Religious and Social Reform Movements (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download


Religious and Social Reform Movements

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Religious and Social Reform Movements

Religious Reform Movements

Common characteristics of Religious and Social Reform Movements

  • From the late 19th century a number of European and Indian scholars started the study of ancient India’s history, philosophy, science, religions, and literature.
  • This growing knowledge of India’s past glory provided to the Indian people a sense of pride in their civilization.
  • It also helped the reformers in their work of religious and social reform for their struggle against all types of inhuman practices, superstitions, etc.
  • These social and religious reform movements arose among all communities of the Indian people.
  • They attacked bigotry, superstition, and the hold of the priestly class.
  • They worked for the abolition of castes and untouchability, purdah system, sati, child marriage, social inequalities, and illiteracy.
  • Some of these reformers were supported directly or indirectly by the British officials and some of the reformers also supported reformative steps and regulations framed by the British Government.

Brahmo Samaj and Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Associations related with Brahmo Samaj

Associations related with Brahmo Samaj

  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s greatest achievement in the field of religious reform was a set up in 1828 of the Brahmo Samaj.
  • The title of Raja was given to him by Mughal Emperor Akbar – II.
  • Established Brahmo Samaj [initially the Atmiya Sabha] in 1828 to purify Hinduism and preach monotheism.
  • The Brahmo Samaj was an important organization of religious reforms.
  • The Brahmo Samaj made an effort to reform Hindu religion by removing abuses and by basing it on the worship of one God and on the teachings of the Vedas and Upanishads even though it repudiated the doctrine of the infallibility of the Vedas.
  • He was called the first modern man in India. He was the pioneer of socio-religious reforms.
  • His Biggest Achievement – He helped Bentinck outlaw sati. He preached against female infanticide. He wanted equal rights for women and female education.
  • His second most important contribution – He promoted western sciences and English education.
  • Brahmos were basically opposed to idolatry and superstitious practices and rituals, in fact to the entire Brahmanical system.
  • The Brahmos were also great social reformers. They actively opposed the caste system and child-marriage and supported the general uplift of women, including widow remarriage, and the spread of modem education to men and women.
  • He advocated the abolition of polygamy (a practice of a man having more than one wife).
  • Raja Rammohan Roy was not merely a religious reformer but a social reformer also. His greatest achievement was the abolition of Sati in 1929.
  • To bring his ideas into practice, Raja Rammohan Roy founded the Brahmo Sabha in 1828 which later came to be known as Brahmo Samaj.
  • Debendra Nath Tagore (1817-1905), the son of Dwarkanath Tagore, founder member of Brahmo Samaj, succeeded Raja Rammohan Roy as the leader of the Brahmo Samaj and after 1866 by Keshub Chandra Sen.

Prarthana Samaj and Ranade

  • The Prarthana Samaj was established in Bombay by Dr. Atma Ram Pandurang (1825-1898) in 1876 with the objective of rational worship and social reform.
  • The two great members of this Samaj were Shri R.C. Bhandarkar and Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade.
  • They devoted themselves to the work of social reform such as inter-caste dining, intercaste marriage, widow remarriage, and improvement of a lot of women and depressed classes.
  • Mahadev Govind Ranade (1842-1901) devoted his entire life to Prarthana Samaj.
  • He was the founder of the Widow Remarriage Association (1861) and the Deccan Education Society.
  • He established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha as well.
  • MG Ranade was the leader of social reformation and cultural renaissance in Western India.
  • Although Prarthana Samaj was powerfully influenced by the ideas of Brahmo Samaj, it did not insist upon a rigid exclusion of idol worship and a definite break from the caste system.
  • It did not regard the Vedas as the last word, nor did it believe in the doctrine of transmigration of the human soul and incarnation of God. Its central idea was one positive belief in the unity of God.

Derozio and Young Bengal Movement

Magazines and Newspapers which Inspired Social Awakening to the Indians

Magazines and Newspapers which Inspired Social Awakening to the Indians

  • Henry Lui Vivian Derozio joined the Hindu College of Calcutta as a teacher.
  • He had come from Scotland to sell watches in Calcutta, but later made the spread of modern education in Bengal as his life’s mission.
  • Derozio promoted radical ideas through his teaching and by organizing an association for debate and discussions on literature, philosophy, history, and science.
  • He inspired his followers and students to question all authority.
  • Derozio and his famous followers, known as the Derzians and Young Bengal, were fiery patriots.
  • They cherished the ideals of the French Revolution (1789 A.D.) and the liberal thinking of Britain.
  • Derozio died of cholera at the young age of 22.
  • The Young Bengal Movement continued even after Derozio’s dismissal and his sudden death.
  • Though deprived of leadership, the members of this group continued preaching radical views through teaching and journalism.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

  • Another outstanding reformer in Bengal was Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891 A.D.).
  • A scholar of great depths, he dedicated himself to the cause of the emancipation of women.
  • It was due to his sincere efforts that obstacles to the marriage of widows were removed through a law in 1856.
  • He played a leading role in promoting the education of girls and started and helped the setting up a number of schools for girls.
  • Vidyasagar did not concern himself much with religious questions. However, he was against all those who opposed reforms in the name of religion.

Ramakrishna and Vivekananda

  • Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya (l836-86) was a poor Brahmin priest who later came to be known as Ramakrishna Paramahansa.
  • He dedicated his life to God. He believed that there were many roads to God and the service of man was the service of God because the man was the embodiment of God.
  • He realized the divinity in humanity and looked upon the service of mankind as a means to salvation.
  • Narendra Nath Datta (1863-1902) later known as Swami Vivekananda was the most devoted pupil of Ramakrishna Paramahansa who carried the message of his Guru Ramakrishna all over the world, especially in America and Europe.
  • He condemned the caste system, rigid rituals, century-old superstitions, and advocated liberty, free-thinking, and equality.
  • He promoted the Vedanta philosophy which he considered the most rational system.
  • For him, service to the poor and downtrodden was the highest religion.
  • To organize such service, he founded the Ramakrishna Mission in 1897.
  • In 1893 he participated in the All World Religious Conference (Parliament of Religions) at Chicago in the United States of America.
  • He argued that Vedanta was the religion of all and not of the Hindus alone.
  • His address there made a deep impression on the people of other countries and thus helped to raise the prestige of Indian culture in the eyes of the world.
  • He frankly stated, “It is we who are responsible for all our misery and all our degradation.”

