The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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The Mughal Empire (1526 A.D. – 1858 A.D.)

  • The Sayyid and the Lodhi rules failed to stop the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • In the early years of Sixteenth century, the Mughals, the descendants of the Mongol, Turkish, Iranian and Afghan invaders of South Asia, conquered India under the command of Zahir-ud-din Babur.
  • Babur was the great-grandson of Timur, who had invaded India and plundered Delhi in 1398.
  • Babur took full advantage of the political chaos and established the rule of the Mughal Dynasty in India.
  • Babur’s Empire extended from Punjab to Bengal including Jaunpur and Bihar.
  • It western to include Kabul in the northwest, Kashmir in the north, Sindh; Multan, Ajmer, and Gujarat in the west Malwa and Benar in the south and Orissa and Bengal by the time Akbar died.
  • The ‘classic period’ of the Mughal Empire is believed to begin in 1556 with the coronation of Akbar to the throne.

Features of Mughal Administration

The Mughal Central Government

The principal officers of the Mughal central government were four:

  1. Diwan: The Diwan, often called the wazir (the chief minister), was mainly concerned with revenue and finance.
  2. Mir Bakhshi: The Mir Bakhshi performed those duties, which had been the responsibility of the ariz-i-mamalik during the earlier period. Some foreign travelers called him the lieutenant general or the captain-general.
  3. Mir Saman: The work relating to state karkhanas, stores, ordinance, and communications was considered very important by Mughals and the person dealing with it was called the Mir Saman.
  4. Sadr: The Sadr or Sadr-i-Jahan was the director of religious matters, charities, and endowments.

The Mughal Provincial Administration

  • The Mughal provincial administration was greatly improved under Akbar.
  • The principal officer was the Governor, popularly known as Subahdar or Subah.
  • Next was the provincial Diwan, who was in independent charge of the revenues of the province. He was usually a Mansabdar of much lower status than the Governor was.
Note:

         i.            The Mughals had an efficient administrative system.

       ii.            The famous Diwan (Finance Minister) under Akbar was Raja Todar Mal.

      iii.            The organization of public services was based on the Mansabdari system.

 

What is the Mansabdari System: The ‘Mansabdari system ‘was the administrative system of Akbar. The word mansab is of Arabic origin meaning rank or position. The system, hence, determined the rank of a government official. Every civil and military officer was given a ‘mansab’ and different numbers which could be divided by ten were used for ranking officers.

  • The next provincial functionary was the Bakhshi or the paymaster.
  • The Sadr and the Qazi were entrusted with religious, educational, and judicial duties.
  • The Faujdar and the Kotwal were the two other important provincial officials.
  • The Muqaddam was normally the sarpanch (head of the village panchayat, or council).

Revenue and Finance

  • Land revenue was the most important source of income.
  • The principal items of expenditure were defense, the general civil administration of the empire (including the religious organizations) and maintenance of the court and the royal palace.
  • Akbar’s revenue system was ryotwari, the revenue amounted to one-third of the product being collected directly from the individual cultivator.

Military Organization

  • The soldiers supplied by the mansabdars, known as Dakhili, who were paid by the state.
  • The artillery was paid wholly out of the imperial treasury.
  • The Mughals had a poor navy. They had no fighting vessels, and the ships that they maintained were only for the commercial operations of the state.

Judicial System

  • The aim of the judicial system was primarily to settle individual complaints and disputes rather than to enforce a legal code, as is indicated by the fact that the criminal court was normally known as the Diwani-mazalim, the court of complaints.
  • In the Ain-I-Akbari, we find the instructions issued to a governor detailing the judicial procedure he should follow.

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Emperors of the Mughal Dynasty

Ruling Period Name
1526 – 1530 Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur
1530 – 1540 and 1555 – 1556 Humayun
1556 – 1605 Akbar
1605 – 1627 Jahangir
1628 – 1658 Shah Jahan
1658 – 1707 Mohammed Aurangzeb
1707 (Mar 14 – Apr 27) Qutib-ud-din A’zam Shah
1707 – 1712 Shah Alam Bahadur Shah-I
1712 – 1713 Mohammad
1713 – 1719 Furrukhsiyar
1719 (Mar 1 – Jun 7) Rafi ul Darjat
1719 (Mar 30 – Aug 13) Mohamamd Shah Nikusiyar
1719 (Jun 8 – Sep 6) Mohammad Shah Jahan Sani
1719 – 1748 Mohammad Shah
1720 (Oct 12 – Nov 19) Mohammad Ibrahim
1748 – 1754 Ahmad Shah Bahadur
1754 (Jun 3 – Nov 29) Alamgir II
1759 (Dec 11 – Dec 25) Shah Jahan III
1759 – 1806 Shah Alam II
1806 – 1837 Mohammad Akbar Shah II
1837 – 1857 Bahadur Shah Zafar

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Babur (1483-1530 A.D., ruled 1526-1530 A.D.)

  • Zahir-ud-din Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire.
  • He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, a direct descendant of Turk-Mongol conqueror Timur, also known as Tamurlane. His mother was a direct descendant of Asia’s conqueror Genghis Khan.
  • His actual name was Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur. His name is derived from the Persian word ‘Babr’, which means Tiger; he was born in AD 1483.
  • In 1494 at the age of 11, Babur became the ruler of Farghana (at present in Chinese Turkistan) succeeding Umar Shaikh Mirza, his father.
  • Within a few years after his accession, Babur lost both Farghana and Samarqand.
  • The conquest of Samarkand in Transoxiana compelled Babur to come to India.
  • Daulat Khan, the most powerful noble of Punjab, who was discontented with Ibrahim Lodhi, invited Babur to invade India.
  • On 21 April 1526, the First Battle of Panipat took place between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi, who was killed in the battle. He captured Delhi and founded the greatest dynasty of North India — the Mughal Empire.
  • The First Battle of Panipat marked the foundation of Mughal dominion in India.
  • After the battle of Panipat, Babur proclaimed himself ‘Emperor of Hindustan.’
  • He made Agra his headquarter.
  • This victory made him the emperor of Delhi. Babur could achieve this resounding victory because of gun carts, moveable artillery, and superior cavalry tactics.
  • He consolidated his army. He brought under his control Punjab, Delhi and the Ganga plains upto Bihar.
  • In 1527, he defeated Rana Sanga at Khamva, in the Battle of Khanwa and captured Agra.
  • In 1528, Babur captured Chanderi from another Rajput ruler Medini Rai.
  • In 1529, Babur defeated the combined armies of the Afghans and the Sultan of Bengal, in the Battle of Ghagra.
  • This victory made him the undisputed ‘master of India”.
  • He was also a great scholar in Arabic and Persian languages.
  • On December 26, 1530, Babur died at Agra aged 48. His body was first laid at Arambagh in Agra but was later taken to Kabul, where it was buried.
  • In his autobiography Bāburnāma (Book of Babur) also known as Tuzuki-i-Badri, he has given an excellent account of India and his empire. It is a famous book written in Turkish language. It was translated to Persian during the reign of his grandson Akbar.
Note:

  • Rana Sangha of Mewar was a great Rajput warrior.
  • He gave the toughest resistance to Babur’s expansion plans.
  • On March 16, 1527, Rana Sangha, along with rulers of Marwar, Amber, Gwalior, Ajmer and Chanderi and Sultan Mahmood Lodi (whom Rana Sangha had acknowledged as ruler of Delhi) met Babur in a decisive contest at Kanhwa, a village near Agra. The aim was to prevent the imposition of another foreign repression on  Babur succeeded over them by using similar tactics as in the Battle of Panipat. The, he took on the title of “Ghazi”.

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Interesting Facts:

  • Babur claimed to be very strong and physically fit.
  • He also claimed to have swum across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River
  • “I swam across the river Ganges for amusement. I counted my strokes, and found that I swam over in thirty-three strokes. I then took breath, and swam back to the other side. I had crossed by swimming every river I had met, except only the Ganges,” he noted, according to Medieval India from the Mohammedan Conquest to the Reign of Akbar the Great, written by Stanley Lane-Poole.

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
Humayun (1530-1556 A.D.)

