The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

  • During the 7th and 10th century A.D., three powerful kingdoms ruled major portions of India.
  • Palas in the east, Pratiharas in the West and the Upper Gangetic valley and Rashtrakutas in the Deccan Peninsula.
  • Among the three Dynasties, Rashtrakutas were the strongest and held a very strategic position which connected  north with the South India. All these Empires gave patronage to arts and letters and provided stable conditions for life to prosper.

The medieval period can be divided into two stages:

  • Early medieval period: 8th – 12th century A.D.
  • Later Medieval period: 12th-18th century.

The North Indian Kingdoms – The Rajputs (647A.D- 1200 A.D.)

  • They are the descendants of Lord Rama (Surya vamsa) or Lord Krishna (Chandra vamsa) or the Hero who sprang from the sacrificial fire (Agni Kula theory).
  • Rajputs belonged to the early medieval period.
  • From the death of Harsha to the 12th century, the destiny of India was mostly in the hands of various Rajput dynasties.
  • They belong to the ancient Kshatriya families. They are foreigners. There were nearly 36 Rajput’ clans. The major clans were:
  • The Pratiharas of Avanti
  • The Palas of Bengal
  • The Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer
  • The Rathors of Kanauj
  • The Guhilas or Sisodiyas of Mewar
  • The Chandellas of Bundelkhand
  • The Paramaras of Malwa
  • The Senas of Bengal
  • The Solankis of Gujarat

Pala Dynasty (750-1162 AD)

  • Gopala founded the dynasty in 750 AD.
  • He was a chieftain or military general who was elected as king by notable men of the area to prevent anarchy.
  • The Pala Empire was dethroned by the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 12th century.
  • The Pala period is also known as a ‘Golden Era’ in Bengali history.
  • They built magnificent monasteries and temples: Somapura Mahavihara (in Bangladesh), Odantapuri Monastery.
  • They also patronised Buddhist centres of learning like Nalanda University and the Vikramshila University.
  • During this time, the Bengali language developed. The first Bengali literary work Charyapada is attributed to this period. It was written in an Abahatta (the common ancestor of Bengali, Assamese, Odia and Maithili.
  • Balaputradeva, the Sailendra king of Java sent an ambassador to Devapala.
  • Buddhist poet Vajradatta who composed Lokesvarashataka was in Devapala’s court.
  • Many Buddhist teachers from the Pala kingdom travelled to Southeast Asia to spread the faith. Atisha preached in Sumatra and Tibet.
  • Sanskrit scholars were also patronised by the Pala kings. Gaudapada composed Agama Shastra during the time of the Palas.
  • The Pala art (art seen in Bengal and Bihar during the Pala regime) influence is seen in the art of Nepal, Sri Lanka, Burma and Java.

Gopala (Reign: 750 – 770 AD)

  • First Pala king and founder of the dynasty.
  • Son of Vapyata, a warrior.
  • Was elected by a group of people.
  • At the time of his death, Pala kingdom included Bengal and most of Bihar.
  • He built the monastery at Odantapuri, Bihar.
  • Considered the first Buddhist king of Bengal.

Dharmapala (Reign: 770 – 810 AD)

  • Son and successor of Gopala.
  • Expanded the kingdom.
  • Was a pious Buddhist.
  • Founded the Vikramshila University at Bhagalpur, Bihar.
  • He had frequent wars with the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas.
  • The Palas became the most powerful kingdom in northern and eastern India during his rule.

Devapala (Reign: 810 – 850 AD)

  • Son of Dharmapala and Rannadevi, a Rashtrakuta princess.
  • Extended the kingdom to Assam, Odisha and Kamarupa.
  • Was a staunch Buddhist and built many monasteries and temples in Magadha.
  • Defeated the Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha.

Mahipala I

  • Ascended the throne in 988 AD.
  • Recovered northern and eastern Bengal.
  • Also took Bihar.

Ramapala

  • The last strong Pala king.
  • The kingdom disintegrated during his son Kumarapala’s reign.

Madanapala (Reign: 1144 – 1162 AD)

  • The last Pala king.
  • After him, the Sena dynasty replaced the Palas.