Spread of the Reform Movements in Western and Southern India

  • After Bengal, the most important region where the movement for reforms spread was western India.
  • Bal Shastri Jambekar was one of the first reformers in Bombay. He attacked Brahmanical orthodoxy and tried to reform popular Hinduism.
  • Jotiba Phule was also a pioneer of the widow remarriage movement in Maharashtra.
  • Jotiba was given the title of ‘Mahatma’ for his work for the cause of the oppressed.
  • In 1873, he founded the Satya-Shodhak to give strength to his movement and make it popular.
  • In the southern parts of the country. Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) pioneered the movement in support of widow remarriage and girls’ education in Andhra.
  • Veda Samaj founded in Madras in 1864 advocated discarding of caste distinctions and promotion of widow remarriage and women’s education.
  • Chembeti Sridharalu Naidu was the most popular leader of the Veda Samaj.
  • An important movement particularly significant for the emancipation of the so-called backward and oppressed sections of Indian society was started by Shree Narayana Guru (1854-1928) in Kerala.
  • In 1903 he founded the Shree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP) to carry on the work of social reform.

Swami Dayanand and the Arya Samaj

  • The Arya Samaj undertook the task of reforming the Hindu religion in north India.
  • It was founded in 1875 by Swami Dayanand Sarawati (1824-83).
  • Swami Dayan believed that selfish and ignorant priests had perverted Hindu religion with the aid of the Puranas which, he said, ware full of false teachings
  • For his own inspiration, Swami Dayanand went to the Vedas which he larded infallible, being the inspired word of God, and as the font of all knowledge.
  • Some of Swami Dayanand’s followers later started a network of schools and colleges in the country to impart education on western lines.
  • Lala Hansraj played a leading part in this effort.
  • In 1902, Swami Shradhananda started the Gurukul near Hardwar to propagate the more traditional ideals of education.
  • At the same time, one of the Arya Samaj’s objectives was to prevent the conversion of Hindus to other religions.
  • This led it to start a crusade against other religions. This crusade became a contributory factor in the growth of communalism in India in the 20th century.

The Theosophical Society and Annie Besant

  • The Theosophical Society was founded in the United States by Russian Spiritualist Madam H.P. Blavatsky and an American Colonel Olcott.
  • The Society was introduced to India in 1879 and its headquarters were set up at Adyar near Madras in 1886.
  • The Theosophist movement soon grew in India as a result of the leadership given to it by Mrs. Annie Besant who had come to India in 1893.
  • The Theosophists advocated the revival and strengthening of the ancient religions of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. They recognized the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul.
  • One of Mrs. Besant’s many achievements in India was the establishment of the Central Hindu School at Banaras which was later developed by Madan Mohan Malaviya into the Benaras Hindu University.
  • The society fought against untouchability and advocated upliftment of women.
  • She always supported Home Rule for Indians and established a Home Rule League in 1916 to spread the message of self-rule.

Sayyid Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement

Islamic Reform Movements and their Leaders

Islamic Reform Movements and their Leaders

  • The Muslim upper classes had tended to avoid contact with Western education and culture and it was only after the revolt of 1857 that modern ideas of religious reform began to appear.
  • The beginning was made by the Muhammedan Literary Society founded in Calcutta in 1863 founded by Nawab Abdul Latif 1828-1893.
  • Sharitulla of Bengal was the leader of the Faraizi movement Bengal which took up the cause of the peasants and even spoke against the caste system among the Muslims.
  • The most notable of the Muslim reformers was Sayyid Ahmed of Rai Bareilly, in Uttar Pradesh.
  • He interpreted the Quran in light of rationalism and science.
  • In 1883 he said: “Now both of us (Hindus and Muslims) live on the air of India, drink the holy waters of the Ganga and Jamuna. We both feed upon the products of the Indian soil… we are a nation and the progress and welfare of the country, and both of us, depends on our unity, mutual sympathy, and love, while our mutual disagreement, obstinacy and opposition, and ill-feeling are sure to destroy us”.
  • Syed Ahmed Khan started the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College in 1875 at Aligarh.
  • It was meant to be a center for spreading Western sciences and culture.
  • Later, this college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University.
  • The liberal, social, and cultural movement started by Sayyid Ahmad Khan among the Muslims is known as the Aligarh Movement as it originated in Aligarh.
  • Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had founded the Ahmadiyya Movement in 1899.
  • One of the greatest poets of modern India, Muhammad Iqbal, (1876-1938) also profoundly influenced through his poetry, the philosophical and religious outlook of the younger generation of Muslims as well as of Hindus. He urged the adoption of a dynamic outlook that would help change the world.
  • He was basically a humanist.

Subhash Chandra Bose

  • Popularly called ‘Desh Nayak’. He was born in Orissa and selected in ICS. Gandhiji’s advice worked under CR Das and joined Khilafat and Noncooperation movements. He went to Cambridge University.
  • He called cancellation of the movement a national calamity. He became CEO of Calcutta Corporation and contested the election of the Bengal Congress. He also went to jail during the civil disobedience movement.
  • He criticized Gandhiji’s ways and wanted Congress to take advantage of the WW-II; he was put under house arrest but escaped to Kabul. He sought the USSR help for the freedom movement but USSR joined the allies and his plan failed.
  • He started Azad Hind Radio with Nazi support. He went to Berlin to set up a Free India center of Indian POW’s.
  • He organized a national planning committee to plan for the development of India. This was the forerunner to the planning commission.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

  • Sardar Patel too was a prominent leader of congress. He was given the title of ‘Sardar’ by women of Bardoli Satyagraha.
  • He was called the ‘Iron Man of India’.

Vinoba Bhave

  • National teacher of India.
  • Started the Bhoodan movement.
  • Ideological follower of Gandhiji.

Bhimrao Ambedkar

  • Also known as Babasaheb Ambedkar. The father of the Indian constitution.
  • He established Bahishkrut Hitkarni Sabha [1924] for the education of depressed classes and to uplift them socially and politically.
  • He started Mooknayak periodical with help of Shahu Maharaja.
  • Kalaram temple entry movement, burning of Manusmriti, and Mahad water tank Satyagraha were highlights of his activism.
  • He tried to pass the Hindu code bill to give freedom and equal rights to women. But as the bill was rejected he resigned and later went to Rajya Sabha.
  • He founded an independent labor party. He got a doctorate in law from Colombia University.
  • His biography is named “Waiting for a Visa”.
  • He converted to Buddhism in October and died in December 1956. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1990.

Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar

  • Known as Swatantraveer Sawarkar.
  • Founded Abhinav Bharat [extremist] and Mitramela [moderates]. The Mitramela converted to Abhinav Bharat soon.
  • Deported to Andaman and Nicobar.

Gopal K Gokhale and Lokmanya Tilak

  • Gokhale was a moderate leader and known as the “Socrates of Maharashtra”.
  • He was inspired by Ranade and Gandhiji called him his political guru.
  • He founded the “Servants of India” society.
    • The aim of the society was to train national missionaries for the service of India; to promote, by all constitutional means, the true interests of the Indian people; and to prepare a cadre of selfless workers who were to devote their lives to the cause of the country in a religious spirit.
  • Tilak was known as the “father of Indian Unrest”.
  • He started the Home Rule League in Mumbai and also the Ganpati and Shivaji festivals in 1893.

Pandita Ramabai

  • She was a Brahmin woman but converted to Christianity to escape persecution from orthodox men.
  • She was conferred the title “Pandita” by Kolkata university.
  • She published the book “Hindu High Caste Women”. She opened Mukti Mission, Sharda Sadan, and Arya Mahila Samaj where she helped Widows and helpless women.

Vitthal Ramji Shinde

  • He was a social reformer who worked for equality to depressed classes. His ideas were influenced by Mahatma Phule.
  • He established a “Depressed class mission.”
  • His book – “India’s untouchability question”. “Athvani va anubhav” . “Bahishkrut Bharat”.

Deoband School

  • The orthodox sections of the ulemas organized the Deoband movement.
  • Its objective was to teach Muslims the lessons from Koran and hadis. To keep alive the spirit of jihad amongst Muslims against foreign rulers. The liberal interpretations of Islam created a political awakening amongst Muslims.

Gopal Ganesh Agarkar

  • Started Fergusson College and Deccan Education Society.
  • Founder of Sudharak newspaper.

Baba Amte

  • Started Anandvan, Bharat Jodo. Quit India movement.
  • Campaigned for Narmada Bachao. Worked for lepers.

Gopal Hari Deshmukh

  • Popularly called Lokhitwadi.
  • Believed that if religion sanctions evil then religion should be changed as it’s a product of man.
  • He said, “If religion does not sanction social reform, then change religion.”
  • Started Shatpatre. Awarded title of Raobahadur.

Religious Reform among the Parsis

  • In 1851, the Rehnumai Maz’dayasan Sabha or Religious Reform Association was started by Naoroji Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoroji, S.S. Bengalee, and others.

Religious Reform among the Sikhs

  • Religious reform among the Sikhs was started at the end of the 19th Century when the Khalsa College started at Amritsar.
  • Through the efforts of the Singh Sabhas (1870) and with British support, the Khalsa College was founded at Amritsar in 1892.
  • This college and schools set up as a result of similar efforts, promoted Gurumukhi, Sikh learning, and Punjabi literature as a whole.
  • After 1920 the Sikh momentum gained momentum when the Akali Movement rose in Punjab.
  • The chief object of the Akalis was to improve the management of the Gurudwaras or Sikh Shrines that were under the control of priests or Mahants who treated them as their private property.
  • In 1925, a law was passed which gave the right of managing Gurudwaras to the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee.

Other leaders and Reform movements

VB Phadke: Father of Indian armed struggle.

  • Phadke, a Chitpavan Brahman and a Commissariat Department clerk who had some English education, seems to have been influenced by Ranade’s lectures on the drain of wealth, the experience of the Deccan famine of 1876-77, and the growing Hindu revivalist mood among Poona Brahman intellectuals.
  • In an autobiographical fragment written while hiding from the police in a temple, Phadke later recalled how he had thought of reestablishing a Hindu Raj by collecting together a secret band, raising money through dacoities, and instigating an armed revolt through disrupting communications.
  • The outcome was a type of social banditry, with the dacoits given shelter by the peasants. After Phadke’s capture and life sentence, a Ramoshi dacoit band under Daulata Ramoshi remained active till 1883, while we also hear of a tribal Koli group committing 28 dacoities in seven months

Jagannath Shankar Shet:

  • “Architect of Mumbai”
  • “Justice of Peace”
  • “Uncrowned emperor of Mumbai”.

Seva Sadan

  • A Parsi social reformer, M. Malabari, founded the Seva Sadan in 1885.
  • The organization specialized in taking care of use women who were exploited and then discarded by society.
  • It catered to all castes and women with education, medical and welfare services.

Deva Samaj

  • Founded in 1887 at Lahore by Shiv Narain Agnihotri, this sect emphasized of the soul, the suremac of the guru, and the need for good action.
  • It called for an ideal social behavior such as not accepting bribes, avoiding intoxicants and non-vegetarian, and keeping away from violent actions.

Dharma Sabha

  • Radhakant Deb founded this sabha in 1830. An orthodox society, it stood for the preservation of the status quo in socio-religious matters, opposing even the abolition of sati.
  • However, it favor of western education, even for girls

Bharat Dharma

  • Mahamandala An all-India organization of the orthodox educated Hindus, it stood for a defense of orthodox Hinduism against the teachings of the Arya Samaj, the Theosophists, and the Ramakrishna Mission.
  • Other organizations created to defend orthodox Hinduism were the Sanatana Dharma Sabha (1895), the Dharma Maha Parishad in South India, and. Dharma Mahamandaii in Bengal.
  • These organizations combined in 1902 to form the single organization of Bharat Dharma Mahamandala, with headquarters at Varanasi. This organization sought to introduce proper management of Hindu religious institutions, open Hindu educational institutions, etc. Pandit Madan -Mohan Malaviya was a prominent figure in this movement.

Radhaswami Movement

  • Tulsi Ram, a banker from Agra, also known as Shiv DayalSaheb, founded this movement in 1861. The R. d. I, one supreme being supremacy of the Spiritual attainment, believe does not call for the renunciation of the worldly life.
  • They consider all religions to be true. While the sect has no belief in temples, shrines, and sacred places, it considers as necessary duties, works of faith and charity, service, and prayer.

Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Movement

  • This movement was an example of a regional movement born out of the conflict between the depressed, classes, and upper non-Brahmin castes.
  • It was started by. Sri Narayana, Guru Swamy among the Ezhavas of Kerala, who were a caste of toddy-tappers and were considered to be untouchables.
  • The Ezhavas were the single largest caste group in Kerala constituting 26 percent of the total population. Sri Narayana Guru initiated a program of action—the Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paripalana (SNDP) Yogarn—in 1902
  • Main objectives were to: admission to public schools, recruitment to government services, access to roads and entities
  • The movement as a whole brought transformative structural changes such as upward social mobility, a shift in the traditional distribution of power, and a federation of ‘backward castes’ into a large conglomeration.