  • Humayun was the eldest son of Babur.
  • He was lacking wisdom, discretion, and strong determination and diligence of his  Thus, as a king he was a failure.
  • Humayun means “fortune” but he remained the most unfortunate ruler of the Mughal Empire.
  • Six months after his succession, Humayun besieged the fortress of Kalinjar in Bundelkhand, gained a decisive victory over Afghans at Douhrua and drove out Sultan Mahmood Lodhifrom Jaunpur, and even defeated Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. His victories, however, were short-lived due to the weakness of his character.
  • Humayun had three brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal
  • Humayun divided the empire among his brothers but this proved to be a great blunder on his part.
  • Kamran was given Kabul and Kandahar.
  • Sambhal and Alwar were given to Askari and Hindal respectively.
  • Humayun captured Gujarat from Bahadur Shah and appointed Askari as its governor.
  • But soon Bahadur Shah recovered Gujarat from Askari who fled from there.
  • In the east, Sher Khan became powerful. Humayun marched against him and in the Battle of Chausa, held on 26 June 1539, Sher Khan destroyed the Mughal army and Humayun escaped from there.
  • Humayun reached Agra to negotiate with his brothers.
  • In 1540, in the Battle of Bilgram or Ganges also known as Battle of Kanauj, Humayun was forced to fight with Sher Khan alone and after losing his kingdom, Humayun became an exile for the next fifteen years.
  • In 1952, during his wanderings in deserts of Sindh, Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Sheikh Ali Amber Jaini, who had been a preceptor of Humayun’s brother Hindal.
  • On November 23, 1542, Humayun’s wife gave birth to Akbar
  • Amarkot’s Hindu chief Rana Prasad promised Humayun to help him to conquer 
  • However, Humayun could not conquer Bhakker or secure Thus; he left India and lived under the generosity of Shah Tahmashp of Persia.
  • Shah of Persia agreed to help Humayun and lend him a force of 14,000 men on a condition to confirm to Shia creed, to have the Shah’s name proclaimed in his Khutba and to give away Kandhar to him on his success.
  • In 1545, with Persian help, Humayun captured Kandhar and Kabulbut refused to cede Kandhar to Persia.
  • Humayun sought help from the Iran ruler.
  • Later, he defeated his brothers Kamran and Askari.
  • He was very affectionate towards his brothers and did not punish them even though they had betrayed his trust many times.
  • In 1555, Humayun defeated the Afghans and recovered the Mughal throne.
  • Humayun was an opium addict who spent little time with his wives or members of his harem.
  • Humayun was kind and generous, though he was not a good General and warrior.
  • He also loved painting and wrote poetry in the Persian
  • Though Humayun managed to get his kingdom back, he could not rule for long.
  • In 1556, while coming down from his library, he slipped and fell down the stairs.
  • He suffered massive injuries including a skull fracture.
  • Due to his advancing age and lack of medical facilities, he died a tragic death.
  • Humayun’s tomb is located opposite Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia Dargah in New Delhi.
  • The kingdom was left with his son Akbar.

Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.)

  • Akbar was one of the greatest rulers in Indian history.
  • Jalal-ud-din Mohammad Akbar was born in Umerkot, Sindh on November 23, 1542.
  • Akbar came to the throne in 1556 after the death of his father, Humayun at the age of 13 years. H ruled over India for 26 years.
  • At a very small age of just 13 years, Jalal has conferred the title of Shahanshah Akbar
  • During the first five years of his rule, he was assisted and advised by Bahram Khan in running the affairs of the country.
  • His reign holds a certain prominence in history. He actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire.
  • Akbar was a great patron of art, architecture.
  • Despite being illiterate, he had a tremendous love for learning.
  • The first battle fought by Akbar was against Sikandar Shah Suri of Punjab.
  • In 1556, ‘Akbar the Great’ fought the Second battle of Panipat against Hemu.
  • Under the Kingship of Akbar, the Jizia taxes were abolished.
  • He talked to general people and heard their woes at DIWAN-E-AAM.
  • He interacted with Hindu Muslim and Christian scholars on important issues in DIWAN-E-KHAAS.
  • Akbar prohibited slavery and sati system.
  • He fixed 14 years age for girls and 16 years age for boys for marriage.
  • Akbar made many religious matrimonial alliances through which he sent a message of unity and togetherness. His marriage to the Rajput princess
  • Akbar was not an extreme Muslim rather he is known for his tolerance towards all the religions. This is what made him so famous amongst his people.
  • To strengthen his belief in the oneness of all Akbar propounded the principle of Din Ai Elahi, through which he spread the theory of “All Religions are Same”.
  • He expanded the Mughal Empire by including Malwa, Gujrat, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, and Khandesh.
  • His third son, Salim was frequently in rebellion against his father.
  • In 1605, at the age of 63, Akbar suffered a very bad bout of dysentery, which could not be cured and took Akbar’s life.
  • He was buried in a dignified way in the grand fort of Sikandra, Agra.
Akbar’s court had Navratnas, meaning a group of nine extraordinary people. They included
1.       Abul Fazl Akbar’s chief advisor; wrote An I Akbari
2.       Faizi Court Poet
3.       Tansen (Tanna Mishra) Singer of his court
4.       Birbal Court Jester; Noble is known for his wittiness
5.       Raja Todar Mal Akbar’s Finance Minister
6.       Raja Man Singh Trusted general; Army Consultant
7.       Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khana Hindi Scholar
8.       Hakim Humam The physician to the King
9.       Mullah Do Piaza An intelligence advisor to the King.

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Main Events During the reign of Akbar

Year Major Events
1562 Abolition of Slavery
1563 Abolition of Pilgrimage Tax.
1564 Abolition of Jaziya.
1573-74 ‘Mansabdari system’ introduced after victory over Gujarat.
1575 Ibadatkhana was built in Fatehpur Sikri
1578 Parliament of Religions in Ibadatkhana.
1582 ‘Dahsala system’ introduced by Todarmal.

The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Jahangir (1605-1627 A.D.)

  • Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir (Persian for “conqueror of the world”, was the fourth Mughal Emperor who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.
  • He was the son of Akbar and Jodhabai.
  • His childhood name was Salim and was born in 1569 AD.
  • He succeeded his father throne after Akbar’s death.
  • He conquered three Kingdoms – Mewar, Kangra, and Ahmadnagar in South India.
  • He gave his father the terminating shock by killing Abul Fazal in 1602.
  • He married Mehr-un-Nisa whom he gave the title of Nur Jahan (light of the world).
  • The tale of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, Anarkali, has been widely adapted into the literature, art, and cinema of India.
  • He crushed the rebellion of his own son Khusroe and made him blind.
  • He issued 12 ordinances in public interest. He died in 1627 AD.
  • Jahangir’s most irksome foe was the Rana of Mewar, Amar Singh who finally capitulated in 1613 AD to Khurram’s forces.
  • He was an honest man and a tolerant ruler.
  • He was believed to be a just king. He had attached a chain and bell to the gate of his palace in Agra to redress the grievance of the people.
  • He showed tolerance towards Hindus. He continued the matrimonial policy of his father to marry Rajput princesses.
  • This son of a philosopher King and a Rajput princess professed himself as a Muslim and restored the Mohammaden faith and Hijra Chronology (on coins) his father had abandoned.
  • Mughal gardens in Srinagar remain an enduring testimony to his artistic taste.
  • Jahangir considered his third son Prince Khurram (future Shah Jahan), his favorite. In 1622, Khurram murdered his blind older brother, Khusrau Mirza, in order to smooth his own path to the throne.
  • Sir Thomas Roe was England’s first ambassador to the Mughal court. Sir William Hawkins also visited Jahangir’s court in 1609.
  • Jahangir murdered the fifth Guru of the Sikhs Guru Arjan Singh.
  • Jahangir’s tomb located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the Ravi River.
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Interesting Fact:
Prince Salim was born to Akbar due to the blessing of the holy man Salim Chisti. Salim Chisti was one of the descendants of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti of Ajmer. Akbar named his son Salim with due respect to the holy saint.

Shah Jahan (1628-1658 A.D.)