Pratiharas

  • The dynasty of Gurjar Pratiharas was founded by Harichandra in 6th century AD.
  • Nagabhatta-I was the first important ruler of this dynasty. He ruled from 730 AD to 756 AD.
  • Awani was the capital of his kingdom.
  • Nagbhatta I’s achievement:He defeated Junaid, the Arab commander Junaid and his successor Tamin in the battle of Rajasthan.
  • Vastaraja succeeded Nagbhatta I as the new king and captured Kannuaj following his victory over Dharmapala, the king of Pala.
  • Nagabhatta IIsucceeded Vatsaraja around 805 AD.
  • He is best known for rebuilding the Somnath Temple in 815 AD. The temple was destroyed by Arab Armies of Junayad in 725 AD.
  • Mihirbhoja was the other important king of the dynasty. His reign lasted till 885 AD.
  • He assumed the title ofAdivaraha and built the Teli Mandir at the Gwalior.
  • However, the power of Gurjara Pratihara declined in 10th century and their King Bhoja II was over thrown by Mahipala-I, a Pala King. Soon the empire disintegrated and the feudatories declared themselves independent.

Rashtrakutas

  • Dantivarman or Dantidurga (735 – 756) was the founder of the Rashtrakutas dynasty.
  • Dantidurga occupied all territories between the Godavari and Vima.
  • He is said to have conquered Kalinga, Kosala, Kanchi, Srisril, Malava, Lata etc. and occupied Maharashtra by defeating Chalukya King Kirtivarma.
  • Rashtrakutas widely patronized the Sanskrit literature.
  • Trivikrama wrote Halayudha composed Kavirahasya during the reign of Krishna III.
  • Sakatayana wrote Amogavritti a grammar work.
  • Kavirajamarga composed by Amogavarsha’s was the first poetic work in the Kannada language.
  • The art and architecture of the Rashtrakutas can be found at Ellora and Elephanta.
  • The most remarkable temple Kailasanatha temple at Ellora was built by Krishna.
  • Vaishnavism and Saivism flourished during their period.

Krishna I (756 – 774)

  • Krishna I succeeded Dantidurga.
  • He conquered the territories that were still under the Chalukyas
  • He also occupied Konkan.
  • Krishna I also defeated Vishnuvardhana of Vengi and the Ganga king of Mysore.
  • He was a great patron of art and architecture.
  • The Kailash Temple at Ellora was built by the Rashtrakuta King Krishna I.

Govinda II (774 – 780

  • Govinda II son of Krishna I succeeded.

Dhruva (780 – 793)

  • He defeated Gurjara-Pratihara King Vatsyaraja, the Pallavas of Kanchi and the Pala King Dharmapala of Bengal.

Govinda III (793 – 814)

  • Dhruva son of Govinda III succeeded the throne.
  • He defeated the great Gurjara King Nagabhatta II.
  • Pala King Dharmapala and his protégé Charayudh sought the help of Govinda III.
  • His kingdom spread up to the Vindhyas and Malava in the north and the river Tungabhadra to the south.

Amoghavarsha I (814- 878 A.D.)

  • The greatest king of the Rashtrakuta dynasty was Amoghavarsha I son of Govinda III.
  • Amoghavarsha I set up a new capital at Manyakheta (now Malkhed in Karnataka State) and Broach became the best port of the kingdom during his reign
  • Amoghavarsha I was a great patron of education and literature.
  • Amoghavarsha was converted into Jainism by Jinasena, a Jaina monk.
  • Suleman, an Arab merchant, in his account called Amoghavarsha I as one of the four greatest kings of the world, the other three being the Caliph of Bagdad, the king of Constantinople and the emperor of China.
  • Amoghavarsha ruled for 63 years.

Krishna II (878 – 914)

  • Son of Amoghavarsha, succeeded the throne.

Indra III (914 -929)

  • Indra III was a powerful king.
  • He defeated and deposed Mahipala

Krishna III (939 – 967)

  • The last powerful and efficient king of the Rashtrakutas.
  • He also succeeded in conquering Tanjore and Kanchi.
  • He succeeded in defeating the Tamil kings of Chola kingdom.

