Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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The period between the 1st century B.C. to the end of 2nd century A.D. in Southern India is known as Sangam Period. It has been named after the Sangam academies during that period.

According to the Tamil legends, there were three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) held in the ancient South India popularly called Muchchangam. These Sangams flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.

  1. The First Sangam is believed to be held at Madurai, attended by gods and legendary sages. No literary work of this Sangam is available.
  2. The second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram, only Tolkappiyam survives from this.
  3. The Third Sangam at Madurai was founded by Mudathirumaran. A few of these Tamil literary works have survived and are a useful sources to reconstruct the history of the Sangam period.

Sangam Literature

The Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and two epics named – Silappathigaram and Manimegalai .

  1. Tolkappiyam was authored by Tolkappiyar, it is considered the earliest of Tamil literary work. Though it is a work on Tamil grammar but it also provides insights on the political and socio-economic conditions of the time.
  2. Ettutogai (Eight Anthologies) consist of eight works – Aingurunooru, Narrinai, Aganaooru, Purananooru, Kuruntogai, Kalittogai, Paripadal and Padirruppattu.
  3. The Pattuppattu (Ten Idylls) consist of ten works – Thirumurugarruppadai, Porunararruppadai, Sirupanarruppadai, Perumpanarruppadai, Mullaippattu, Nedunalvadai, Maduraikkanji, Kurinjippatttu, Pattinappalai  and  Malaipadukadam .
  4. Pathinenkilkanakku contains eighteen works about ethics and morals. The most important among these works is Tirukkural authored by Thiruvalluvar, the tamil great poet and philosopher. 
  5. The two epics Silappathigaram is written by Elango Adigal and Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar. They also provide valuable details about the Sangam society and polity.

Other Sources that give details about the Sangam Period are –

  1. the Greek authors like Megasthenes, Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy mentioning about commercial trade contacts between the West and South India.
  2. Also, the Ashokan inscriptions mention about the Chera, Chola and Pandya rulers to the south of Mauryan empire.
  3. Another inscription, Hathikumbha inscription of Kharavela of Kalinga also has mention of Tamil kingdoms.

Political History of Sangam Period

The area lying to the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra is called South India. During the Sangam Age, it was ruled by three dynasties-the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas. The main source of information about these kingdoms is  traced from the literary references of Sangam Period.

Cheras

The Cheras had their rule over major parts of modern Kerala/ malabar areas.

  • The capital of Cheras was Vanji and their important seaports were Tondi and Musiri.
  • They had the palmyra flowers as their garland.
  • The insignia of Cheras is the” bow and arrow”.
  • The Pugalur inscription of the 1st century AD has reference to three generations of Chera rulers. 
  • The important ruler of Cheras was Senguttuvan who belonged to 2nd century A.D.
  • His military achievements have been chronicled in epic Silapathikaram, with details about his expedition to the Himalayas where he defeated many north Indian rulers.
  • Senguttuvan introduced the Pattini cult or the worship of Kannagi as the ideal wife in Tamil Nadu.
  • He was the first to send embassy to China from South India.

Cholas

The Chola kingdom in the Sangam period extended from Northern Tamil Nadu to southern Andhra Pradesh.

  • Their capital was firstly at Uraiyur and later shifted to Puhar(Tanjore).
  • King Karikala was a famous king of the Sangam Cholas.
  • The insignia of Cholas was “tiger”.
  • Pattinappalai portrays his life and military conquests.
  • Many Sangam Poems mention the Battle of Venni where he defeated the confederacy of Cheras, Pandyas and eleven minor chieftains.
  • He also fought at Vahaipparandalai in which nine enemy chieftains submitted before him.
  • Hence, Karikala’s military achievements made him the overlord of the whole Tamil country.
  • Therefore, Trade and commerce flourished during his reign.
  • He also built irrigation tanks near river Kaveri to provide water for reclaimed land from forest for cultivation.

Pandyas

The Pandyas ruled over the present day southern Tamil Nadu.