  • Shah Jahan (Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram) was one of the most successful emperors of the Mughal Empire.
  • He was the fifth Mughal ruler after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir.
  • Shah Jahan was born in Lahore, Pakistan to Prince Salim (who later became Emperor Jahangir) and his Rajput wife from Marwar Princess Jagat Gosaini. Her official Mughal name was Bilqis Makani. Shah Jahan’s grandfather was Mughal Emperor Akbar.
  • After winning the war of succession post the demise of his father Jahangir, Shah Jahan successfully ruled the empire for 30 years.
  • During his reign, the Mughal Empire thrived, making his reign the golden era of the empire.
  • Though Shah Jahan was an able administrator and commander, he is best known for the construction of the Taj Mahal, which he built in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
  • Architecture, in general, saw the best of Mughal construction during his time. Shah Jahan’s Golden Period of Architecture in India
  • He is credited with constructing many beautiful monuments throughout the landscape of North India.
  • Shah Jahan is also the founder of Shahjahanabad in Delhi.
  • The exquisite ‘Peacock Throne’, which he got built for himself, is believed to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates.
  • During his final days, he was held captive by his son Aurangzeb, who went on to succeed him to the throne.
  • In 1607, the 15-year-old Khurram got engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum (Mumtaz Mahal). However, they got married in 1612.
  • He was married multiple times as was the custom. His favorite was said to be Arjumand Banu Begum who is better known as Mumtaz Mahal. She died during childbirth in 1631 and Shah Jahan was said to be depressed. He got the Taj Mahal built in her honor and perhaps, he is most famous for this architectural feat.
  • The following monuments were also constructed by Shah Jahan during his rule:
    Red Fort or Lal Quila (Delhi)Sections of the Agra Fort, Jama Masjid (Delhi), Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque (Lahore), Shalimar Gardens (Lahore), Sections of the Lahore Fort (Lahore), Jahangir Mausoleum, Takht-e-Taus, Shahjahan Mosque (Thatta)
  • He was married multiple times as was the custom. His favorite was said to be Arjumand Banu Begum who is better known as Mumtaz Mahal. She died during childbirth in 1631 and Shah Jahan was said to be depressed. He got the Taj Mahal built in her honor and perhaps, he is most famous for this architectural feat.
  • Shah Jahan was not as religiously tolerant as his grandfather Akbar. In 1633, he started imposing Sharia law on the construction of churches and temples.
  • He had several children including Dara Shukoh, Aurangzeb and Jahanara Begum among others. Although Dara Shukoh was the heir apparent and the emperor’s favored as his successor, Aurangzeb defeated and killed him in the succession struggle.
  • This war of succession had started even before Shah Jahan’s death. He had fallen ill in 1658 when the struggle started. Aurangzeb started ruling the empire and put Shah Jahan under house arrest at the Agra Fort after he had recovered.
  • He was confined to the fort for 8 years and he was accompanied and nursed by his daughter Jahanara Begum. He died on 22 January 1666 aged 74 years.
  • Tomb of Shah Jahan is located at Agra, which is nothing but Taj Mahal. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Shah Jahan also buried there.

Construction of The Taj Mahal
One of the most significant incidents in the life of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan was the construction of Taj Mahal. His beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to their fourteenth child and the reason behind her death was stated to be postpartum hemorrhage. This left Shah Jahan devastated who then decided to build the world’s most beautiful monument in the memory of his wife. After many years of planning, hard work, and immense sacrifices, the monument, which came to be known as the Taj Mahal was built. Today people from different parts of the world travel to India just to see this amazing white colored edifice, which is also one of the most, visited tourist destinations of India. Taj Mahal continues to be one of the Seven Wonders of the World!

Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD.)

  • He was the son of Mumtaz Mahal and Shahjahan. He was born in 1618 at Dahod near Ujjain.
  • His full name was Abul Muzaffar Mehi-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb.
  • Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India.
  • He was enthroned at Delhi in 1658 AD, after killing his brothers one by one.
  • He conquered and annexed the states of Bijapur and Golconda.
  • He banned music and stopped the custom of Jharokha Darshan.
  • In 1679, Aurangzeb reintroduced the jizya, a poll tax for non-Muslims that had been abolished by Akbar the Great a century earlier.
  • Aurangzeb appointed a very energetic general Bahadur Khan as the governor of the Deccan.
  • Aurangzeb set out for the Deccan in 1682 and spent 26 years of his life there.
  • He proved to be a very cruel and authoritarian ruler even though a highly capable warrior. His cruelty and discriminatory policies led the Marathas, Jats, Sikhs, and the Rajputs to rebel against him.
  • The tomb of Aurangzeb is located in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Points to Remember

  • In the medieval period’s rulers built private and public buildings like forts, palaces, tombs, temples, mosques, tanks, etc.
  • The purpose of such buildings was to show the concern for the welfare of the people and at the same time display the power and wealth of their patrons.
  • During the Sultanate period, new features were introduced like arches and decorative features like calligraphy, geometry, and arabesque.
  • Under the Mughals, a distinct style of architecture developed which was marked by the usage of red sandstone and marble and double-domed structure.
  • The noblest buildings during the Mughal period were built at Agra, Fatehpur Sikri and Delhi, Gardens were laid out in Delhi, Kashmir, and Lahore.
  • The most prolific builder amongst the Mughal was Shahjahan, who built a number of buildings including the Lal Qila and the Jama Masjid in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra.
  • Babur was the first Mughal king followed by Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb.
  • Stability was achieved only under Akbar who expanded his empire over the Indian subcontinent.
  • Akbar introduced new administrative measures like Mansabdari system and Jagirdari system.
  • Jahangir married Mehrunnisa in 1611 and bestowed her with the title ‘Nur Jahan’.
  • Under Aurangzeb, the Mughal empire expanded its territorial limits.
  • The process of decline of the Mughal empire set in at the time of Aurangzeb and new regional powers arose.

The decline of the Mughal Empire

  • The Great Mughal Empire declined and disintegrated during the first half of the 18th century.
  • The Mughal Emperors lost their power and glory and their empire shrank to a few square miles around Delhi.
  • In the end, in 1803, Delhi itself was occupied by the British army and the proud of Mughal Emperor was reduced to the status of a mere pensioner of a foreign power.
  • The decline of Mughal Empire reveals some of the defects and weaknesses of India’s medieval social, economic, and political structure which were responsible for the eventual subjugation of the country by the English East India Company.
  • The unity and stability of the Empire had been shaken up during the long and strong reign of Aurangzeb; yet in spite of his many harmful policies, the Mughal administration was still quite efficient and the Mughal army quite strong at the time of his death in 1707.
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)

Additional Notes

Sher Shah Suri

  • Shershah’s original name was Farid.
  • He was born in Hissar Firosa.
  • His father was Hassan Khan
  • His family came to India from Afghanistan.
  • He entered the service of Baharkhan Lohani of Behar from whom received the title of Sherkhan, for killing a lion single-handed.
  • Later he became a member of the Mughal court of Babur.
  • In 1539 by the battle of Chausa, Sherkhan defeated Humayun for the first time and assumed the name Shershah.
  • Later in 1540 he completely defeated Humayun in the battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dynasty.
  • While directing the operations of his artillery at Kalanjar against the ruler of Bundelkhand Raja Kirat Singh, Shershah was seriously wounded by a sudden fire from his own artillery and died on May 22, 1545.
  • Shershah constructed the Grand Trunk Road from Sohargaon to Attock (Calcutta to Amritsar)
  • He introduced the National Highway concept for the first time in India.
  • Now the Grand Trunk Road is known as Shershah Suri Marg. Its part from Delhi to Amritsar is known as National Highway -1.
  • Grand Trunk Road is also known Long Walk’.
  • He was the first ruler to introduce Silver Rupiya (one rupiya was equal to 64 dams) and gold coin Ashrafi.
  • He built the Purana Qila in Delhi (its Construction was started by Humayun) and his own Mausoleum (Tomb) at Sasaram in Bihar.
  • He also constructed the Khooni Darwaza (blood-stained gate) the gate way of Firozshah Kotla in Delhi.
  • Hindi poet Malik Muhammed Jayasi completed his Padmavat, during his reign.
  • His Revenue system was excellent and hence Akbar’s administrative reforms were modelled after him. He is regarded as the forerunner of Akbar.
  • Shershah was succeeded by his son Islam Shah. The last Sur ruler was Sikandar Shah Sur, who was defeated by Humayun in 1555 by the battle of Sirhind.