Indian National Social Conference Founded by M.G. Ranade and Raghunath Rao

  • The conference met annually from its first session in Madras in 1887 at the same time and venue as the Indian National Congress.
  • It focussed attention on the social issues of importance; it could be called the social reform cell of the Indian National Congress, in fact.
  • The conference advocated inter-caste marriages, opposed polygamy and kulinism. It launched the “Pledge Movement” to inspire people to take a pledge against child marriage.

Wahabi/Walliullah Movement:

  • Shah Walliullah (1702-62) inspired this essentially revivalist response to western influences and the degeneration which had set in among Indian Muslims.
  • He was the first Indian Muslim leader of the 18th century to organize Muslims around the two-fold ideals of this movement:
    • the desirability of harmony among the four schools of Muslim jurisprudence which had divided the Indian Muslims (he sought to integrate the best elements of the four schools)
    • recognition of the role of individual conscience in a religion where conflicting interpretations were derived from the Quran and the Hadis.
  • The movement fizzled out in the face of British military might in the 1870s.

Titu Mir’s Movement

  • Mir Nithar Ali, popularly known as Titu Mir, was a disciple of Sayyid Ahmed Raebarelvi, the founder of the Wahabi Movement.
  • Titu Mir organized the Muslim peasants of Bengal against the Hindu landlords and the British indigo planters.
  • The movement was not as militant as the British records made it out to be; only in the last year of Titu’s life was there a confrontation between him and the British police. He was killed in action in 1831.

Faraizi Movement

  • The movement, also called the Fara’idi Movement because of its emphasis on the Islamic pillars of faith, was founded by Haji Shariat-Allah. Its scene of action was East Bengal, and it aimed at the eradication of social evils among the Muslims of the region.
  • The Fara’idis organized paramilitary forces armed with clubs to fight the Hindu landlords and even the police. Dudu Mian was arrested several times, and his arrest in 1847 finally weakened the movement.

Ahmadiya Movement

  • It was based on liberal principles. It described itself as the standard-bearer of the Mohammedan Renaissance, and based itself, like the Brahmo Samaj, on the principles of the universal religion of all humanity, opposing jihad (sacred war against non-Muslims).
  • The movement spread western liberal education among Indian Muslims. However, the Ahmadiya Movement, like Baha’ism which flourished in the West Asian countries, suffered from mysticism.

Social Reform Movement

  • The major effect of national awakening in the 19th century was seen in the field of social reform. The newly educated persons increasingly revolted against rigid social conventions and outdated customs.
  • In the 20th century, and especially after 1919, the national movement became the main propagator of social reform.
  • Increasingly, the reformers took recourse to propaganda in the Indian language to reach the masses.
  • They also used novels, dramas, poetry, short stories, the Press, and, in the thirties, the cinema to spread their views.
  • The social reform movements tried in the main to achieve two objectives: emancipation of women and extension of an equal right to them; and removal of caste rigidities and in particular the abolition untouchability.

Emancipation of Women

Magazines and Newspapers which Inspired Social Awakening to the Indians

Magazines and Newspapers which Inspired Social Awakening to the Indians

  • It is true that occasionally women of the character and personality of Razia Sultana, Chand Bibi, or Ahilyabai Holkar arose in India. But they were exceptions to the general pattern, and do not in any way change the picture.
  • After the 1880s, when Dufferin hospitals (named after Lady Dufferin, the wife of the Viceroy) were started, efforts were made to make modern medicine and child delivery techniques available to Indian women.
  • Women played an active and important role in the struggle for freedom.
  • They participated in large numbers in the agitation against the partition of Bengal and in the Home Rule movement.
  • Sarojini Naidu, the famous poetess, became the president of the National Congress. Several women became ministers or parliamentary secretaries in the popular ministries of 1937.
  • They started many organizations and institutions for the purpose, the most outstanding of which was the All India Women’s Conference founded in 1927.
  • The Hindu Succession Act of 1956 made the daughter an equal co-heir with the son.
  • The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 permitted the dissolution of marriage on specific grounds.

Struggle against Caste

  • The caste system was another major target of attack for the social reform movement The Hindus were at this time divided into numerous castes.
  • The untouchables suffered from numerous and severe disabilities and restrictions,
  • In some parts of the country, particularly in the south, their very shadow was to be avoided,
  • An untouchable’s dress, food, place of residence, all were carefully regulated.
  • He could not draw water from wells and tanks used by the higher castes; he could do so only from wells and tanks specially reserved for untouchables.
  • He could not enter the Hindu temples or study the shastras.
  • In modern times it became a major obstacle in the growth of a united national feeling and the spread of democracy.
  • British rule released many forces which gradually undermined the caste system.
  • The introduction of modem industries and railways and buses and growing urbanization made it difficult to prevent mass contact among persons of different castes, especially in the cities.
  • Modem commerce and industry opened new fields of economic activity to all.
  • The growth of the national movement played a significant role in weakening the caste system.
  • All his life Gandhiji kept the abolition of untouchability at the forefront of his public activities.
  • In 1932, Gandhiji founded the All India Harijan Sangh for the purpose.
  • His campaign for the “root and branch removal of untouchability” was based on the grounds of humanism and reason.
  • In Maharashtra, Jyotiba Phule (Father of Indian Social Revolution), led a lifelong movement against Brahmanical religious authority as part of his struggle against upper caste domination.
  • R. Ambedkar, who belonged to one of the scheduled castes, devoted his entire life to fighting against caste tyranny.
  • He organized the All India Scheduled Castes Federation for the purpose. Several other scheduled caste leaders founded the All India Depressed Classes Association
  • In Kerala, Sri Narayan Guru organized a life long struggle against the caste system.
  • The Constitution of 1950 has provided the legal framework for the final abolition of untouchability.

Impact of the Reform Movement

  • The British wanted to appease the orthodox upper section of society. As a result, only two important laws were passed.
  • Some legal measures were introduced to raise the status of women.
    • For example, Sati was declared illegal (1829).
    • Infanticide was declared illegal.
    • Widow Remarriage was permitted by a law passed in 1856.
    • The marriageable age of girls was raised to ten by a law passed in 1860.
  • A law passed in 1872, sanctioned inter-caste and inter-communal marriages.
  • The other law passed in 1891, aimed at discouraging child marriage.
  • For preventing child marriage, the Sharda Act was passed in 1929.
    • According to it a girl below 14 and a boy below 18 could not be married.
  • Numerous individuals, reform societies, and religious organizations worked hard to spread education among women, to prevent the marriage of young children, to bring women out of the purdah, to enforce monogamy, and to enable middle-class women to take up professions or public employment.
  • Due to all these efforts, Indian women played an active and important role in the struggle for independence of the country.
  • As a result, many superstitions disappeared and many others were on their way out. Now, it was no longer a sin to travel to foreign countries.