  • Their capital was Madurai.
  • Their insignia was the “carp”.
  • King Neduncheliyans also known as Aryappadai Kadantha Neduncheliyan. He ordered the execution of Kovalan. The curse of Kovalan’s wife-Kannagi burnt and destroyed Madurai.
  • Maduraikkanji was written by Mangudi Maruthanar which describes the socio-economic condition of the flourishing seaport of Korkai.

Sangam Polity and administration

During the Sangam period hereditary monarchy was the form of government. Each of the dynasties of Sangam age had a royal emblem – tiger for the Cholas, carp for the Pandyas, and bow for the Cheras.

  • The king was assisted by a wide body of officials who were categorised into five councils.
  • They were ministers (amaichar), priests (anthanar), envoys (thuthar), military commanders (senapathi), and spies (orrar).
  • The military administration was efficiently organized with each ruler a regular army was associated.
  • The chief source of state’s income was Land revenue while a custom duty was also imposed on foreign trade.
  • Major source of fulfilling the royal treasury was the booty captured in wars.
  • The roads and highways were maintained and guarded to prevent robbery and smuggling.

Position of Women during the Sangam Age

A lot of information is available in the Sangam literature to understand the position of women during the Sangam age.

  • There were women poets like Avvaiyar, Nachchellaiyar, and Kakkaipadiniyar who flourished and contributed to Tamil literature.
  • Love marriage was a common practice and women were allowed to choose their life partners.
  • But, life of widows was miserable.
  • There is also a mention about the practice of Sati being prevalent in the higher strata of society.

The economy of the Sangam Age

  • Agriculture was the chief occupation where rice was the most common crop.
  • The handicraft included weaving, metal works and carpentry, ship building and making of ornaments using beads, stones and ivory.
  • These were in great demand of all above products in the internal and external trade as this was at its peak during the Sangam period.
  • A high expertise was attained in spinning and weaving of cotton and silk clothes. Various poems mention of cotton clothes as thin as a cloud of steam or like a slough of snake. These were in great demand in the western world especially for the cotton clothes woven at Uraiyur.
  • The port city of Puhar became an important place of foreign trade, as big ships entered this port containing  precious goods.
  • Other significant ports of commercial activity were Tondi, Musiri, Korkai, Arikkamedu and Marakkanam.
  • Many gold and silver coins that were issued by the Roman Emperors like Augustus, Tiberius and Nero have been found in all parts of Tamil Nadu indicating flourishing trade.
  • Major exports of the Sangam age were cotton fabrics and spices like pepper, ginger, cardamom, cinnamon and turmeric along with ivory products, pearls and precious stones.
  • Major imports for the traders were horses, gold, and sweet wine.

Revision Notes on Sangam Age

  • In the Sangam age, the most common form of Government was hereditary monarchy. The village was the fundamental unit of administration.
  • Tradition refers to three number of Sangam lasting for 9,900 years.
  • Language of the Sangam literature was Tamil. The people of Sangam Age mainly worshipped Murugam.
  • Tholkappiyam is a book on a Tamil Grammar.
  • A third Tamil epic is Jivakachintamani written by Tirutakkadevar.
  • Madurai was the Capital of the Panya.
  • Uraiyur was the capital of Cholas known for cotton trade.
  • Venji was the Capital of Cheras.
  • The word Sangam means a college or Assembly. The three Sangams were held at Teen-Madurai, Kapatpuram and Madurai.
  • Korkai was the main seaport of the Pandyas.
  • Magasthenes described Pandya kingdom as ‘Pearl’ as it was ruled by women.
  • Kaveripatnam was the main port of Cholas.
  • Tolkappiyam, the early Tamil grammar text, written by Tolkappiyar, the disciple of Agastya deals with Tamil grammar of Aham(Love) and Puram(war).
  • Tirukkural, the Bible of Tamil was compiled by Tiruvalluvar.
  • Rudrasarman complied Agananuru, which consists of 400 love poems.
  • Ilango Adigal wrote Silappadigaram which is an epic of the period. In this book the love story of Kovalon and Madhavi, a dancer has been depicted.
  • Sattanar wrote Maniekhalai, which is also an epic and tells about the story of the daughter of Kovalah and Madhavi.
  • The greatest ruler of Chera kingdom was Senguttuvan Cheran also known as ‘Red Chera’.
  • The famous chera port Muziris was a great center of Indo-Roman trade.
  • The most reputed Pandyan king was Nedunjhezhian.
  • The largest single tax collected during the Sangam period was the land tax called Karai.
  • The founder of later Cholas was Rajaraja-1. The most important ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra Chola.
  • Rajendra Chola is also known as ‘Gangaikonda Chola’. He later named his capital as Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
  • Raja Raja I built Brihadeswara temple at Tanjore.
  • Cholas were well known for their naval supremacy and efficient village administration.