Objective Multiple Choice Questions on The Mughal Empire

  1. Who is the founder of Mughal Empire?
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  2. Babar came to India originally from
    (A) Ferghana
    (B) Khiva
    (C) Khorasan
    (D) Seistan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ferghana
  3. Babur laid the foundation of Mughal empire in 1526 by defeating
    (A) Daulat Khan Lodi
    (B) Ibrahim Lodi
    (C) Rana Sanga
    (D) Alauddin Khilji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ibrahim Lodi
  4. A great Mughal rulers who wrote his own memories is
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  5. Babar won the Battle of Panipat mainly because of
    (A) his cavalry
    (B) his military skill
    (C) Tulughma system
    (D) Both b & C
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Both b & C
  6. Where did Babar die?
    (A) Agra
    (B) Kabul
    (C) Lahore
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Agra
  7. Who amongst the following Mughals is regarded more as an adventurer than a ruler?
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  8. The tomb of Babar is at
    (A) Agra
    (B) Kabul
    (C) Lahore
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kabul
  9. The Battle of Khanwa was fought between
    (A) Babur & Hemu
    (B) Akbar & Rana Pratap
    (C) Babar & Sangram Singha
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Babar & Sangram Singha
  10. Babur conquered India as a result of which of the following wars?
    (A) Panipat
    (B) Khanwa
    (C) Samugarh
    (D) Ghagra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Samugarh
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  11. Who invited Babur to attack India
    (A) Ibrahim Lodi
    (B) Daulat Khan Lodi
    (C) Changez Khan
    (D) Taimur Langa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Daulat Khan Lodi
  12. Where was fought the first battle of Panipat
    (A) Haryana
    (B) Himachal Pradesh
    (C) Rajasthan
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Haryana
  13. When was fought the first battle of Panipat
    (A) 1526 AD
    (B) 1528 AD
    (C) 1562 AD
    (D) 1536 AD
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1526 AD
  14. Who came victorious after the end of first battle of Panipat?
    (A) Babur
    (B) Ibrahim Lodi
    (C) Changez Khan
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Babur
  15. Which ruler used the gun –powder for the first time in India
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  16. Which two important cities did Babur capture during first battle of Panipat?
    (A) Delhi & Agra
    (B) jaipur & Agra
    (C) Amritsar & Delhi
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Delhi & Agra
  17. When did Babur die?
    (A) 1530 AD
    (B) 1527 AD
    (C) 1562 AD
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1530 AD
  18. Where was Babur buried first?
    (A) Agra
    (B) Kabul
    (C) Lahore
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Agra
  19. The burial of Babur was shifted ultimately from Agra to which place?
    (A) Agra
    (B) Kabul
    (C) Lahore
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kabul
  20. After the victory of which battle Babur became the master of almost whole of northern India?
    (A) Battle of Ghagra
    (B) Battle of Panipat
    (C) Battle of Khanwa
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Battle of Ghagra
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Who gave the slogan of “Jihad” against Rana Sanga?
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  22. Which title Babur assumed after the victory of the battle of Khanwa?
    (A) Ghazi
    (B) Taimur
    (C) Sultan
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ghazi
  23. What is “TuZuk-e-Babri”?
    (A) Biography
    (B) Autobiography
    (C) Novel
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Autobiography
  24. “TuZuk-e-Babri” has written in which language?
    (A) Turkish
    (B) Persian
    (C) Urdu
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Turkish
  25. As which name also “TuZuk-e-Babri” is known?
    (A) Baburnama
    (B) Babar-e
    (C) Both A & B
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Baburnama
  26. Who translated the Baburnama in Persian language?
    (A) Abdulla Khan
    (B) Ataur Khan
    (C) Abdur Rahim Khan
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Abdur Rahim Khan
  27. Who built the Arambagh at Agra?
    (A) Akbar
    (B) Babar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Babar
  28. Who was appointed the in charge of maintenance work of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya by Babur?
    (A) Mir taqui
    (B) Nuruddin
    (C) Mir Abdulla
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mir taqui
  29. Where was Babur born?
    (A) Ferghana
    (B) Khiva
    (C) Khorasan
    (D) Seistan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ferghana
  30. When did Babur capture Kabul?
    (A) 1497
    (B) 1504
    (C) 1483
    (D) 1494
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1504
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  31. Name the empire form by Babur in India?
    (A) pathan
    (B) Mughal
    (C) Arab
    (D) Gupta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mughal
  32. Which city was called “gardens of Babur?
    (A) Kabul
    (B) Delhi
    (C) Agra
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kabul
  33. Who wrote the Babur Nama?
    (A) Babur
    (B) Akbar
    (C) Humayun
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Babur
  34. Which kingdom was conquered by Babur in 1528?
    (A) Chanderi
    (B) Gwalior
    (C) Baroda
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chanderi
  35. Whom did Babur defeat in the battle of Gharghara in 1529
    (A) Bahlol Lodi
    (B) Sikander Lodi
    (C) Mahmud Lodi (Afghan)
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mahmud Lodi (Afghan)
  36. Who fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi?
    (A) Medini Rai of Malwa
    (B) JKumar Rana of Chitor
    (C) Sangram Rana of Maratha
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Medini Rai of Malwa
  37. The name “Babur” is derived from the Persian word “Babr”.What does it mean?
    (A) Lion
    (B) Tiger
    (C) King
    (D) Fox
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Lion
  38. What was the real name of Babur?
    (A) Zahir ud-din Muhammad
    (B) jal –Ud –din Muhammad
    (C) Nur –ud – din Muhhammad
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Zahir ud-din Muhammad
  39. Whom did Babur defeat in the first battle of Panipat?
    (A) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
    (B) Md.Ghori
    (C) Peithviraj Chauhan
    (D) Ibrahim Lodi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ibrahim Lodi
  40. At the very young age of twelve, Babur succeeded his father at the Emperor of ______.
    (A) Farghana
    (B) Kabul
    (C) Umerkot
    (D) NONE
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Farghana
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  41. What was the name of Babur’s first wife
    (A) Aisha Sultan Begum
    (B) Zainab Sultan Begum
    (C) Masuma Sultan Begul
    (D) Maham Begum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Aisha Sultan Begum
  42. Who was Babur’s eldest son?
    (A) Akbbar
    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Samarkand
    (D) Humayun
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Humayun
  43. The Mansabdari system introduced by Akbar, was borrowed from the system in-
    (A) Turkey

    (B) Persia
    (C) Afghanistan
    (D) Mongolia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Mongolia
  44. Which of the following ports was the biggest port during the Mughal period?
    (A) Hoogly

    (B) Chittagong
    (C) Balasore
    (D) Surat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Surat
  45. During the Mughal period, under the Zabti system, land revenue was assessed and was required to be paid-
    (A) in cash or kind

    (B) only in cash
    (C) only in kind
    (D) by the Zamindar on the behalf of the peasants
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) in cash or kind
  46. Who consolidated the Mughal empire and gave it a unique multi-religious culture?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Humayun
    (C) Jahangir
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar
  47. In 1662 AD, Mir Jumla the Mughal Viceroy of Bengal led a successful expedition to-
    (A) Assam

    (B) Tibet
    (C) Orissa
    (D) Avadh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Assam
  48. The East India Company was founded in India during the reign of-
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jahangir
  49. When Akbar was young, his guardian was-
    (A) Hemu

    (B) Faizi
    (C) Abul Fazal
    (D) Bairam Khan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Bairam Khan
  50. The Sikh Guru who fought the Mughal was-
    (A) Guru Nanak

    (B) Guru Arjun Dev
    (C) Guru Gobind Singh
    (D) Guru Tegh Bahadur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Guru Gobind Singh
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  51. The court language of Mughals was-
    (A) Arabic

    (B) Persian
    (C) Urdu
    (D) Hindi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Persian
  52. The bitterest war of succession under the great Mughals was fought among the sons of-
    (A) Babur

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Shahjahan
  53. Babur won the battle of Panipat mainly because o f-
    (A) his cavalry