Points to remember: Religious and Social Reform Movements

  • 43rd section of the Charter Act of 1813 spoke of “Revival and improvement of literature (Sanskrit and Arabic literature) and encouragement of learned natives in India.”
  • The Christian missionaries adopted ‘service to humanity’ as the most attractive way of approaching the
  • Calcutta Female Juvenile School and Serampore Female Society made noted contributions for promoting education among women.
  • Ram Mohan Roy helped David Home and Alexander Duff to open colleges.
  • The printing press was first brought to India by a Portuguese Jesuits in the 16th century for printing propaganda literature on Roman Catholicism in the Portuguese language.
  • By the efforts of Dr. Carry, the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India was formed under government patronage.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy died on September 27, 1833, in Bristol.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s Mother’s name was Tarini Devi but she was popularly known as Phool Thakurani.
  • Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the Father of the Modern Indian Renaissance.
  • Prarthana Samaj (Prayer Society) was founded in 1867 in Maharashtra. Its chief architect was M. G. Ranade. Other prominent leaders were Dr.Atma Ram Pandurang and R. G. Bhandarkar.
  • Mahadev Govind Ranade is popularly known as “The Prophet of Cultural Renaissance in Western India?’
  • The turning point in Ram Mohan Roy’s life was the performance of Sati by his elder brother’s wife in 1811.
  • Tattva Bodhini Sabha was founded by Devendra Nath Tagore in 1838.
  • Devendra Nath Tagore was the secretary of the British Indian Association which was founded in 1851.
  • A fortnightly Journal ‘Indian Mirror’ was started by Keshav Chandra Sena in 1861.
  • The main cause of Schism in Brahmo Samaj was the early marriage of the daughter of Keshav Chandra Sen to the Maharaja of Cooch Bihar.
  • Swami Dayanand belonged to the Samaveda Brahmin caste.
  • The first Arya Samaj was established on 10 April. 1875 at Bombay.
  • Shyamji Verma the great nationalist was a pupil and friend of Swami Dayanand.
  • Dayanand Saraswati looked upon Vedas as ‘India’s Rock of Ages’.
  • Dayanand Saraswati gave the slogans, “The Vedas are the source of all knowledge” and “Go back to Vedas.”
  • In 1882 the Arya Samaj established a “Cow protection Association” (1882)
  • Swami Dayanand died in 1883 possibly as a result of poisoning.
  • The Maharana of Udaipur accepted the discipleship of Swami Dayanand.
  • The original name of Swami Vivekanand was Narendra Nath Dutta.
  • Swami Vivekanand is rightly remarked as a “Karma Yogi” or a man of action.
  • The concept of Daridra-Narayana later on popularised by Mahatma Gandhi had its origin in Vivekanand.
  • The two important centers of the Ramakrishna Mission were :
    • Belur near Calcutta and
    • Mayavati near Almora.
  • In 1914, Dr. Annie Besant founded two papers
    • Common Wealth and
    • New India.
  • Annie Besant was made the president of the Indian National Congress in 1917 at Calcutta.
  • Annie Besant was born in 1847 and died at Adyar in Madras on 20th September 1933.
  • Annie Besant wrote two major books :
    • India, A Nation
    • How India wrought her freedom.
  • Henry Vivian Derozio edited the papers. the Hesperus and The Calcutta Library Gazette.
  • The official Journal of the young Bengal movement was Jnanavesan.
  • Doraiswami lyenger was an important leader of the Veda samaj.
  • Balak Das was the son of Guru Ghasi Das who took over the leadership of the Satnami sect in 1850.
  • Devanand was the second son of Shiv Narain Agnihotri who assumed the leadership of Deva Samaj after him.
  • In 1905 the Sikh reformers cleaned the Golden temple at Amritsar from Brahman priests, Hindu rituals, and idols.
  • In 1880, the Khalsa Diwan was established at Amritsar to provide a central organization for all Singh Sabhas.
  • Sir Saiyad Ahmad Khan wrote Tahzib-ul-Akhbar. Khutbat-i-Ah-madiya and Tabryin-ul-Kalam fi Tasfir-al-Turat-wal ingil ala millat-al-Islam;
  • Pandita Ramabai opened a school for widows called `Sharda Sadan’ in Bombay and ‘Mukti’ in Pune.
  • The first Indian women’s university was opened by Dhondo Keshav Karve at Pune in 1916.
  • Gangabai is popularly known as Mataji Maharani Tapiswani.
  • Sister Subbalakshmi was the first Hindu widow in the Madras presidency to study for her graduation.
  • The Arya Mahila Samaj was founded by Ramabai, wife of M.G. Ranade.
  • The Stri Zarthosti Mandal was a Parsi women’s organization.
  • Hindu Kanya Vidyalaya was founded by J.E. Drink Water Bethune.
  • Muthulaxmi Reddy was the first women legislator appointed to the Madras Legislative council 1927.
  • The National council of women for India was established in 1925.
  • The women’s Indian Association started a Journal “Shri Dharma”
  • B. R. Ambedkar participated in round table conferences in England.
  • Mahad Satyagrah was launched by Ambedkar to establish the right of untouchables to draw water from public wells and tanks.
  • The Guruvayoor Satyagraha was launched by Ambedkar in 1930.
  • The Alurs and Kunnis of Bihar opposed the Begar system in 1910.
  • Deccan Education Society founded the Ferguson College at Pune in 1885.
  • The first women University established at Pune in 1916 is now known as Shrimati Natheebai Damodar Thackerey. Indian women’s university, Bombay.
  • Pandit Dindayalu Sharma the founder of the Bharat Dharma Mahamandala also founded the Hindu College Delhi on May 15, 1899.
  • G. Ranade has been called `The Socrates’ of Maharashtra.
  • The original name of Swami Shraddhanana was Mahatma Munshiram.