Objective Questions MCQ on Sangam Age

  1. The word ‘Sangam’ denotes –
    (A) An assemblage of kings
    (B) Assemblage of priests
    (C) Assemblage of armies
    (D) An assemblage of literary figures
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) An assemblage of literary figures

  2. How many Sangam took place?
    (A) One
    (B) Two
    (C) Three
    (D) Four
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Three

  3. How many poets and poetesses had contributed to the Sangam Literature?
    (A) 471
    (B) 473
    (C) 475
    (D) 478
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 475
  4. The language of Sangam literature is-
    (A) Tamil
    (B) Malayalam
    (C) Telugu
    (D) Kannada
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tamil
  5. Which Sangam was held at Kapatpuram (Alavai)?
    (A) First
    (B) Second
    (C) Third
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Second
  6. The first Sangam is supposed to be presided by
    (A) Kaundinya
    (B) Tolkappiyar
    (C) Agastya
    (D) Nakkirar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Agastya
  7. The last Sangam presided over by
    (A) Agastya
    (B) Tolkappiyar
    (C) Nakkirar
    (D) Sattanar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Nakkirar
  8. The famous work of Grammar ‘Tolakappiyam’ is written by
    (A) Nakkirar
    (B) Tolakappiyar
    (C) Ilango Adigal
    (D) Sattanar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tolakappiyar
  9. Which of the following work displays a wide knowledge of Dance and Music?
    (A) Arangerukkadai
    (B) Shilappadikaram
    (C) Paripadal
    (D) Kuruntogai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Arangerukkadai
  10. Epic Jeevak Chintamani is the work of –
    (A) Tolakappiyar
    (B) Sattanar
    (C) Tirutakkadevar
    (D) Ilango Adigal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tirutakkadevar
    Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ)
  11. Erotic poetry in Sangam literature is known as
    (A) Aham
    (B) Puram
    (C) Pranayam
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Aham
  12. Puram in Sangam literature is –
    (A) Spiritual poetry
    (B) Erotic poetry
    (C) War poetry
    (D) Peace songs
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) War poetry
  13. Which of the following works are epics?
    (i) Shilappadikaram
    (ii) Manimekhalai
    (iii) Jeevak Chintamani
    (iv) Paripadal
    (v) Tolakappiyam
    (A) i, ii and v
    (B) ii, iii and iv
    (C) ii, iv and v
    (D) i, ii and iii
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) i, ii and iii
  14. Who of the following is not a Pandaya king?
    (A) Karikal
    (B) Nediyan
    (C) Mudukudoomi Palasalai
    (D) Nedunjeliyan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Karikal
  15. The king who started Kannagi Puja belonged to-
    (A) Chola
    (B) Chera
    (C) Pandaya
    (D) Vela
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chera
  16. The king who according to Sangam legend feasted Mahabharat warrior is
    (A) Udiyanjeral
    (B) Nedunjelian
    (C) Shenguttuvan
    (D) Karikal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Udiyanjeral
  17. Sheya of elephant eye belonged to which dynasty?
    (A) Chola
    (B) Chera
    (C) Pandaya
    (D) Satiyaputra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chera
  18. The term ‘Amaichar’ in Sangam literature signified?
    (A) Post of army commander
    (B) Post of a chief justice
    (C) Post of minister
    (D) Post of a high priest
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Post of minister
  19. The Sangam age polity was
    (A) Republic
    (B) Confederation
    (C) One man rule
    (D) Kula Sangh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Kula Sangh
  20. Who was the king defeated and imprisoned in the battle of Talevanganam won by Nedunjelian?
    (A) Karikal
    (B) Sheya
    (C) Nedunjeral
    (D) Udiyanjeral
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sheya
    Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Who was the king imprisoned by enemies but ran away from prison and regained his kingdom?
    (A) Sheya
    (B) Nedunjeral
    (C) Karikal
    (D) Udiyanjeral
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Karikal
  22. Who is the hero of poetess Kakkaipadiniyar Chellaiyar’s work ten decad?
    (A) Adukatpattuch Cheral Adan
    (B) Senguttuvan
    (C) Kallangrykkanni Narmudi-cheral
    (D) Kuttuvan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Adukatpattuch Cheral Adan
  23. Kapilar was a friend, advisor, and bard of whom?
    (A) Karikal
    (B) Pari
    (C) Ay
    (D) Anduvan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Pari
  24. Which of the following legends find a place in Sangam literature?
    (A) Burning of Khandav Ban
    (B) The destruction of Tripur (three flying fortresses of demons) by Lord Shiva
    (C) The growth of Vamana into trivikrama
    (D) All of the three
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the three
  25. The land was measured by-
    (A) Ma
    (B) Veli
    (C) Ma and Veli
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Ma and Veli
  26. Which of the following is a correct statement?
    (A) Ma is 1/5th of Veli
    (B) Ma is 1/20th of Veli
    (C) Veli is 1/4th of Ma
    (D) Veli is 1/20th of Ma
