drainage system resemble that at Tell Asmar.
- The largest Indus Valley Civilization site is The smallest site is Allahdino. The largest sites in India are Dholavira, Rakhigarhi. The three nucleus sites are Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Dholavira. The number of sites which are considered as cities is six.
- Mohenjodaro is located on the banks of the Indus river. Chanhudaro is located on Indus/Sutlej; Harappa on Ravi; Kalibanganon Ghaggar/Saraswati; Lothal on Bhogavo; and Ropar on Sutlej.
- Sites Year of Discovery and Discoverer
|(a) Harappa||1921||D.R. Sahni and M.S. Vatsa, (under Sir John Marshal)|
|(b) Mohenjodaro||1922||R.D. Banerjee|
|(c) Chanhudaro||1925||Earnest Mackey/ Majumdar|
|(d) Kalibangan||1953||A.N. Ghosh|
|(f) Lothal||1957||M.S. Vatsa/S.R. Rao|
|(g) Suktagender||1962||George Dales|
|(h) Surkatoda||1964||J.P. Joshi|
|(i) Banawali||1973||R.S. Bisht|
|(k) Ropar||1953||Talwar and Bisht|
- The same type of layout, with a separate acropolis and lower city, is found at Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Kalibangan.
- The citadel and the lower city are joined at Surkatoda and Banawali.
- The citadel was normally smaller than the lower city and lay to its Westside.
- Three divisions of the town were discovered at
- The town which shows marked differences in its town planning and drainage system from other Indus Valley Civilization sites is
- The town which resembles European castles (due to stone masonry) is
- The Indus Valley Civilization site where houses are built just next to the wall is
- Stone rubble has been used at
- The site of Mohenjo-Daro was constructed at least seven times.
- The towns which resemble castles of merchants are Desalpur, Rojdi, Balakot.
- The coastal towns are Lothal, Saratoga, Balakot, Allahdino, and Rangpur.
- The shape of the citadel at Lothal is trapezium.
- The houses were constructed on the pattern of gridiron (chess).
- Fire altars have been discovered at
- A stupa, great bath, college, Hammam, granary, and assembly hall belong to
- The cemetery R37, containing 57 burials, is located at Harappa.
- Lothal is famous for warehouse, granary, merchant’s house, besides its
- The only site where guard rooms were provided at gates is
- A ceramic bathtub was discovered at
- The major seal producing units were at
- A huge palace-like-building has been found at
- Bead-makers shop and equipment were found at Chanhudaro and Lothal.
- The maximum number of seals have been found in Mohenjodaro (57%). Second maximum at Harappa (36%).
- Persian-gulf seal was found at Lothal it is a button seal.
- A Tiger seal was found at 34. Iraqi cylindrical seal was found at Mohenjodaro.
- A crucible for making bronze articles was discovered at Harappa.
- Maximum bronze figures have been found in Mohenjodaro.
- The Bronze dancing girl was found in Mohenjodaro.
- Mostly limestone was used for sculptures.
- Limestone sculpture of a seated male priest was found at
- An atta chakki (grinding stone) was discovered at
- Deluxe pottery was discovered at Banawali.
- The only place where pottery depicting humans has been found is in Harappa.
- Pottery inkpots and writing tablets (leafs) were found at
- War-tools made of copper and bronze were discovered at Mohenjodaro.
- The site where oxen driven carts were found was Harappa.
- A terracotta model of a ship was found at Lothal.
- A seat latrine has been found at Mohenjodaro.
- A house floor containing the design of intersecting circles was found at Kalibangan.
- The seals depicting the lord Pashupati Siva, Sumerian Gilgamesh and his two lions were found at Mohenjodaro.
- Agricultural implements were found in Mohenjodaro.
- The plowed field was found in Kalibangan.
- Jowar (Jau) was found in Banawali.
- Cotton spindles,(and sewing needles) have been found in Mohenjo-Daro.
- Rice husk was discovered in Lothal and Rangpur.