Multiple Choice Questions on Religious and Social Reform Movements

  1. Which one of the following statements is not correct regarding the Brahmo Marriage Act?
    (A) It made child marriages illegal
    (B) It sanctioned inter-caste marriages
    (C) It sanctioned widow remarriage
    (D) It did not restrict polygamy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) It sanctioned inter-caste marriages
  2. Who among the following was instrumental in the formation of the first women’s university in India?
    (A) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (B) Mrs. Ramabai
    (C) D. K. Karve
    (D) Mahadev Govind Ranade
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) D. K. Karve
  3. The Father of Muslim Renaissance in Bengal was:
    (A) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
    (B) Ameer Ali
    (C) Nawab Abdul Latif Khan
    (D) Nawab Samiullah Khan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Nawab Abdul Latif Khan
  4. Who among the following is known as the ‘father of renaissance’ of Western India?
    (A) M.G. Ranade
    (B) B.M. Malabari
    (C) R.G. Bhandarkar
    (D) K.T. Telang
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mahadev Govind Ranade
  5. The Hindu Luther of Northern India during the 19th century was:
    (A) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (B) Dayanand Saraswati
    (C) Radhakant Deb
    (D) Keshav Chandra Sen
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Dayanand Saraswati
  6. Which of the following statements is not correct about Mahatma Jyotiba Phule?
    (A) He combined in him the revolutionary teachings of Buddha and Kabir
    (B) He took untouchability as a blot of Hinduism
    (C) He wrote a brochure entitled ‘Slavery’
    (D) He founded the Poona Saroajanika Sabha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) He founded the Poona Saroajanika Sabha
  7. What was the most significant provision of the Sarda Act of 1929?
    (A) It allowed widow remarriage
    (B) It banned the employment of children in factories
    (C) It established a minimum age of marriage for boys and girls
    (D) It regulated the employment of women in factories
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) It established a minimum age of marriage for boys and girls
  8. The Theosophical Society has its international headquarters at :
    (A) Adyar
    (B) Brindavan
    (C) Geneva
    (D) New York
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Adyar
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  9. Who was the first president of the Indian Home Rule League established in April 1916?
    (A) Joseph Baptista
    (B) Annie Besant
    (C) N.C. Kelkar
    (D) B. G. Tilak
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Joseph Baptista
  10. Which of the following socio-religious movements raised the slogan: ‘India for Indians’?
    (A) Brahmo Samaj
    (B) Prarthana Samaj
    (C) Arya Samaj
    (D) Satya Shodhak Samaj
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Arya Samaj
  11. Asiatic Society of Bengal was established by —
    (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Sir William Jones
    (C) W.W. Hunter
    (D) William Bentick
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sir William Jones
  12. Who founded Satya Shodhak Samaj?
    (A) Jyotiba Phule
    (B) Sri Narayan Guru
    (C) Copal Babu Waking
    (D) Bhaskar Rao Jadav
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jyotiba Phule
  13. Who inspired the young Bengal Movement in the 19th century?
    (A) Rasik Kumar Malik
    (B) Ram Tanu Lahiri
    (C) Henry Vivian Derozio
    (D) Piery Chand Mitra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Henry Vivian Derozio
  14. Raj Mundry Social Reform Association was established in 1871 with the aim of promoting widow remarriage by —
    (A) Vireshlingam
    (B) K.T.Telang
    (C) Behramji
    (D) Gopalachariyar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Vireshlingam
  15. Which of the following did not contribute in a major way to the growth of nationalist consciousness in India?
    (A) Impact of western education
    (B) Consistent economic exploitation of India by the British
    (C) Revivalist Movements of the 19th century
    (D) World public opinion
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) World public opinion
  16. The ‘Bombay Triumvirate’ consisted of all the following except—
    (A) Dadabhai Nauroji
    (B) K.T. Telang
    (C) Pherozeshah Mehta
    (D) Badruddin Tyabji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Dadabhai Nauroji
  17. The Theosophical Society was founded in the U.S.A. by—
    (A) Dr. Annie Besant
    (B) A. O. Hume
    (C) Tilak and Gokhale
    (D) Madame Blavatsky and Olcott
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Madam Blavatsky and Olcott
  18. An important reason for social and religious reforms in the nineteenth century was—
    (A) Scientific inventions
    (B) Industrial revolution
    (C) Western education and awakening
    (D) Influence of Newspapers
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Western education and awakening
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  19. Which famous social reformer wrote the books ‘Jnana Yoga’, ‘Karma Yoga’, and ‘Raj Yoga’?
    (A) M. G. Ranade
    (B) Swami Vivekanand
    (C) Ramkrishna Paramhansa
    (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Swami Vivekanand
  20. Who founded the Servant Society of India?
    (A) Dadabhai Naoroji
    (B) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
    (C) Lala Lajpat Rai
    (D) Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  21. Which statements with regard to Raja Rammohan Roy is correct?
    I. He wrote “The Gift of Monotheists”
    II. He founded the Brahmo Sabha
    III. He started the Atmya Sabha
    IV. He published “The Precepts of Jesus”
    (A) I, II and III
    (B) II, III and IV
    (C) I, III and IV
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
  22. The correct chronological order of the given organizations is
    (A) Brahmo Sabha, Arya Samaj, Madras Mahajana Sabha
    (B) Brahmo Sabha, Madras Mahajana Sabha, Arya Samaj
    (C) Madras Mahajana Sabha, Arya Samaj, Brahmo Sabha
    (D) Madras Mahajana Sabha, Brahmo Sabha, Arya Samaj
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Brahmo Sabha, Arya Samaj, Madras Mahajana Sabha
  23. Which of the following statement with regard to Raja Rammohan Roy is/are correct?
    He advocated the promotion of English Language
    II. He strongly advocated the abolition of Swati system
    III. He advocated widow remarriage
    (A) Only I
    (B) Only II
    (C) I and II only
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
  24. Who was the founder of the Radhaswami Satsang?
    (A) Siva Narayan
    (B) Agnihotri Haridas
    (C) Swami Siva Dayal
    (D) Saheb Swami Shraddhanand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Swami Siva Dayal
  25. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct?
    I. after Ram Mohan Roy’s death in 1883 Devendranath Tagore became the leader of Brahmo Samaj
    II. Devendranath Tagore tried to popularise the idea of Rammohan Roy by founding the Tattvabodhini Sabha, which became a platform for the expression of progressive public opinions and religious views.
    (A) Only I
    (B) Only II
    (C) I and II
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Only I
  26. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct regarding Brahmo Samaj?
    It denied the need for a priestly class for interpreting the religious texts.
    II. It popularized the doctrine that the Vedas are infallible.
    III. It opposed idolatry
    (A) Only I
    (B) I and III
    (C) II and III
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) I and III
  27. Who established the Calcutta Unitarian Committee?
    (A) Keshab Chandra Sen
    (B) Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (C) Rabindranath Tagore