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ma is 1/20th of Veli
  27. The term Kudi signifies-
    (A) Caste
    (B) Varna
    (C) Gotra
    (D) Tribe
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Tribe
  28. Low caste drum beaters were called-
    (A) Tudiyan
    (B) Pulaiyar
    (C) Panan
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Pulaiyar
  29. The term ‘Paradavar’ was used for-
    (A) Drum Beaters
    (B) Gold Smith
    (C) Hunters
    (D) Fisherman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Fisherman
  30. The wandering danseuses were known as
    (A) Panar
    (B) Tudiyan
    (C) Virali
    (D) Paradava
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Virali
    Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ)
  31. Sangam literature refers to their serving as watchmen on streets of Madurai –
    (A) North Indians
    (B) African
    (C) Greek-Romans
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Greek-Romans
  32. How many kinds of marriage are mentioned in Tolakkappiyam?
    (A) 8
    (B) 6
    (C) 4
    (D) 2
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 8
  33. Sangam age students were called
    (A) Pillay
    (B) Ulgu
    (C) Kohaman
    (D) Vainigar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pillay
  34. Auvaiyar was friend, advisor, and bard of the king
    (A) Pari
    (B) Adigaiman Anji
    (C) Copperunjalan
    (D) Karikal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Adigaiman Anji
  35. Which of the following qualities a Sangam king was supposed to possess?
    (A) Patience
    (B) Stormy and destructive in anger
    (C) Cool and merciful
    (D) Broad planning besides A, B, and C
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Broad planning besides A, B, and C
  36. Maravar’ of Sangam pieces of literature were
    (A) Soldier
    (B) Burglars
    (C) Robbers
    (D) Policeman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Robbers
  37. ‘Nadukal’ of Sangam age is
    (A) Icon of God
    (B) Icon of priest
    (C) Icon of the king
    (D) Inscribed stone in memory of soldier slain in war
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Inscribed stone in memory of soldier slain in war
  38. Which literary piece describes Kattar in detail?
    (A) Mullaippattu
    (B) Shilpadikaram
    (C) Jeevak Chintamani
    (D) Manimekhalai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mullaippattu
  39. Whom were spared during the just war?
    (A) Old and sick
    (B) Old and woman
    (C) Brahman and woman
    (D) Woman, brahman, cow and sick
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Woman, brahman, cow and sick
  40. Which of the following statements about Sangam people is not correct?
    (A) Only woman wore ornaments
    (B) Children wore a necklace of the tiger’s teeth
    (C) Clothing comprised of two pieces of cloth
    (D) Starch was used to stiffen cloth
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Only woman wore ornaments
    Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ)
  41. A king, who claimed to the in charge of a commissarial department in Bharat war belonged to which dynasty?
    (A) Chola
    (B) Chera
    (C) Piuliliayin
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chola
  42. In the context of Sangam age ‘Aindra’ signifies-
    (A) The oldest work of Grammar
    (B) A grammatical system introduced by God Indra
    (C) Hypnotic charm displayed by God Indra
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) A grammatical system introduced by God Indra
  43. Lyrical anthologies, eight in number, are known as
    (A) Ettut Jogai
    (B) Ahm
    C Puram
    (D) Pattup-pattu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ettut Jogai
  44. The long Poems, known as ton, are collected in
    (A) Ettut Togai
    (B) Ahm
    C) Puriam
    (D) Pattup-pattu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Pattup-pattu
  45. Nakkirar’s Poems refer to
    (A) Sun-dical
    (B) Waterclock
    (C) Gurbha-grit
    (D) All of the three
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the three
  46. A forced tax was known in Sangam age as
    (A) Karamai
    (B) Pandu
    (C) Tairave
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tairave
  47. Tramir Desa Sanghatam of Hathigumpha inscription refers to-
    (A) Chola, Chera, Andhra
    (B) Chola, Chalukya, Andhra
    (C) Chera, Chalukya, Andhra
    (D) Chola, Chera, Pandya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Chola, Chera, Pandya
  48. The queen of which Chera king became ‘Sati’?
    (A) Udiyan jeral
    (B) Nedunjeral Aden
    (C) Shenguttuvan
    (D) Adigaiman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Nedunjeral Aden
  49. The battle of Kongu was won by-
    (A) Udiyanjeral
    (B) Karikal
    (C) Kuttuvan
    (D) Adigaiman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kuttuvan
  50. ‘Pullaya’ were engaged in which occupation?
    (A) Cloth industry
    (B) Leatherwork
    (C) Woodwork
    (D) Spice industry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Leatherwork
  51. Who defeated the King of Ceylon and ruled over the island for fifty years?
    (A) Karikal
    (B) Shengannan
    (C) Perunarikilli 
    (D) Ellara
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ellara
  52. What was the ‘Naddukala’ or ‘Virakala’?
    (A) The agricultural laborers