- The foreign site where Indus Valley Civilization cotton cloth has been discovered is
- Indus Valley Civilization people disposed of the dead bodies in three forms. At Mohenjo-Daro, we find three forms of burials:
(a) Complete burial– whole body buried along with the grave goods.
(b) Fractional burial– only bones (after exposure to beasts, birds, etc.) were buried along with goods.
(c) Cremation burials– body was cremated in urns and then buried under house floors or streets.
- Four pot burials containing bone ashes were discovered at
- Bodies were found buried in oval pits at
- The interesting evidence about the horse during Indus Valley Civilization are:
(a) Horse bones have been found in Surkatoda.
(b) Horse tooth has been found in Ranaghudai.
(c) Terracotta figure of a horse has been found in Lothal.
(d) Ashes of a horse have been found in Suktagendor.
- 75% of terracotta figures are of the humped bull.
- The Garuda is depicted on a seal from Harappa.
- Evidence of the rhinoceros comes from Amri and Kalibangan. It also tells us that there was plenty of rainfall there.
- The Sumerian Gilgamesh seal also shows two tigers.
- Some other known animals were bull, dog, rabbit, and bird.
- Though a lot of buildings and bricks were found, no brick kilns have been found so far.
- The customary vessels for drinking were goblets with pointed bases, which were used only once.
- The most extensively used metal in Indus Valley Civilization was pure copper (unalloyed copper).
- The metal which made the earliest appearances during the Indus Valley Civilization was
- The Indus Valley Civilization forts were not meant for defense from enemies. They were mere entry points and provided safety from petty robbers. They also stood as a symbol of social authority in an area.
- The best information on social life comes from terracotta figures.
- The weapons used were: axes, bows, arrows and the Gada. No defensive weapons have been found here. No swords were They are considered to be overall a peace loving race.
- Houses never opened towards the main roads. They opened towards the galis. The exception is houses found in Lothal.
- The Indus Valley Civilization was probably ruled by the merchant class.
- Mostly all cities had a citadel or Acropolis. It stood on a high mound, was called the upper city and was fortified. Chanhudaro hadno citadel.
- The greatest work of art, of Indus Valley Civilization, are the seals. They were mostly rectangular or square and were made from
- The crossing point of the First Street and East street of Mohenjodaro has been named Oxford Circus.
- The various minerals (metals) used by Indus Valley Civilization people and their sources are Silver from Afghanistan and Iran and Iraq; Lead from Kashmir, Rajasthan, etc.; Gold from Karnataka; Copper from Rajasthan; Lapis Lazuli from Afghanistan. Iron was not known to Indus Valley Civilization people.
- Though pottery has been discovered, no pottery wheel has been found (probably because it was wooden and hence perished).
- The first mention of the possibility of the Harappan civilization was made as early as 1826, by Charles Madsen.
- Sindona is the Greek word for cotton and it was grown earliest in the Indus Valley Civilization period only.
- The Mesopotamian king, whose date is known with certainty (2,350 B.C.), who claimed that ships from Indus Valley Civilization traded with him was king Sargon of Akkad.
- In Dholavira (Rann of Kutch, Gujarat) Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has found elaborate stone gateways with rounded columns, apart from giant reservoirs for water. A board inlaid with large Harappan script characters probably the world’s first hoarding was also found here.
- In recent times, archaeologists have excavated are in the process of digging up 90 other sites, both in India and Pakistan, that are throwing up remarkable clues about this great prehistoric civilisation. Among them are: Indus Valley was probably the largest prehistoric urban civilization. The empire was ruled much like democracy and the Indus people were the world’s top exporters. And, instead of the Aryans it was possibly a massive earthquake that did them in.
- As per latest estimates, Indus Valley Civilization encompassed a staggering 1.5 million sq km an area larger than Western Europe. In size, it dwarfed contemporary civilizations in the Nile Valley in Egypt and in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in Sumer (modern Iraq). Its geographical boundaries are now believed to extend up to the Iranian border on the west, Turkmenistan and Kashmir in the north, Delhi in the east and the Godavari Valley in the south.