Karka (972 – 973)

  • The Rashtrakuta King Karka was defeated and deposed by Taila or Tailapa, the Chalukya king of Kalyani.

The Senas of Bengal

  • Around the time of Mahipala’s death in around 1043 AD, a vassal of the Palas named Hemanta Sen founded the Sena Dynasty.
  • However, the independent rule of Senas in Bengal was established in his son Vijayasena’s time (1097-1160).
  • He was able to snatch away parts of Rarh region of Bengal from the Palas and some parts of Gauda Kingdom from the Assam regions.
  • His son Ballala Sena (1160-1178) introduced the Social reforms in Bengal known as Kulinism.
  • Vijayasena, which ascended the throne in A.D. 1095, conquered Vanga, defeating Bhojavarman and were arrested Ganda from the last Pala king Madanapala.
  • Vijayasena was succeeded by his son Ballalsena in 1158 A.D. He conquered Mithila and a portion of East Bihar.
  • In 1187 A.D. he was succeeded by Lakshmanasena, who defeated Jayachandra of the Gahadwala dynasty and conquered Prayagjyotisa.
  • He was a noted general, but in later part of his reign when he became stricken with age, Muhammad-bin-Bhakhtyar Khalji by a sudden raid captured Nadia, where Lakshmana sena lived.
  • The latter retired Vikrampura where he ruled till 1205 A.D. His son Visvarupasena succeeded him the throne.
  • After the conquest of Nadia, Muhammad-bin-Bhakhtyar Khalji conquered North Bengal and Muslim rule was established in Radha and Ganda.
  • About the middle of the 13th century, the Senas were overthrown by the Deva dynasty reigning in Saman-tata the east of the Brahmaputra.
  • The Senas of Bengal called themselves Kshatriya, Brahma-Kshatriya, and Karnata-Kshatriya, and were originally inhabitants of Dakshinapatha.

The Chauhans of Delhi and Ajmer

  • The Chauhans declared their independence in the 1101 century at Ajmer and they were the feudatories of the Pratiharas.
  • They captured Ujjain from the Paramaras of Malwa and Delhi in the early part of the 12th century.
  • They shifted their capital to Delhi.
  • Prithviraj Chauhan was the most important ruler of this dynasty.

Rathors of Kanauj (1090-1194 A.D.)

  • The Rathors established themselves on the throne of Kanauj from 1090 to 1194 A.D.
  • Jaichand was the last great ruler of this dynasty.
  • He was killed in the battle of Chandwar in 1194A.D. by Muhammad of Ghori.

The Chandellas of Bundelkhand

  • Established them in the 9th century.
  • Mahoba was the capital of Chandella during the period of Chief Yasovarman
  • Kalinjar was their important fort.
  • The Chandellas built the most famous Kandariya Mahadeva Temple in 1050 A.D. and a number of beautiful temples at Khajuraho.
  • Paramal the last Chandella ruler was defeated by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1203A.D.

The Guhllas or Sisodiyas of Mewar

  • The Rajput ruler Bapa Rawat was the founder of the Guhila or the Sisodiya dynasty and Chittor was its capital.
  • During the period of Rana Ratan Singh of Mewar.
  • In 1307 A.D.Ala-ud-din khilji invaded his territory and defeated him.
  • Rana Sangha and Maharana Prata the Sisodiya rulers gave a tough fight to the Mughal rulers of India.

The Paramaras of Malwa

  • The Paramaras were also the feudatories of Pratiharas. They declared their independence in the 10thcentury and Dhara was their capital.

Raja Bhoja (1018-1069)

  • He was the most famous ruler of this period.
  • He constructed a beautiful lake more than 250 sq. miles near Bhopal.
  • He set up a college at Dhara for the study of Sanskrit Literature.

Some popular terms

  • Jauhar: A mass suicide of women in order to escape defilement at the hands of foreign victors.
  • Gita Govindam: Song of the cowherd
  • Rajatarangini: ‘River of Kings’
  • Kathasaritasagara: ‘Ocean of tales’

The reign of the Paramaras ended with the invasion of Ala-ud-din Khilji.