    (B) his military skill
    (C) Tulughma system
    (C) Afghan’s disunity
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) his military skill
  54. During the Mughal period, the in charge of law and order in the villages was-
    (A) Muqaddam

    (B) Patwari
    (C) Karkun
    (D) Quanung
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Muqaddam
  55. The capital of the Mughal empire was shifted from Agra to Delhi by-
    (A) Jahangir

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Shahjahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Shahjahan
  56. The Do-aspah Seh-aspah system was introduced by-
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar
  57. Akbar’s land revenue system was known as-
    (A) Bandobast system

    (B) Zabti system
    (C) Todarmal’s revenue system
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Zabti system
  58. Akbar assumed actual control over the administration of his empire in-
    (A) 1556

    (B) 1562
    (C) 1558
    (D) 1560
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1556
  59. Which Mughal emperor gave land for the construction of Golden Temple at Amritsar?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar
  60. Babur entered India for the first time from the west through-
    (A) Kashmir

    (B) Sindh
    (C) Punjab
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Punjab
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  61. In the Mughal administration, military recruitment was being looked after by-
    (A) Diwan

    (B) Wazir
    (C) Bakhshi
    (D) Kotwal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Bakhshi
  62. Which of the following Rajput dynasties did not surrender to Akbar?
    (A) Parmar

    (B) Pratihara
    (C) Rathor
    (D) Sisodia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Pratihara
  63. The bone of contention between the Shah of Persia and the Mughals was the control of-
    (A) Kabul

    (B) Qandhar
    (C) Ghazni
    (D) Kunduz
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Qandhar
  64. Shershah’s real name was-
    (A) Hemu

    (B) Faizi
    (C) Bahadur
    (D) Farid
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Farid
  65. Shershah made revenue settlement with-
    (A) Mansabdars

    (B) Cultivators
    (C) Zamindars
    (D) Jagirdars
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cultivators
  66. Who among the following Mughal emperors annexed Bijpur and Golkunda to the Mughal empire?
    (A) Jahangir

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Aurangzeb
  67. Who was the last Mughal emperor to sit on the peacock throne?
    (A) Bahadur Shah II

    (B) Mohammad Shah
    (C) Shah Alam II
    (D) Alamgir II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mohammad Shah
  68. The main object of introducing the Mansabdari system was to-
    (A) placate the nobility

    (B) improve the judicial administration
    (C) organize the army
    (D) improve the land revenue system
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) organize the army
  69. Which of the following Mughal emperors’ tomb is outside India?
    (A) Jahangir

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jahangir
  70. Which of the following forts was not built by Akbar?
    (A) Lahore Fort

    (B) Allahabad Fort
    (C) Gwalior Fort
    (D) Agra Fort
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gwalior Fort
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  71. The most famous musician at the court of Akbar was Tansen. His original name was-
    (A) Baz Bahadur

    (B) Makaranda Pande
    (C) Lai Kalwant
    (D) Ramtanu Pandey
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ramtanu Pandey
  72. Which art did Jahangir mainly patronise?
    (A) Sculpture

    (B) Architecture
    (C) Music
    (D) Painting
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Painting
  73. The first Mughal building to have been built entirely of marble is-
    (A) Akbar’s Mausoleum

    (B) Humayun’s Tomb
    (C) Itmad-ud-Daula’s Tomb
    (D) Taj Mahal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Humayun’s Tomb
  74. ‘Biwi Ka Maqbara’ is the tomb of-
    (A) Nurjahan

    (B) Aurangzeb’s wife
    (C) Humayun’s sister
    (D) Mumtaz Mahal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Aurangzeb’s wife Dilras Banu Begum
  75. The Upnishads were translated into Persian by the order of-
    (A) Abdur Rahim Khan-e-Khana

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Abul Fazal
    (D) Dara Shikoh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Dara Shikoh
  76. Tulsi Das Wrote Ramcharitmanas during the reign of-
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Rama Roy
    (D) Krishnadev Roy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar. Tulsidas was a contemporary of William Shakespeare
  77. Who among the following women wrote a historical account during the Mughal period?
    (A) Nurjahan

    (B) Gulbadan Begam
    (C) Jahanara Begam
    (D) Zaibun-Nisa Begam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gulbadan Begam
  78. Bernier visited India during the reign of-
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Aurangzeb
  79. The coin ‘Rupia’ was first issued by-
    (A) Sher Shah Suri

    (B) Alauddin Khilji
    (C) Akbar
    (D) Mohammad Bin Tughlaq
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Sher Shah Suri
  80. Among the following whose empire was the largest?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Aurangzeb
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  81. Who among the following was an able administrator for-
    (A) Babur

    (B) Sher Shah
    (C) Jahangir
    (D) Qutubuddin Aibak
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sher Shah
  82. During whose reign Mewar came to conclude peace treaty with Mughals?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Shahjhan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jahangir
  83. Why was Bairam Khan not popular with other Mughal nobles?
    (A) He was a Persian
    (B) He was a Shia and they were Sunnis
    (C) He was a Turqs
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) He was a Shia and they were Sunnis
  84. The range of the mansabs as organized by Akbar was —
    (A) 100 to 5000

    (B) 10 to 5000
    (C) 10 to 10000
    (D) 10 to 6000
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 10 to 10000
  85. Which of the following is incorrect?
    (A) As a result of Akbar’s treatment of the Rajputas they contributed richly to the military achievement of his reign
    (B) As a result of Akbar’s treatment of Rajputas they contributed to the administrative achievement of his reign
    (C) As a result of Akbar’s treatment of the Rajputas, the orthodox Muslim Ulema shed their religious dogmation and began to love the Hindus
    (D) As a result of Akbar’s treatment of the Rajputas, the Ranapratap could not mobilise the support of the Rajputas against the Mughals
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) As a result of Akbar’s treatment of the Rajputas, the orthodox Muslim Ulema shed their religious dogmation and began to love the Hindus
  86. Who was “Chin Qilich Khan”?
    (A) He was a general of Babur
    (B) He was a provincial governor under Aurangazeb
    (C) He was the first independent Nawab of Bengal
    (D) He was the governor of Mughal Deccan Area
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) He was the governor of Mughal Deccan Area
  87. Which of the following about the duties of the Dewan in the time of Akbar is correct?
    (A) He posted news-writers and spices in different provinces.

    (B) He recommended the appointment of provincial dewans and guided and controlled them
    (C) All orders of appointment to Mansabs of all ranks passed through his office
    (D) He gave authoritative ruling ion conflicting interpretations of Shara
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) He recommended the appointment of provincial dewans and guided and controlled them
  88. Din-a-Ilahi was introduced by Akbar in—
    (A) 1575A.D.

    (B) 1579A.D.
    (C) 1582A.D.
    (D) 1585AD.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1582A.D.
  89. Who said “Those men who have a strong dislike for paintings, I have a strong dislike for them”?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Babar
    (C) Jahangir
    (D) Shah Jahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jahangir
  90. The Humayun tomb got constructed by—
    (A) Humayun

    (B) Akbar
    (C) His widow
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) His widow
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  91. Who was the Mughal Emperor at the time of Nadir Shah’s attack?
    (A) Rafi-ud-darjat

    (B) Muhammad Shah
    (C) Ahmad Shah
    (D) Alamgir II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Muhammad Shah
  92. Who built Jama Masjid at Delhi?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Shah Jahan
    (C) Nur Jahan
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Shah Jahan
  93. What according to Jadunath Sarkar was the reason for the downfall of Aurangzeb?
    (A) Religious policy

    (B) Military helpless
    (C) Rajput policy
    (D) Shivaji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Military helpless
  94. Who was famous for laying many gardens?
    (A) Babur

    (B) Humayun
    (C) Akbar
    (D) Jahangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Jahangir
  95. Akbar discontinued the debates in the Ibadat Khana in—
    (A) 1580

    (B) 1582
    (C) 1581
    (D) 1583
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1582
  96. ‘Fatwa-i-Alamgiri’ is a book on—
    (A) Digest of Muslim Law under Aurangzeb’s supervision