- While Mohenjodaro and Harappa are rightly regarded as principal cities of Indus Valley Civilization, there were several others, such as Rakhigarhi in Haryana and Ganweriwala in Pakistan’s Punjab province, that match them both in size and importance.
- Along with the Etruscans of Italy, the Indus Valley script is the last script of the Bronze Age that is yet to be deciphered. So far no such bilingual artefact has been found that could help break the Indus writing code.
- The Indus Valley civilizations inscriptions are usually short, made up of 26 characters written usually in one line. The script, largely glyptic in content, has around 419 signs. The writing system is believed to be based on The Indus people also wrote from right to left, as is manifest by the strokes.
- The excavation of Lothal, an Indus port town located off the Gujarat coast, shattered notions that the Civilization was landlocked and isolated. A 700 feet long dock-even bigger than the ones in many present-day ports has been discovered. It took an estimated million bricks to build. Hundreds of seals were found, some showing Persian Gulf origin, indicating that Lothal was a major port of exit and entry.
- A lapis lazuli bead factory, discovered in Shortugaiin Afghanistan, is believed to have been a major supplier to Harappan traders.
- Harappans are credited with being the earliest growers of rice and cotton.
- Outside the Indus system, a few sites occur on the Makran Coast (Pakistan- Iran border), the westernmost of which is at SutkagenDor, near the modern frontier with Iran. These sites were probably ports or trading posts, supporting the sea trade with the Persian Gulf, and were established in what otherwise remained a largely separate cultural region. The uplands of Baluchistan, while showing clear evidence of trade and contact with the Indus Civilization, appear to have remained outside the direct Harappan rule.
- East of the Indus system, toward the north, a number of sites occur right up to the edge of the Himalayan foothills, where at Alamgirpur, east of Delhi, the easternmost Harappan (or perhaps late Harappan) settlement has been discovered and partly excavated.
- Besides Mohenjodaro and Harappa, other major sites excavated include Dholavira and Surkotada in the Rann of Kach; Nausharo Firoz in Baluchistan; Shortughai in northern Afghanistan; Amri, Chanhudaro, and Judeirjodaro in Sindh (Pakistan); and Sandhanawala in Bahawalpur (Pakistan).
- Of all the Indus Valley Civilization sites, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, and Lothal have been most extensively excavated.
- At major three sites excavated, the citadel mound is on a north-south axis and about twice as long as it is broad. The lower city is laid out in a grid pattern of streets; at Kalibangan these were of regularly controlled widths, with the major streets running through, while the minor lanes were sometimes offset, creating different sizes of blocks. At all three sites the citadel was protected by a massive, defensive wall of brick, which at Kalibangan was strengthened at intervals by square or rectangular bastions. In all three cases the city was situated near a river, although in modern times the rivers have deserted their former courses.
- The most common building material at every site was brick, but the proportions of burned brick to unburned mud brick vary. Mohenjo-Daro employs burned brick, perhaps because timber was more readily available, while mud brick was reserved for fillings and mass work. Kalibangan, on the other hand, reserved burned brick for bathrooms, wells, and drains. Most of the domestic architecture at Kalibangan was in mud brick.
- The bathrooms of houses made during the time were usually indicated by the fine quality of the brickwork in the floor and by waste drains.
- There is surprisingly little evidence of public places of worship, although at Mohenjo-Daro a number of possible temples were unearthed in the lower city, and other buildings of a ritual character were reported in the citadel.
- The Chief male deity was the ‘Pashupati Mahadeva’ e. lord of Animals(Proto-Shiva) represented in seals as sitting in yogic posture; he is surrounded by four animals (elephant, tiger, rhino and buffalo) and two deer appear at his feet. There was also a prevalence of Phallic (Lingam) worship.
- Origin of the ‘Swastika’ symbol can be traced to the Indus Valley Civilization.
- People of the civilization had developed their own kind of weighing and measurement system which was the multiple of 16.