Objective Multiple Choice Questions on The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas

  1. Who was/were the founder(s) of the Pala Dynasty?
    (A) Gopala I

    (B) Dhrampala
    (C) Devpala
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (A) Gopala I
  2. In which Pala ruler’s reign, the Ramacharita was written and also mentioned that the Pala a ruler was the descended of Solar Dynasty?
    (A) Devpala

    (B) Dharmpala
    (C) Gopala I
    (D) Mahendrapala
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Gopala I
  3. Who among the following revived the Nalanda University and founded the Vikramshila University?
    (A) Devpala

    (B) Dharmpala
    (C) Gopala I
    (D) Mahendrapala
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Dharmpala
  4. Consider the following
    He patronized the Vikramashila University and the Nalanda University.

    II. Famous poet Vajradatta who was author of Lokesvarashataka was one of the gems of his court.
    Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about Devpala?
    (A) Only I

    (B) Only II
    (C) Both I and II
    (D) Neither I nor II
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Both I and II
  5. Which of the following Pala ruler’s name is mentioned as son of Devapala and younger brother of Shurapala I on Jagjivanpur copper plate?
    (A) Mahendrapala

    (B) Devapala
    (C) Narayanpala
    (D) Vigrahapala I
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (A) Mahendrapala
  6. Who built the great Vihara at Somapuri in Verendri and the Vihara in Paharpur?
    (A) Mahendrapala

    (B) Dharmapala
    (C) Narayanpala
    (D) Vigrahapala I
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Dharmapala
  7. Consider the following
    He patronized the Vikramashila University and the Nalanda University.

    II. He was elected by a group of regional chieftains and then after he founded the dynasty.
    Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about Gopala I?
    (A) Only I

    (B) Only II
    (C) Both I and II
    (D) Neither I nor II
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Only II
  8. Consider the following
    He was staunch Buddhist and constructed many temples and monasteries in Magadh(A)

    II. He patronized the Vikramashila University and the Nalanda University.
    Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about Dharmapala I?
    (A) Only I

    (B) Only II
    (C) Both I and II
    (D) Neither I nor II
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (D) Neither I nor II
  9. Consider the following
    He ruled for very short period and after that became asceti(C)

    II. As per Jagjivanpur inscription, He was younger brother and royal envoy of Mahendrapal(A)
    Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about Shurapala I?
    (A) Only I

    (B) Only II
    (C) Both I and II
    (D) Neither I nor II
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Only II
  10. Who among the following Pala ruler was associated with Badal Pillar inscription?
    (A) Narayanpala