    (B) Religious decrees of Aurangzeb
    (C) Aurangzeb‘s autobiography
    (D) Law decrees of Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Digest of Muslim Law under Aurangzeb’s supervision
  97. Which Mughal ruler hated people who hated paintings?
    (A) Jahangir

    (B) Shah Jahan
    (C) Aurangzeb
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jahangir
  98. Who among the following was the author of Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri?
    (A) Emperor Jahangir

    (B) Muhammad Hadi
    (C) Muhamid Khan
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Emperor Jahangir
  99. Who introduced the Rank of ‘Zat and Sawar’?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Shah Jahan
    (D) Jahangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar
  100. Dahsala system was introduced by—
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Farrukhsiyar
    (D) Shah Jahan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Akbar
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  101. Which were the two kingdoms conquerred by Akbar?
    (A) Khandesh and Bijapur

    (B) Bijapur and Ahmednagar
    (C) Ahmednagar
    (D) Berar and Ahmednagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Ahmednagar
  102. The land revenue in Mughal India was a—
    (A) Tax on land

    (B) Share in the produce
    (C) Tax on cultivator
    (D) Tax on the owner of the land
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Share in the produce
  103. Who united all the sikhs and founded a kingdom in Punjab?
    (A) Guru Teg Bahadur

    (B) Maharaja Ranjit Singh
    (C) Guru Nanak
    (D) Guru Gobind Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  104. Who among the following was the first Mughal Emperor to allow Britishers to establish trade links with India?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Shahjehan
    (D) Jehangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Jehangir
  105. Which of the following is wrongly matched with his contemporary Mughal King ?
    (A) Jujhar Singh-Shahjehan

    (B) Jaswant Singh-Aurangzeb
    (C) Prithvi Raj Chauhan-Akbar
    (D) Rana Sanga-Babar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Prithvi Raj Chauhan-Akbar
  106. The capital of the Mughal Empire was shifted from Agra to Delhi by
    (A) Jehangir

    (B) Humayun
    (C) Aurangzeb
    (D) Shahjehan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Shahjehan
  107. The Peacock Throne was made for
    (A) Aurangzeb

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Shahjehan
    (D) Jehangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Shahjehan
  108. The East India Company was founded in India during the region of
    (A) Jehangir

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Shahjehan
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Akbar
  109. The capital of the kingdom of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was
    (A) Amritsar

    (B) Kapurthala
    (C) Lahore
    (D) Patiala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Lahore
  110. During the decline of Mughal empire the Jats were organised into a political force by
    (A) Badan Singh

    (B) Rajaram
    (C) Suraj Mal
    (D) Churaman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Badan Singh
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  111. During Sher Shah’s reign, the document containing the information of the tax that the farmer had to pay was called
    (A) Jaribana
    (B) Patta
    (C) Muhaslana
    (D) Quabuliat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Patta
  112. Revenue system during Akbar’s riegn was in the hands of
    (A) Todar Mal

    (B) Birbal
    (C) Bairam Khan
    (D) Man Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Todar Mal
  113. During the reign of which of the following emperors was the artillery most perfect and numerous ?
    (A) Shahjehan

    (B) Jahangir
    (C) Aurangzeb
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Aurangzeb
  114. The Sikh Guru was killed by the orders of Aurangzeb was
    (A) Guru Ram Das

    (B) Guru Gobind Singh
    (C) Guru Arjun Dev
    (D) Guru Teg Bahadur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Guru Teg Bahadur
  115. Akbar founded the Din-I-Ilahi primarily to
    (A) Establish a national religion which would be acceptable to the Muslims and the Hindus

    (B) Form a religious club
    (C) Put an end to differences between the Hindus and the Muslims
    (D) Ensure racial and communal harmony
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Establish a national religion which would be acceptable to the Muslims and the Hindus
  116. The Sikh Khalsa was founded by
    (A) Guru Teg Bahadur

    (B) Guru Hargobind
    (C) Guru Nanak
    (D) Guru Gobind Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Guru Gobind Singh
  117. The British allowed Ranjit Singh to rule over the territories west of the Satluj because
    (A) He proved to be a faithful ally

    (B) They needed his help in conquering Afghanistan
    (C) He was amenable to British pressure
    (D) They were afraid of his French trend army
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: They were afraid of his French trend army
  118. Who was the last Mughal Emperor to sit on the peacock throne ?
    (A) Muhammad Shah

    (B) Shah Alam II
    (C) Bahadur Shah Zafar
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Muhammad Shah
  119. Who among the following Mughal rulers was ignorant of the art of reading and writing?
    (A) Humayun
    (B) Jehangir
    (C) Akbar
    (D) Barber
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Akbar
  120. Which of the following statements about Akbar is incorrect ?
    (A) He founded a new religion Din-I-Ilahi

    (B) He maintained goods relations with Rajputs
    (C) He was a benavolent ruler
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: None of these
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  121. The birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh is
    (A) Patna

    (B) Fatehgarh Sahib
    (C) Amritsar
    (D) Anandpur Sahib
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Patna
  122. The Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah II was exiled by British and sent to
    (A) Hyderabad

    (B) Rangoon
    (C) Mandalay
    (D) Andaman and Nicobar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Rangoon
  123. Din-I-Ilahi was accepted by
    (A) Raja Mansingh

    (B) Todarmal
    (C) Birbal
    (D) Tansen
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Birbal
  124. The first Mughal Emperor to issue a firman in favour of the British to open a factory at Surat was
    (A) Shahjehan

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Jehangir
    (D) Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Jehangir
  125. The Jaziya was abolished by
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Sher Shah
    (C) Muhammad bin Tughlaq
    (D) Barbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Akbar
  126. Which of the following contemporary sources of the Mughal period is especially useful for obtaining the information on the agrarian condition?
    (A) Ain-i-Akbari
    (B) Tuzuk-i-Baburi
    (C) Akbarnamah
    (D) Tariksh-i-Firishta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Ain-i-Akbari
  127. He left behind him an enemy still unsubdued, a minor son and a mercenary army. This descriptiongiven by Kennedy fits
    (A) Sher shah
    (B) Jehangir
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Barbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Humayun
  128. Which Mughal ruler had the Chain of Justice fastened up which could be shaken by his subjects to bring their grievances to his notice?
    (A) Jehangir
    (B) Shahjehan
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Jehangir
  129. Sher Shah is created for introducing for the first time the following measure except
    (A) Currency system

    (B) Kland revenue system based on scientific principles.
    (C) Postal system
    (D) Spy system
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Currency system
  130. Which of the following statements about Ranjit Singh is incorrect ?
    (A) He organised an excellent fighting army

    (B) He posed a great challenge and resistance to the british
    (C) He was a succesful administrator
    (D) He wanted to form a separate Sikh state
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: He posed a great challenge and resistance to the british
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  131. Sikh Guru Arjun Dev was killed during the reign of
    (A) Humayun

    (B) Shah Jahan
    (C) Akbar
    (D) Jehangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Jehangir
  132. The Mughal Emperor, who died due to a sudden fall from the staircase, was
    (A) Humayun

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Babar
    (D) Jehangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Humayun
  133. Which Mughal ruler was the most secular in outlook?
    (A) Babar

    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Humayun
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Akbar
  134. Which Mughal emperor gave land for the construction of the Golden Temple at Amritsar?
    (A) Aurangzeb
    (B) Akbar
    (C) Jehangir
    (D) Shahjehan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Akbar
  135. Who among the following was regarded as Zinda Pir?
    (A) Akbar

    (B) Jehangir
    (C) Aurangzeb
    (D) Babar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Aurangzeb
  136. Before the rise of Ranjit Singh, Punjab was under the control of
    (A) Sikh Misls

    (B) Maratha Commanders
    (C) Raider Groups
    (D) Tribal Chief
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Maratha Commanders
  137. During Aurangzeb’s reign, which of the following were not included in the Government?
    (A) Marathas
    (B) All of the above
    (C) Rajputs
    (D) Pathans
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Marathas
    [/su_spoiler]
  138. Din-e-Ilahi of Akbar was not a success because
    (A) All the Above

    (B) Through it was a collection of good principles in different religions, it was not suitably projected to the masses
    (C) After Akbar, it was not patronised
    (D) The Muslim did not accept other religious practise
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Through it was a collection of good principles in different religions, it was not suitably projected to the masses
  139. Chand Bibi who ceded Berar to Akbar was the ruler of
    (A) Ahmednagar