Theories of Decline
Wheeler: Aryan invasion (It was completely rejected, please do not come up with this theory).
Major Factors: Climate change, weakening of Monsoon, emigration to better parts, weakening of trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia, drought and floods. So these five-six reasons combined over the reason of decline of Indus Valley Civilization. The decline does not mean complete vanish, urban life of India never vanished it just TRANSFORMED.
- Which of the following was common both to the Harappan society and the Rigvedic society?
(a) Iron implements
(b) Female deities
(c) Urban centers
- Which one of the following archaeologists initially discovered the Mohenjo-Daro site of the Indus Valley civilization?
(a) Sir John Marshal
(b) Rakhal Das Bannerjee
(c) Daya Ram Sahni
(d) Sir Mortimer Wheeler
- Which among the following throws light on Harappan Culture?
(a) Archaeological finds
(b) The Harrapan script
(c) The rock edicts
(d) None of the above
- What is the name the script of the Harappans:
(a) describes their war against the indigenous inhabitants
(b) has not yet been deciphered
(c) is written in Prakrit language
(d) None of the above is true
- The cities of Kalibangan and Lothal are associated with:
(a) Egyptian culture
(b) Harappan culture
(c) Aryan culture
(d) Chinese civilization
- The excavations at which of the following sites provided the evidence of maritime trade being carried on during the period of the Harappan culture?
- The Harappans did not know the use of:
- Harappan Culture was spread over:
(a) Punjab, Sind, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat
(b) Sind, Punjab, Baluchistan, Afghanistan
(c) Sind, Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat
(d) Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan, Afghanistan
- The Aryans succeeded in their conflicts with the pre-Aryans because
(a) they used elephants on a large scale
(b) they were taller and stronger
(c) they were from an advanced urban culture
(d) they used chariots driven by horse
- The Great Bath of Indus Valley civilization is found at
- The glory of the Harappan culture rests chiefly on:
(b) town planning
(d) administrative system
- The staple food of the Vedic Aryans was
(a) barley and rice
(b) milk and its products
(c) rice and pulses
(d) vegetables and fruits
- The Harappan Civilizations is known for its:
(b) overseas trade and commerce
(c) art and painting
(d) drainage system
- Lothal is a site where dockyards of which of the following civilizations were found?
(a) Indus Valley
- Indus Valley civilization is also known as the Harappan culture because:
(a) the site of Harappa is six times larger than Mohenjo-Daro site
(b) the Indus Valley civilization is considered the elementary/initial stage of the Vedic culture and Harappa is believed to be the same as Harappa mentioned in the Vedas
(c) Harappa was the first site to be excavated in the Indus valley
(d) the most important/significant evidence of the achievements of this civilization have been excavated from Harappa
- Of the following sites associated with the Indus Valley Civilizations, one located in India is:
(d) None of the above
- With which period is Indus Valley civilization associated?
(a) 567-487 BC
(b) 327-325 BC
(c) 300-200 BC
(d) 2300-1750 BC
- Which of the following is correct?
(a) The Indus Valley Civilization existed even before the spread of Harappan Culture
(b) The Indus Valley Civilization co-existed with the Aryan Civilizations
(c) The Indus Valley people used materials made of iron
(d) The Indus Valley Civilizations was an urban civilization
- The Indus Valley Civilizations people had the knowledge of:
(a) gold, silver, copper, iron, bronze but not tin
(b) gold, silver, copper, bronze, lead but not iron
(c) gold, silver, copper, bronze, tin, iron but not lead
(d) gold, silver, copper, tin, iron but not bronze
- Which of the following is the most important feature of the Indus Valley Civilization?
(a) Burnt brick buildings
(b) Gold coins
(c) The sound system of administration
(d) Art & architecture
There are 60 more questions available from this chapter. Moreover, there are 600+ MCQ’s available all together in the Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher Vol 2
Hope you have liked the sample file of Pratiyogita Abhiyan Refresher Magazine Vol 2 (April 2019 Edition)
Buy March month’s Refresher Magazine: Click here