    (B) The followers of the famous Pattini Cult.
    (C) Stones erected in the memory of a dead warrior.
    (D) Worshippers of Murugan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Stones erected in the memory of a dead warrior.
  53. The castes ‘Usvar’ and ‘Vellara’ are related to:
    (A) Kurunji

    (B) Pallai
    (C) Mullai
    (D) Marudam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Marudam
  54. Tiger was the royal emblem of the:
    (A) Chola’s
    (B) Chera’s
    (C) Pandya’s
    (D) Pallava’s
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chola’s
  55. The Pandya King who punished Kovalan(husband of Kannagi) of Silappadikaram was?
    (A) Nedunjeral Adan

    (B) Ilanjetcenni
    (C) Udiyanjeral
    (D) Nedunjeliyan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Nedunjeliyan
  56. Manimegalai is a sequel to which work of Sangam literature?
    (A) Tirukkural

    (B) Tolkappiyam
    (C) Jivaka Chintamani
    (D) Silappadikaram
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Silappadikaram
  57. The story of Kovalan and Kannagi is narrated in the tamil epic?
    (A) Manimegalai

    (B) Silappadikaram
    (C) Tolkappiyam
    (D) Paripadal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Silappadikaram
  58. Which Chera ruler is credited for having started the cultivation of sugarcane in Southern India?
    (A) Senguttuvan

    (B) Kalankaik Kanni Narmudijera
    (C) Perunjeral Adan
    (D) Neduman Anji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Neduman Anji
  59. The lowest unit of administration during the Sangam Age was:
    (A) Mandal

    (B) Nadu
    (C) Ur
    (D) Pattinam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Ur
    Sangam Age (Notes+MCQ)
  60. What is the occupation of the inhabitants of the region called Kurinji?
    (A) Plundering

    (B) Animal Husbandry
    (C) Hunting and food gathering
    (D) Agriculture on a large scale
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Hunting and food gathering
  61. Which Chera ruler is also referred to as the Righteous Kuttuva or the Red Chera?
    (A) Senguttuvan