    (B) Bijapur
    (C) Golconda
    (D) Bahmani
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Ahmednagar
  140. Which of the following pairs was incorrect?
    (A) Bairam Khan – Akbar
    (B) Amir Khusrau – Jahangir
    (C) Jaswant Singh – Aurangzeb
    (D) Ambar Malik – Humayun
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Ambar Malik – Humayun
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  141. Which Sikh Guru laid the foundation of the city of Amritsar?
    (A) Guru Nanak

    (B) Guru Gobind Singh
    (C) Guru Arjun Dev
    (D) Guru Ramdas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Guru Ramdas
  142. Which of the following statements about Din-I-Ilahi is not correct?
    (A) It was a synthesis of all various religion known to Akbar
    (B) None of these
    (C) It was designed to cement the diverse communities in India
    (D) It was patronised by other Mongol rulers
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: It was patronised by other Mongol rulers
  143. In 1809, Maharaja Ranjit Singh signed a treaty with
    (A) Shah Alam

    (B) Ruler of Sindh
    (C) King of Kashmir
    (D) East India Company
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: East India Company
  144. Which of the following causes was not responsible for the downfall of Mughal Empire ?
    (A) Religious policy of Aurangzeb

    (B) Revolts in various provinces of the empire
    (C) Mansabdari system
    (D) Deccan policy of Aurangzeb
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Mansabdari system
  145. Who installed the Chain of Justice?
    (A) Jehangir

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Babar
    (D) Humayun
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Jehangir
  146. Maharaja Ranjit Singh signed a treaty of perpetual friendship with the British in the year 1809 at
    (A) Ferozpur

    (B) Ludhiana
    (C) Faridkot
    (D) Amritsar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Amritsar
  147. Akbar has been called the First national King, mainly because of
    (A) Was highly tolerant and secular in his outlook

    (B) Provided an efficient government to the people
    (C) Was a great administrator
    (D) Established a new religion Din-i-Ilahi.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Was highly tolerant and secular in his outlook
  148. The designation Amil in Akbar’s time meant
    (A) Scared Law

    (B) Sacred book
    (C) Revenue officers
    (D) Custom officers
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Revenue officers
  149. The king generally considered to be the greatest ruler of Kashmir in the 15th century was
    (A) Shah Mirza

    (B) Zain-ul-Abidin
    (C) Yusuf Shah
    (D) Haider Shah
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Zain-ul-Abidin
  150. All of the following Rajput rulers acknowledged the Mughal sway in the second half of 16th century, except the ruler of
    (A) Bikaner
    (B) Jaisalmer
    (C) Amber
    (D) Mewar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Mewar
    The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ)
  151. The Misl of which Ranjit Singh was the leader, was
    (A) Ramgarhia

    (B) Sukerchakia
    (C) Ahluwalia
    (D) Phulkia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Sukerchakia
  152. Aurangzeb attack Bijapur and Golconda because
    (A) Aurangzeb was an orthodox Sunni and the ruler of Bijapur and Golconda were Shia Muslim

    (B) Ruler of Bijapur and Golconda were weak and as such if offered easy takeover
    (C) Bijapur and Golconda were supporting Marathas
    (D) Of Aurangzeb’s policy of expansion and to consolidate his supremacy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: Of Aurangzeb’s policy of expansion and to consolidate his supremacy
  153. Humayun Nama was written by
    (A) Humayun

    (B) Akbar
    (C) Abul Fazl
    (D) Gulbadan Begum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Gulbadan Begum
  154. Humayun had to run away from India after he was defeated in the battle of
    (A) Panipat

    (B) Ghagra
    (C) Khanwa
    (D) Kannauj
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Kannauj
  155. Who among the following was the last Mughal Emperor?
    (A) Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II

    (B) Shah Alam
    (C) Muhammad Shah
    (D) Alamgir II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bahadur Shah Zafar or Bahadur Shah II