    (B) Gopala II
    (C) Vigrahapala
    (D) Mahipala I
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (A) Narayanpala
    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)
  11. Whose philosophy is called the Advaita?
    (A) Ramanujacharya
    (B) Shankaracharya
    (C) Nagarjuna
    (D) Vasumitra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Shankaracharya
  12. Who among the following built the temple of the Sun God at Konark?
    (A) Anantavarman
    (B) Narasimha I
    (C) Kapilendra
    (D) Purushottama
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Narasimha I
  13. Jayadeva, who wrote ‘Gita Govinda’ was the court poet of?
    (A) Laxman Sen of Sena dynasty
    (B) Dharmapala of Pala dynasty.
    (C) Gopala of Pala dynasty
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Laxman Sen of Sena dynasty
  14. Which kingdom did the temple of Hazara Rama belong to?
    (A) Avadh
    (B) Travancore
    (C) Vijayanagara
    (D) Ahom
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Vijayanagara
  15. The greatest stylistic forms of temple architecture during the early medieval period were the Nagara, the Dravida and the Vesara which of the following.was the geographical spread of the Dravida style?
    (A) Between Vindhyan and Krishna rivers
    (B) Between Krishna and Cauvery rivers
    (C) Between Vindhyan and Cauvery rivers
    (D) Between Godavari and Krishna rivers
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Between Godavari and Krishna rivers
  16. Which of the following temples are built by the Rashtrakuta Kings?
    (A) Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayan temple at Pattadakal
    (B) Someshwara temple at Sogal.
    (C) Andhakeshwar temple at Hooli.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  17. In what way did the policy of the Rashtrakutas differ from their predecessors in the Deccan?
    (A) They tried to maintain good relations with the Southern kingdoms while waging wars in the North.
    (B) They attempted to be the transmitters of good ideas from one part to the other.
    (C) They tried to exploit their positions as a bridge to dominate both the North and the South.
    (D) They tried to maintain the balance of power in the struggle between the North and the South.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) They tried to exploit their positions as a bridge to dominate both the North and the South.
  18. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
    (A) Kalhana was the contemporary of the Lohara king of Kashmir, named Harsha.
    (B) Chachnama is a famous book on the history of Sindh.
    (C) The Parmar king Bhoja is believed to be have been the author of about two dozen’s work on a variety of subjects, medicine, astronomy, architecture etc.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  19. Ramacharita written by Sandhyakara Nandi in the AD 12th century was the?
    (A) Story of Lord Rama in a popular poetic style in Oriya language.
    (B) First translation of Valmiki’s Ramayana into Telugu language.
    (C) Story of a love affair between a rich merchant of Pataliputra and a beautiful courtesan.
    (D) Story of the conflict between the Kaivartha peasants and a Pala prince.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Story of the conflict between the Kaivartha peasants and a Pala prince
  20. The main targets of Mahmud Ghazni’s attacks were large towns and temples because
    (A) Victory over them would have given greater renow.
    (B) Destruction of large temples and towns shattered the moral of Indian people.
    (C) They were repositories of immense wealth.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) They were repositories of immense wealth
    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Who came to India at the instance of Sultan Mahmud?
    (A) Al beruni.
    (B) Sulaiman.
    (C) Al Masudi.
    (D) Ibn Hauql.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Al beruni
  22. According to Al beruni, the successors of the Kushans who ruled over North India in 10th-11th centuries were
    (A) Gahadavals.
    (B) Karamatiyas of Multan.
    (C) Hindu Shahiyas.
    (D) Kalchuris.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Hindu Shahiyas
  23. Muhammad Ghori invaded India on account of his
    (A) Vaulting ambition of expansion of his empire.
    (B) Love of conquest and power.
    (C) Desire to propagate Islam.
    (D) Both “a” and “b”
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Both “a” and “b”
  24. Which of the following was not a result of the Turkish conquest on India?
    (A) It paved the way for the liquidation of multistate system in India.
    (B) It broke the isolation of the Indian society.
    (C) It led to an urban revolution and development of trade and commerce.
    (D) It helped in the growth of liberal religious reform movement in Hinduism
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) It helped in the growth of liberal religious reform movement in Hinduism
  25. During Muhammad Ghori’s absence on account of engagements with the Turks in Central Asia, who principally looked after the affairs of India?
    (A) Bakhtiyar Khalji.
    (B) Ikhtiyar-ud-din Muhammad.
    (C) Qutab-ud-din-Aibak.
    (D) Muiz-ud-din-Muhammad bin Sam.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Qutab-ud-din-Aibak
  26. The Turkish commander who conquered Bihar and Bengal was
    (A) Mohammad of Ghur.
    (B) Qutab-ud-din-Aibak.
    (C) Ikhtiyar-ud-din Muhammad.
    (D) Bakhtiyar Khalji.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Bakhtiyar Khalji
  27. Which of the following dynasties built the Khajuraho Temples?
    (A) Chandelas.
    (B) Chahamans.
    (C) Paramars.
    (D) Tomars.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chandelas
  28. The Rajputs were repeatedly defeated by Turks because of
    (A) Failure on the part of Indian rulers to grasp the true significance of the earlier raids of Sultan Mahmud.
    (B) Reinforcement of good central Asian horses provided a better livestock for the Afghan cavalry.
    (C) The Central Asian military tactics used by the Afghan were superior to Indian military tactics.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  29. During the rein of which one of the following dynasties of Kashmir of this period, did the famous queen, Didda seize the throne?
    (A) Karkota dynasty.
    (B) The house of Utpala.
    (C) Lohara dynasty.
    (D) The line of Parva Gupta.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) The line of Parva Gupta
  30. Iqta in Medieval India meant
    (A) Land assigned to religious personnel for spiritual purposes.
    (B) Land revenue from different territorial unites assigned to army officers.