    (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  28. Whose contribution was largely responsible for the foundation of the First Indian Women’s University in Bombay in 1906?
    (A) S S Bangali
    (B) V M Malabari
    (C) D V Karve
    (D) Dadabhai Naoroji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) D V Karve
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  29. Who started the newspaper “Shome Prakash”?
    (A) Surendranath Banerjee
    (B) Dayanand Saraswati
    (C) Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (D) Raja Rammohan Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
  30. Which section of the population mainly affected by the socio-religious reforms of the 19th century?
    Urban upper class
    II. Intellectuals
    III. Poor masses
    IV. Liberal princes
    (A) Only I
    (B) I and II
    (C) I, II and III
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) I, II and III
  31. The original name of Swami Dayanand Saraswati was
    (A) Daya Shankar
    (B) Gauri Shankar
    (C) Mula Shankar
    (D) Abhai Shankar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mula Shankar
  32. Which principle was not propagated by the Theosophical Society?
    (A) Belief in universal brotherhood and humanity
    (B) Belief in Karma and Rebirth
    (C) Belief in the eradication of untouchability
    (D) Belief in Vedantic Philosophy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Belief in the eradication of untouchability
  33. Which one of the following inscriptions provides the earliest epigraphical evidence regaling Sati?
    (A) Mathura inscription of Havishka
    (B) Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta
    (C) Junagarh inscription of Skandagupta
    (D) Eran Pillar inscription of Bhanugupta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Eran Pillar inscription of Bhanugupta
  34. What was the primary effect of the Western conquest and Western culture on the new social awakening in India?
    (A) It made them realize the superiority of Western thought
    (B) It exposed the weakness and decay In Indian society
    (C) It made them realize the superiority of Western Technology
    (D) It brought the Indian society in contact with Christian ideas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) It exposed the weakness and decay In Indian society
  35. Who pioneered the movement leading to the Widow Remarriage Act?
    (A) Swami Vivekananda
    (B) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (C) Keshab Chandra Sen
    (D) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  36. Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the year?
    (A) 1828
    (B) 1829
    (C) 1826
    (D) 1827
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1828
  37. After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the control of the Brahmo Samaj movement was taken over by?
    (A) Keshab Chander Sen
    (B) Devendranath Tagore
    (C) Narendranath
    (D) Rabindranath Tagore
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Devendranath Tagore
  38. A reform movement within Hinduism named ‘Prarthana Samaj’ was founded by
    (A) Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Devendranath Tagore
    (B) Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Keshab Chandra Sen
    (C) Mahadev Gobind Ranade and Atma Ram Pandurang
    (D) Devendranath Tagore and Keshab Chandra Sen
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mahadev Gobind Ranade and Atma Ram Pandurang
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  39. The principles of the doctrine of Arya Samaj were expressed in the book?
    (A) Satyagraha Prakash
    (B) Kesari
    (C) Upanishads
    (D) Hind Swaraj
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Satyagraha Prakash
  40. Narendranath was the real name of which of the following reformers?
    (A) Dayanand Saraswati
    (B) Atma Ram Pandurang
    (C) Vivekananda
    (D) B.G. Tilak
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Vivekananda
  41. Who was invited to the ‘Parliament of Religions’ in 1893?
    (A) Raja Rain Mohan Roy
    (B) Dayanand Saraswati
    (C) S.N. Banerjee
    (D) Swami Vivekananda
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Swami Vivekananda
  42. The Parliament of Religious’ was held in 1893 in the city of?
    (A) Chicago
    (B) New York
    (C) San Francisco
    (D) London
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chicago
  43. The name of the first Hindi newspaper published in India was?
    (A) Bengal Patrika
    (B) Uddand Martand
    (C) Amrit Bazar Patrika
    (D) Hindu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Uddand Martand
  44. The Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College of Aligarh was founded by?
    (A) M(D) Ali Jinnah
    (B) Mohammad Ali
    (C) Shaukat Ali
    (D) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
  45. The Arya Samaj was founded by?
    (A) Swami Dayananda Saraswati
    (B) Swami Vivekananda
    (C) Keshav Chandra Sen
    (D) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Swami Dayananda Saraswati
  46. Which of the following reform movements was the first to be started in the 19th century?
    (A) Prarthana Samaj
    (B) Brahmo Samaj
    (C) Arya Samaj
    (D) Ram Krishna Mission
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Brahmo Samaj
  47. Who was the founder of the Aligarh Movement?
    (A) Sir Agha Khan
    (B) Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali
    (C) Maulana Shibli Numani
    (D) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
  48. When was the All India Women’s Conference founded?
    (A) 1924
    (B) 1925
    (C) 1926
    (D) 1927
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1927
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  49. Which religious reformer of Western India was known as “Lokhitwadi”?
    (A) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
    (B) R.G. Bhandarkar
    (C) Mahadev Govind Ranade
    (D) B. G Tilak
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gopal Hari Deshmukh
  50. Who founded the Bethune College in Calcutta?
    (A) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (B) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (C) Rabindranath Tagore
    (D) Surendranath Banerji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  51. The 19th-century reawakening in India was confined to the?
    (A) Priestly class
    (B) Upper middle class
    (C) Rich peasantry
    (D) Urban landlords
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Upper middle class
  52. Who among the following set up the Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta in the first half of the nineteenth century?
    (A) Radhakant Dev
    (B) Ram Mohan Roy
    (C) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (D) Debendranath Tagore
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ram Mohan Roy
  53. During the colonial period of India, the Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded?
    (A) For carrying researches on past history and antiquities of India
    (B) To examine the policy of colonial discrimination against the Indian
    (C) For developing English education in India
    (D) For carrying out social reforms
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) For carrying researches on past history and antiquities of India
  54. Who among the following was the founder of the Servants of India Society?
    (A) Bal Ganadhar Tilak
    (B) Dadabhai Naoroji
    (C) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
    (D) Lala Lajpat Rai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  55. Who founded the Fort William College at Calcutta?
    (A) Lord Cornwallis
    (B) Lord Ellenborough
    (C) Lord Macaulay
    (D) Lord Wellesley
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Lord Wellesley
  56. During the period of the Indian Freedom struggle, who among the following started the Central Hindu School?
    (A) Annie Besant