Mughal Empire Short Questions and Answers

  1. At what age did Babur succeed to the throne of Farghana in Trans Oxiana?
    Answer:
    At the minor age of Twelve (Year 1494 )
  2. Who sent an ambassador to Babur and invited him to displace Ibrahim Lodi in India?
    Answer:
    Daulat Khan Lodi sent his son Dilawar Khan; Probably a messenger from Rana Sanga also arrived.
  3. When was the First Battle of Panipat fought?
    Answer:
    20th April, 1526; Between Babur and Ibrahim Lodi.
  4. Which gun device was used by Babur in the First Battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodi?
    Answer:
    Ottoman (Rumi) Device
  5. During which Battle did Babur declared Jihad and assume the title of Ghazi in India?
    Answer:
    Battle of Khanwa (1527) against Rana Sanga
  6. Babur enjoyed the prestige of being the descendant of which two famous Asian warriors?
    Answer:
    Changez Khan(on mother’s side) and Timur(on father’s side)
  7. Tuzuk-i-baburi, the autobiography of Babur was written in which language?
    Answer:
    Chagtai Turkic
  8. When was the First attack of Babur in India?
    Answer:
    Bajaur in 1519.
  9. Which Mughal King popularised the use of Gun Powder and artillery in India?
    Answer:
    Babur
  10. Who built a new city of Dinpanah at Delhi?
    Answer:
    Humayun
  11. Which Rajput Queen sent a rakhi to Humayun when Bahadur shah of Gujarat attacked Chittor?
    Answer:
    Rani Karnavati
  12. Which fort was known as the gateway of Eastern India?
    Answer:
    Fort of Chunar
  13. Who commanded the regions of Kabul and Qandhar during Humayun’s reign?
    Answer:
    Humayun’s younger brother Kamran
  14. Which Mughal monument marked a new beginning in the style of architecture in north India with the Dome made of marble as it’s most remarkable feature?
    Answer: Humayun’s Tomb
  15. Who became the wakil of Mughal kingdom during the initial years of Akbar’s reign?
    Answer:
    Bairam Khan
  16. Bairam Khan rallied the Mughal forces under which title?
    Answer:
    Khan-i-khanan
  17. When was the second battle of Panipat fought?
    Answer:
    5 November 1556
  18. Where did Akbar saw the sea for the first time?
    Answer:
    At Cambay in Gujarat
  19. Which Mughal Emperor instituted a new system of land revenue viz. Dahsala in the kingdom?
    Answer:
    Akbar (In 1580 AD)
  20. What were the names given to cultivated land and uncultivated land during Mughal era?
    Answer:
    Polaj (Cultivated) , Parati (Fallow)
  21. How many categories were there in every rank (Mansab)?
    Answer:
    Three Categories
  22. Even though Mansabdari system under Akbar was distinct in the world, perhaps it’s origins can be traced back to which king?
    Answer:
    Changez Khan, he organised the army on a decimal
  23. The territories of the Mughal kingdom were divided into which categories?
    Answer:
    Jagir, Khalisa, Inam
  24. Who was the head of the revenue department under Mughal administration?
    Answer:
    Wazir
  25. Who was the head of the military department and intelligence under Mughal administration?
    Answer:
    Mir Bakshi
  26. Who were the Barids and Waqia-navis in Mughal administration?
    Answer:
    Intelligence officers and News Reporters, respectively
  27. Which officer was in charge of the imperial household in Mughal administration?
    Answer:
    Mir Saman
  28. Which department was headed by chief qazi in Mughal administration?
    Answer:
    Judicial Department
  29. Jazia, a tax which was levied on non muslims, was abolished by Emperor Akbar in which year?
    Answer:
    1564 AD
  30. Who built Ibadat Khana/Hall of Prayer in Fatehpur Sikri?
    Answer:
    Emperor Akbar
  31. Which missionaries came to Akbar’s court from Goa and stayed here for a period of three years?
    Answer:
    Aquaviva and Monserrate
  32. Emperor Akbar implemented the policy of ‘Sulh-i-Kul’, what is the literal meaning of it?
    Answer:
    Peace with all
  33. Who wrote Humayun-Nama the biography of Mughal king Humayun?
    Answer:
    Gulbadan Begum
  34. Who visited Jahangir’s court as an ambassador to James I, the king of Britain?
    Answer:
    Sir Thomas Roe
  35. Which port of Gujarat was known as the Gate of Makka (Babul Makka) in Mughal times?
    Answer:
    Surat
  36. Which Mughal prince emerged victorious in the Battle of Dharmat?
    Answer:
    Aurangzeb (15 April 1658)
  37. Where did East India Company establish their first factory with the permission of Mughal Emperor Jahangir?
    Answer:
    Surat
  38. The peasants who owned the land they tilled were called?
    Answer:
    Khudkashi
  39. Mention the cash crops that were cultivated during the Mughal era.
    Answer:
    Cotton, Indigo, Sugarcane, oilseeds, etc.
  40. Coins were made of which metal in the Mughal era?
    Answer:
    Silver
  41. Which Mughal garden exists in Kashmir even today?
    Answer:
    Nishant Bagh
  42. Which monument was built by Akbar as a memento of his victory in Gujarat?
    Answer:
    Buland Darwaza
  43. Which Mughal king died by a sudden fall from the staircase?
    Answer:
    Humayun
  44. Which Mughal king started a new religion named Din-e-Ilahi?
    Answer:
    Akbar
  45. The practice of building a structure entirely of marble and to decorate the walls in floral designs with precious stones is called?
    Answer:
    Pietra Dura
  46. The largest number of books on classical Indian music in Persian was written during the rule of which Mughal king?
    Answer:
    Aurangzeb
  47. Who was given the status of First Lady of the kingdom by Emperor Aurangzeb?
    Answer:
    Jahanara, daughter of Shah Jahan
  48. Mughal art of painting reached it’s zenith during the rule of which Mughal king?
    Answer:
    Jahangir
  49. Which Mughal king was referred to as ‘Zinda Pir’ / ‘a living saint’?
    Answer:
    Aurangzeb
  50. Which officers were appointed by Aurangzeb to see whether people live their lives as per the shara?
    Answer:
    Muhtasibs
  51. Which Mughal Emperor discontinued the practice of Jharokha Darshan (showing himself to public from the balcony)?
    Answer: Aurangzeb
  52. Which artists are credited with the genesis of Mughal School of miniature painting?
    Answer:
    Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan
  53. Hamza Nama and Tuti Nama, the most decorated work in Mughal Painting were made during the rule of which Mughal king?
    Answer:
    Akbar
  54. Who are the only two emperors of the Mughal Emperor who wrote their biographies?
    Answer:
    Babur and Jahangir
  55. Padshah nama written by Abdul Hamid Lahori, gives a detailed account of which Mughal king?
    Answer:
    Shah Jahan
  56. Ustad Isa is accredited as the architect of which Mughal monument?
    Answer:
    Taj Mahal
  57. The Mughal Empire expanded its territories to its peak during whose reign?
    Answer:
    Aurangzeb
  58. Which Persian garden style was adopted by Mughals in monument architecture?
    Answer:
    Charbagh Style
  59. Who defeated Malva’s ruler Medani Roy in the battle of Chanderi?
    Answer:
    Babur
  60. In which battle, Humayun completely lost against Sher Shah?
    Answer:
    Battle of Bilgram (1540)
  61. Where did Bairam Khan coronate Akbar?
    Answer:
    Kalnaur
  62. Akbar installed the statues of which Rajput commanders for their bravery after the siege of Mewar?
    Answer:
    Jaymala and Fatehsingh
  63. Who translated Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Persian?
    Answer:
    Abdur Rahim Khan i Khana
  64. Who was the only luminary of Akbar’s court to accept Din-e-Ilahi?
    Answer:
    Birbal
  65. Which Mughal King introduced Do-Aspa and Si-Aspa system in Mansabdari?
    Answer:
    Jahangir
  66. Which Mughal king brought Kabul and Kandhar under Indian Empire only after Kushanas?
    Answer:
    Babur
  67. Which Mughal Emperor forbade the inscription of kalma on coins?
    Answer:
    Aurangzeb
  68. Sher Shah Suri initially served in the army of Mughals under which King?
    Answer:
    Babur
  69. Where was Akbar born?
    Answer:
    Amarkot
  70. Who were the hereditary owners of land during the reign of Akbar?
    Answer:
    Qanungo
  71. What was the real name of Sher Shah Suri?
    Answer:
    Farid
  72. Why did Sher Shah Shah get the title of ‘Sher Khan’ from his the then patron Bahar Khan Lohani?
    Answer:
    For Killing a tiger
  73. What was the extent of Sher Shah Suri’s empire?
    Answer:
    From Bengal to Indus (Except Kashmir)
  74. During which campaign, Sher Shah Suri got severely wounded due to the bursting of the gun and subsequently died of it?
    Answer: Siege of Kalinjer in 1545
  75. Who was the royal historian of Sher Shah Suri?
    Answer:
    Abbas Khan Sarwani
  76. Under whose rule, the roads and sarais came to be known as ‘the arteries of the
    empire’?
    Answer:
    Sher Shah Suri
  77. What was the share of the state in the land revenue during Sher Shah Suri’s reign?
    Answer:
    one-third of the produce
  78. Where is the tomb of Sher Shah Suri?
    Answer:
    Sasaram, Bihar
  79. Which Suri king restored the Grand Trunk Road from Indus to Sonargaon in Bengal?
    Answer:
    Sher Shah Suri
  80. Which silver coin was introduced by Sher Shah, which was also used by subsequent Mughal kings?
    Answer:
    Rupia
  81. The area under cultivation, the types of crops, and revenue share was written on paper in Sur administration. What was this system known as?
    Answer:
    Patta System
  82. When did Sher Shah say that ‘for a few grains of millet I almost lost the entire empire of India’.
    Answer:
    After the Battle of Giri Sumel (1544)
  83. Who originally introduced the Ryotwari system?
    Answer:
    Sher Shah Suri
  84. Rohtas fort in Pakistan was built during the rule of?
    Answer:
    Sher Shah Suri
  85. Which copper currency was issued by Sher Shah Suri?
    Answer:
    Dam
  86. How Babur was related with Taimur and Changez Khan?
    Answer:
    Babur was a Chagtai Turk. He was descended on his father’s side from Taimur and on his mother’s side with Changez Khan.
  87. Who invited Babur to attack India?
    Answer:
    Babur was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodi the governor of Lahore and the ruler of Mewar Rana Sanga.
  88. When and where the first battle of Panipat was fought?
    Answer:
    In 1526 AD, the first battle of Panipat was fought in the field of Panipat in Haryana.
  89. Who came victorious after the end of first battle of Panipat?
    Answer:
    In this battle Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi and became
  90. Who laid the foundation of Mughal empire in India?
    Answer:
    After defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat Babur laid the foundation of Mughal empire in India.
  91. Which famous battle-strategy did Babur use in the first battle of Panipat ?
    Answer:
    Ottoman (Rumi) device.
  92. Who were the famous master-gunners who fought first battle of Panipat for Babur?
    Answer:
    They were Ustad Ali and Mustafa.
  93. Which ruler used the gun-powder for the first time in India?
    Answer:
    Babur, in the first battle of Panipat.
  94. Where was the capital of Babur?
    Answer:
  95. Which two important cities did Babur capture during first battle of Panipat?
    Answer:
    Delhi and Agra.
  96. Who fought the battle of Khanwa and when?
    Answer:
    The Rajput ruler of Mewar Rana Sanga and Babur fought in the battle of Khanwa on 16th March, 1527 AD. Babur defeated him badly.
  97. Between whom the battle of Chanderi was fought and when?
    Answer:
    Between the Mughal ruler Babur and the Rajput chief Medini Rai. Babur defeated Medini Rai in the battle of Chanderi in 1528 AD and he captured the fort of Malwa.
  98. Between whom and when the battle of Ghagra was fought?
    Answer:
    Between Mughal ruler Babur and the Afghans of Bihar and Bengal in 1529 AD. Babur defeated Afghans in the battle of Ghagra,
  99. After the victory of which battle Babur became the master of almost whole of northern India?
    Answer:
    Battle of Ghagra.
  100. Who gave the Slogan of ‘Jihad’ against Rana Sanga?
    Answer:
    Babur

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