    (C) Charity for educational and cultural activities.
    (D) The right of the zamindars.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Land revenue from different territorial unites assigned to army officers
    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)
  31. The Hindu Shahi ruler who burnt himself on a funeral pyre after being defeated by Mahmud Ghazni?
    (A) Jayapala.
    (B) Anandapala.
    (C) Trilochanapala.
    (D) Bhima.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jayapala.
  32. Which of the following Rajput clans was not one of the so-called Agnikula origin?
    (A) Chandelas.
    (B) Pariharas.
    (C) Chahamans.
    (D) Chalukyas or Solankis.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chandelas.
  33. Which one of the following was the official language of Gupta period?
    (A) Pali.
    (B) Magadhi
    (C) Prakrit.
    (D) Sanskrit.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sanskrit
  34. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
    (A) The city of Dhilika (Delhi) was founded by the Tomar’s in AD 736 but Chauhans overthrew them and occupied it in the 12th century.
    (B) Chandela was the first early medieval dynasty to use Hindi in Devanagri script in its epigraphs.
    (C) The Sena King, Ballala Sena, is credited with the founding of Kulinism, a system of superiority of higher castes.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above.
  35. It is said that the “real cause of the defeat of the Rajputs against the Turks lay in the prevalent social system”, because
    (A) In the caste-ridden society, the defence of the country was the sole concern of the Rajputs.
    (B) It rendered all other people psychologically unfit for military service.
    (C) It killed the national will to put a common front against the Turks.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above.
  36. A popular Hindi film based on the famous Sanskrit play, Mṛcchakaṭikā, was titled
    (A) Meghadoot.
    (B) Amarapali.
    (C) Utsav.
    (D) Shakuntala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Utsav.
  37. Which of the following did not form a part of the donations made to the temples?
    (A) Money.
    (B) Slaves.
    (C) Livestock.
    (D) Land.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Slaves
  38. One consistent features found in the history of Southern India was the growth of the small regional kingdoms rather than large empires because of
    (A) the absence of minerals like iron.
    (B) too many divisions in the social structures.
    (C) the absence of vast areas of fertile land.
    (D) the scarcity of manpower.
    Correct Answer
    Answer : (C) the absence of vast areas of fertile land
  39. Which of the following was not one of the feudal obligations of the feudatories to the overlord?
    (A) Attendance at court and payment of tribute to the overlord.
    (B) For smaller feudatories, permission from the king for any change in the administration of their property.
    (C) Maintenance of a specified numbers of troops and payment of tribute to the king.
    (D) Permission of the king for matrimonial alliances.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Permission of the king for matrimonial alliances.
  40. Who among the following gave asylum to Zoroastrians who fled by sea and by the coastal route from Persia to Western Indian in the early 8th century?
    (A) Chalukyas.
    (B) Cholas.
    (C) Hoysalas.
    (D) Rashtrakutas.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rashtrakutas.
    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)
  41. Which one of the following titles was not used by the feudatories of the period?
    (A) Panchamahasabda.
    (B) Mahamandalesvara.
    (C) Mandalika.
    (D) Mahasamanta.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Panchamahasabda.
  42. With the increase in the number of intermediaries, the peasant was forced to pay taxes in addition to the basic land tax. Which of the following was not one of these additional levies?
    (A) Separate taxes levied by the feudal tenants for the maintenance of public works.
    (B) Taxes on goods produced by the craftsman.
    (C) The levies imposed by the temples.
    (D) The caste levies by the caste panchayats.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) The caste levies by the caste panchayats
  43. In early Medieval India what did the term, Jital refer to
    (A) Weight.
    (B) Diet.
    (C) Coin.
    (D) Game.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Coin.
  44. Why has Al Beruni written that there was little difference and Vaishyas and Shudras?
    (A) Vaishyas joined the fold of agriculturist.
    (B) With the decline of trade and commerce, the Vaishyas lost their economic status.
    (C) Vaishyas came to marry freely with the Shudras caste.
    (D) Both “a” and “b”.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Both “a” and “b”.
  45. The famous Kailasa Temple, cut out of solid rock at Ellora, was built under the patronage of the
    (A) Cholas.
    (B) Kadambas.
    (C) Pallavas.
    (D) Rashtrakutas.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rashtrakutas.
  46. Which of the following explains the change in the traditional six-fold duty of the Brahmins during this period?
    (A) Agriculture could be practised by a Brahmin in distress in addition to his six-fold duty.
    (B) Agriculture was viewed more or less as a regular vocation of the Brahmin, an d not as an occupation to be adopted only in distress.
    (C) Agriculture which involved injury to beings and was dependent on others, could not be practised by a Brahmin.
    (D) The status of the Brahmin was known by his profession.
    Correct Answer
    Answer : (B) Agriculture was viewed more or less as a regular vocation of the Brahmin, an d not as an occupation to be adopted only in distress
  47. There was a large proliferation of castes during the early medieval period due to
    (A) transformation of crafts and occupations into castes.
    (B) emergence of large number of mixed castes.
    (C) localisation of castes.
    (D) Both “a” and “b”
    Correct Answer
    Answer : (D) Both “a” and “b”
  48. Which one of the following statements about Brihadeswara temple at Tanjavur, is not correct?
    (A) The temple is a splendid example of Chola architecture.
    (B) It was built emperor, Rajaraja.
    (C) The temple was constructed of granite.
    (D) The temple is a monument dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
    Correct Answer
    Answer : (D) The temple is a monument dedicated to Lord Vishnu
  49. Which of the following is not one of the well-known mixed castes of the period?
    (A) Ambastha (Vaidy(A).