    (B) Bhikaji Cama
    (C) M.G. Ranade
    (D) Madan Mohan Malviya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Annie Besant
  57. Amongst the following who co-operated with Raja Ram Mohan Roy in the implementation of his educational programs?
    (A) Dwarkanath Tagore
    (B) David Hare
    (C) Henri Vivian Derozio
    (D) William Jones
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) David Hare
  58. Kuka Movement was organized by-
    (A) Guru Ram Das
    (B) Guru Nanak
    (C) Guru Ram Singh
    (D) Guru Gobind Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Guru Ram Singh
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  59. Who was Shardamani?
    (A) Wife of Raja Rammohan Roy
    (B) Wife of Ramakrishna Paramahansa
    (C) Mother of Vivekanand
    (D) Daughter of Keshab Chandra Sen
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Wife of Ramakrishna Paramahansa
  60. Satyartha Prakash was written by?
    (A) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Mahatma Gandhi
    (C) Swami Vivekanand
    (D) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
  61. Who was the founder of the Radha Swami Satsang?
    (A) Haridas Swami
    (B) Siva Dayal Saheb
    (C) Siva Narayan Agnihotri
    (D) Swami Sraddhananda
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Siva Dayal Saheb
  62. Who among the following was the founder of Dev Samaj?
    (A) Vallabhbhai Patel
    (B) Dadabhai Naoroji
    (C) Siva Narayan Agnihotri
    (D) Ram Krishna Paramahansa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Siva Narayan Agnihotri
  63. Who was the founder of Ram Krishna Mission?
    (A) Swami Vivekananda
    (B) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (C) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
    (D) Ram Krishna Paramahansa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Swami Vivekananda
  64. Who among the following had vigorously advocated for religious education in the Indian Universities?
    (A) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
    (B) Swami Vivekananda
    (C) Mahatma Gandhi
    (D) Madan Mohan Malviya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Swami Vivekananda
  65. The leading light of the renaissance movement in India was:
    (A) Debendranath Tagore
    (B) Keshav Chandra Sen
    (C) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (D) Ram Mohan Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ram Mohan Roy
  66. Where was the first Madarasa set up by the British in India?
    (A) Madras
    (B) Bombay
    (C) Aligarh
    (D) Calcutta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Calcutta
  67. Lord Macaulay is associated with?
    (A) Reforms in the Army
    (B) Abolition of Sati System
    (C) English Education
    (D) Permanent Settlement
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) English Education
  68. Which Governor General had abolished slavery?
    (A) Sir John Shore
    (B) Lord William Bentick
    (C) Lord Ellenborough
    (D) Lord Cornwallis
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Lord Ellenborough
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  69. Who of the following said, “Good Governor is no substitute for the self-Government”?
    (A) Lokmanya Tilak
    (B) Swami Vivekanand
    (C) Swami Dayanand
    (D) Rabindranath Tagore
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Swami Dayanand
  70. Who among the following, pioneered the social and religious movement of the 19th Century?
    (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Dayanand Saraswati
    (C) Vivekanand
    (D) Aurobindo Ghosh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ram Mohan Roy
  71. From which area the social and religious reform movement started?
    (A) Bihar
    (B) Bengal
    (C) Orissa
    (D) Madras
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bengal
  72. In which year Swami Vivekananda participated in the World Parliament of Religions at Chicago?
    (A) 1893
    (B) 1895
    (C) 1897
    (D) 1899
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1893
  73. The Scientific Society was founded by?
    (A) William Company
    (B) Lord Cornwallis
    (C) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
    (D) Annie Besant
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
  74. Who among the following Mughal Kings had sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy as his envoy to London?
    (A) Alamgir II
    (B) Shah Alam II
    (C) Akbar II
    (D) Bahadur Shah II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Akbar II
  75. Who was the founder of Prarthana Samaj?
    (A) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Debendranath Tagore
    (C) Atmaram Pandurang
    (D) Dayanand Saraswati
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Atmaram Pandurang
  76. When did the Akali Movement start?
    (A) 1901
    (B) 1911
    (C) 1921
    (D) 1931
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1921
  77. Who was the inspiration behind the Young Bengal Movement?
    (A) Madhusudan Dutt
    (B) Henry Vivian Derozio
    (C) Krishna Mohan Banerjee
    (D) Ram Gopal Ghosh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Henry Vivian Derozio
  78. Who is known as the Father of Modern India?
    (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Jawaharlal Nehru
    (C) Mahatma Gandhi
    (D) W.(C) Bannerjee
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    Religious and Social Reform Movements | Religious and Social Reform Movements
  79. The Academic Association was founded by?
    (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (C) Henry Vivian Derozio
    (D) Ishwar Chandra Gupta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Henry Vivian Derozio
  80. Who initiated the regeneration of Indian Muslims in the 19th Century?
    (A) Syed Ahmad Khan
    (B) Nawab Salimullah
    (C) Badshah Khan
    (D) Abdul Kalam Azad
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Syed Ahmad Khan
  81. Who was Titu Mir?
    (A) Leader of Wahabi
    (B) Leader of Faraji Movement
    (C) Leader of Sepoy Mutiny
    (D) Leader of the Indigo Revolt
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Leader of Faraji Movement
  82. Who among the following was a proponent of Fabianism as a movement?
    (A) Annie Besant
    (B) (A) O Hume
    (C) Michael Madhusudan Dutt
    (D) R. Palme Dutt
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Annie Besant
  83. Who among the following started the newspaper, Shome Prakash?
    (A) Dayanand Saraswati
    (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (C) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    (D) Surendranath Banerjee
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  84. Who among the following wrote the book Bahuvivah?
    (A) Ram Mohan Roy
    (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (C) Pandit Ramabai
    (D) Rabindranath Tagore
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
  85. In collaboration with David Hare and Alexander Dutt, who of the following established Hindu College at Calcutta?
    (A) Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
    (B) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
    (C) Keshav Chandra Sen
    (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  86. Indian Social Conference was founded by:
    (A) Jawahar Lal Nehru
    (B) M. G Ranade and Raghunath Rao
    (C) B R Ambedkar
    (D) T. Subramaniam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) M. G Ranade and Raghunath Rao
  87. The Aligarh Movement was founded by
    (A) Titu Mir
    (B) Syed Barelvi
    (C) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
    (D) Shah Abdul Aziz
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan
  88. Shuddhi Movement was started by :
    (A) Arya Samaj
    (B) Dharm Sabha
    (C) SNDP movement
    (D) Seva Sadan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Arya Samaj

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