    (B) Perunjeral Adan
    (C) Ilamcheral Irumporai
    (D) Udiyanjeral
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Senguttuvan
  62. Which Chera ruler is discussed in the 6th decade of Padirrupattu composed by Naccellaiyar?
    (A) Senguttuvan
    (B) Nedunjeral Adan
    (C) Perunjeral Adan
    (D) Perumcheral Irumporai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Perunjeral Adan
  63. Which Chera prince was also mentioned as the Sey of the Elephant look?
    (A) Perumcheral Irumporai
    (B) Selvakkadungo Vali Adan
    (C) Kalankaik Kanni Narmudijera
    (D) Mandaranjeral Irumporai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Perumcheral Irumporai
  64. Which Chera ruler was a fierce warrior and a worshipper of Goddess Korravai but later embraced Brahmanism as his faith?
    (A) Udiyanjeral

    (B) Nedunjeral
    (C) Kuttuvan
    (D) Senguttuvan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kuttuvan
  65. The military commanders of the Sangam period were called:
    (A) Enadi

    (B) Arasar
    (C) Vellalas
    (D) Paraiyars
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Enadi
  66. Devavrinda was a term used during the Sangam age for the group of deities comprising-
    (A) Murugan, Krishna, Siva, Indra

    (B) Murugan, Krishna, Siva, Indra, Balrama
    (C) Krishna, Siva, Indra, Balrama
    (D) Murugan, Balrama, Siva, Indra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Murugan, Krishna, Siva, Indra, Balrama
  67. Which Tamil work is called the Bible of the Tamil land?
    (A) Tolkappiyam

    (B) Jivaka Chintamani
    (C) Silappadikaram
    (D) Tirukkural
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Tirukkural
  68. Which ruler is credited with converting the Oliyar community from nomadism to a settled life?
    (A) Senguttuvan

    (B) Ilamcheral Irumporai
    (C) Nedunjeliyan
    (D) Karikala Chola
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ilamcheral Irumporai
  69. Who were the Vellelas of the Sangam period?
    (A) The ruling class

    (B) The rich peasants who held civil and military offices.
    (C) The feudatories of Cheras
    (D) The lowest class which carried out agricultural operations.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) The rich peasants who held civil and military offices
  70. The temple of Augustus was built at :
    (A) Muziris

    (B) Puhar
    (C) Uraiyur
    (D) Madurai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Muziris
  71. Who was the most important Chola ruler?
    (A) Elara

    (B) Karikala
    (C) Ilanjetcenni
    (D) Senguttuvan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Karikala
  72. Which Sangam ruler started sugarcane cultivation?
    (A) Nedunjelian

    (B) Shenguttavan
    (C) Udiyanjeral
    (D) Adigaiman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Adigaiman
  73. Which Sangam ruler started Sea-worship and brought Pahruli river in existence?
    (A) Nedunjelian

    (B) Shenguttavan
    (C) Udiyanjeral
    (D) Nediyan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Nediyan
  74. What was the term used for forced tax during Sangam Age?
    (A) Tairave

    (B) Karamai
    (C) Pandu
    (D) Pillai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tairave
  75. What does trader guild called during Sangam period?
    (A) Bhanavan

    (B) Orad
    (C) Vanik Dhatru
    (D) Kohaman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Vanik Dhatru
  76. Roaming groups of dancers and musicians visiting the royal court were known as:
    (A) Vanik Dhatru and Vaani Mridul

    (B) Dooter and Ulavar
    (C) Natarkin and Agosa
    (D) Panar and Vidailiyar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Panar and Vidailiyar
  77. Which dynasty was not in power during the Sangam age?
    (A) Pandyas

    (B) Cheras
    (C) Pallavas
    (D) Cholas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pallavas
  78. The people of Sangam age externally trade with –
    (A) Roman

    (B) Europe
    (C) Afghanistan
    (D) Arabs
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Roman
  79. Which was the most important industry in Sangam age?
    (A) Cloth production

    (B) Jute industry
    (C) Paper industry
    (D) All of above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cloth production
  80. In Sangam period, the language used
    (A) Pali

    (B) Sanskrit
    (C) Tamil
    (D) Telugu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil

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