    (B) Magadha (court- bar(D)
    (C) Modaka (sweet meat maker)
    (D) Kayasthas (scribes and clerks)
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Modaka (sweet meat maker)
  50. The Badami rock inscription of Pulakesin 1st is dated in the Saka year, 465. If the same were to be dated to Vikrama Samvat, the year would be
    (A) 601.
    (B) 300
    (C) 330
    (D) 407.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 601
    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)
  51. Shankaracharya was mainly a
    (A) Shaiva
    (B) Vaishnava
    (C) Shakta
    (D) Sauro pasaka
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Shaiva
  52. Who among the following laid the foundation of Rashtrakuta Empire?
    (A) Amoghavarsha I.
    (B) Dantidurga.
    (C) Dhruva.
    (D) Krishna I.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Dantidurga
  53. Which one of the following scientific subject was not taught in the University of Nalanda?
    (A) Medicine and pharmacology.
    (B) Astronomy.
    (C) Metallurgy.
    (D) Life sciences.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Life sciences
  54. Bronze icons of Nataraja casted during the Chola period invariably showed the deity with
    (A) Eight hands.
    (B) Six hands.
    (C) Four hands.
    (D) Two hands.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Four hands
  55. Who among the Chola king reined as Kulottung Chola I?
    (A) Vikramaditya I.
    (B) Vikramaditya II.
    (C) Rajaraja Narendra I.
    (D) Rajendra III.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rajendra III
  56. Which one of the Chola kings conquered Ceylon?
    (A) Aditya I.
    (B) Rajaraja I.
    (C) Rajendra.
    (D) Vijayalaya.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rajaraja I
  57. Ghori directed his first invasion against
    (A) Multan.
    (B) Sindh.
    (C) Punjab.
    (D) Anhilwara
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sindh
  58. Kalhana was a contemporary of Lohra king of Kashmir named
    (A) Harsha.
    (B) Utakarsha.
    (C) Kalasa.
    (D) Ananta.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Harsha.
  59. Temple of Somnath which was destroyed by Mahmud Ghazni was dedicated to Lord
    (A) Vishnu.
    (B) Shiva.
    (C) Surya.
    (D) Ganapati.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Shiva
  60. Which of the following Chalukyan city is known as the City of Temples?
    (A) Pattadakal.

    (B) Badami.
    (C) Aihole.
    (D) Kanheri.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Aihole

    The Palas, Rashtrkutas & Pratiharas (Notes+MCQ)

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