Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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Peasant, Tribal and Labour Movements in India

Tribal Movements (1757-1900s)

  • The revolt of 1857 was not the first movement of various classes against British rule.
  • The hundred years between the Battle of Plassey (1757) to the outbreak of the Revolt of 1857- Sepoy Mutiny was marked by a series of, sporadic popular uprising.
  • It took the form of religion-political violence, mutinies, tribal and peasant movements, and civil rebellions.
  • The movements can be classified under four groups-
    • Bengal and Eastern India
    • Western India
    • South India
    • North India

Bengal and Eastern India

Sanyasi uprising (1770 to 1820’s): (Bengal)

  • The most serious upsurge which the British had to deal with the beginning of their rule in Bengal.
  • The Hindu Naga and Gin armed sanyasis once formed the part of the armies of Oudh and Bengal.
    • Cause—The Economic distress and especially the great famine of 1770 which plunged the province into chaos and misery.
  • In 1772 they killed Captain Thomas who was sent to suppress them. The uprising ended in the second quarter of the 19th century.
    • Places affected—The wild belt of the country from Rangpur to Dacca, Bogra, and Mymen Singh district.

Santhal rebellion

  • The area of concentration of the Santhals was called Daman-i-Koh of Rajmahal Hills of Santhal Pargana.
  • It extended from Bhagalpur in Bihar in the north to Orissa in the south stretching from Hazaribagh to the borders of Bengal.
  • They cultivated their land and lived a peaceful life which continued till the British officials brought with them traders, moneylenders, zamindars and merchants.
  • They were made to buy goods on credit and forced to pay back with a heavy interest during harvest time. As a result, they were sometimes forced to give the Mahajan not only their crops, but also plough, bullocks, and finally the land.
  • Very soon they became bonded laborers and could serve only their creditors.
  • The peaceful tribal communities revolted (1855-57) under the leadership of Sido and Kanhu were Santhal rebel leaders.
  • The British government started a major military campaign to suppress the rebellion.
  • Sido was killed in August 1855 and Kanhu was arrested in 1856.
  • It was one of the most deadly suppressed rebellions of Indian history.
  • A separate Santhal Pargana district was created cutting from the parts of Birbhum (Jamtara and Deoghar) and Bhagalpur districts

Ahom Rising

  • Ahom’s Revolt took place in the Assam region after the First Anglo Burmese War.
  • The rebellion was against the annexation of the territories under British Empire in 1828.
  • The leader of this movement was Gomdhar Konvar. The revolt was suppressed by the British military.

Khasi uprising

  • Khasi were a hill tribe that lives in the region between the Garo and the Jaintia hills.
  • In 1783 the Khasis broke out in open rebellion.
  • The leaders of the revolt were Ganga Singh (who plundered Ishamati) and Tirut Singh, the chief of Nunklow,
  • The war continued for four years.
  • The British army burnt Khasi villages and resorted to economic blockade.
  • By the end of 1832, most of the Khasi chiefs sur-rendered. In January 1833 Tirut Singh surrendered. Thus the revolt was suppressed.

Pagal Panthis (1813 to 1833): North-East

  • A semi-religious sect called Pagal panthis of Mymen Singh district took up the cause of the oppressed primitive tribes against the Zamindars.
  • Many Hindu, Muslims, Caro, and Hajong tribes of the North-East became the followers of this sect.
  • There were state trials at Ambala, Patna, Malda, and Raj Mahal.
  • Many leaders were transported for life and their property confiscated.
    • Leaders—Saiyad Ahmad ‘Rai Vilayet Ali, Inayat Ali, Shah Mohammed Hussain, Farhat Hussain, Titu Mir

Faraizi Movement (1804 to 1857)

  • The founder of this sect was Haji Shariat Ullah of Faridpur.
  • In 1804 he began to preach his doctrine by attacking the superstitions and corruptions of the Islamic society.
  • Gradually the movement gained political shape when he declared the country under British occupation to be ‘dar-ul-hurbs.
  • In a short time, he gathered around him a band of devoted followers especially the land peasants and unemployed artisans.
  • He died in 1837.
  • His son Dudhu Mian (1819-1860)—improved the organization.
  • He was charged with plunder in 1838, committed to sessions for murder in 1841, tried for unlawful assembly in 1844, and for the abduction and plunder in 1846.
  • Repeated complaints of Zamindars led to his arrest in July 1857.

Munda Revolt:

  • For over three decades, the Munda Sardar of Chhotanagpur had been struggling against the destruction of their system of common land-holdings by the intrusion of jagirdars, thikadars (revenue farmers) and traders- moneylenders.
  • During the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Mundas rose under Birsa Munda in a religious movement or rebellion (“ulgulan”) with an agrarian and political content.
  • They aimed to establish a Munda rule in the land by killing thikadars, jagirdars, rajas, and hakims.
  • To bring about the liberation, Birsa gathered a force of 6,000 Mundas armed with swords, spears, battle-axes, and bows and arrows.
  • Birsa was, however, captured in 1900 and he died in jail the same year.

Khond uprising: (Orissa and Bihar)

  • This tribe was stretched from Bengal to Tamilnadu covering central provinces.
  • The main cause was the `Mariah’ system (human sacrifice).
  • The Government stopped this traditional practice.
  • The other reasons were new taxes and the influx of Zamindars.
  • The revolt was led by Chakra Bisoi.
  • The movement was suppressed by 1855.

Western India

Bhil Uprisings:

  • The Bhils, an aboriginal tribe concentrated around Khandesh, revolted against their new masters, the East India Company, fearing agrarian hardships and the worst under the new regime.
  • One of their leaders was Sewaram.
  • The Bhils revolted in 1817-19, and again in 1825, 1836 and 1846.

Cutch Rebellion:

  • The British interfered in the internal feuds of the Cutch and, in 1819, defeated and deposed the ruler Rao Bharamal in favor of his infant.
  • A British resident governed the areas as the de facto ruler with the help of a regency council.
  • The administrative innovations made by the regency council coupled with excessive land assessment caused deep resentment.
  • The news of the British reverses in the Burma War emboldened the chiefs to rise in revolt and demand the restoration of Bharamal.
  • After extensive military operations failed to control the situation, the Company’s authorities were compelled to follow a conciliatory policy.

Waghera Rising:

  • Resentment against the alien rule coupled with the exactions of the Gaekwar of Baroda supported by the British Government compelled the Waghera chiefs of Okha Mandal to take up arms.
  • The Wagheras carried out inroads into British territory during 1818-19. A peace treaty was signed in November 1820.

Koli Risings:

  • The Kolis living in the neighborhood of Bhils rose up in rebellion against the Company’s rule in 1829, 1839, and again during 1844-48.
  • They resented the imposition of the Company’s rule which brought with it large-scale unemployment for them and the dismantling of their forts.

Ramosi Risings:

  • The Ramosis, the hill tribes of the Western Ghats, had not reconciled to British rule and the British pattern of administration.
  • They rose under Chittur Singh in 1822 and plundered the country around Satara.
  • Again, there were eruptions in 1825-26 and the disturbances continued till 1829.
  • The disturbance occurred again in 1839 over deposition and banishment of Raja Pratap Singh of Satara, and disturbances erupted in 1840-41 also.
  • Finally, a superior British force restored order in the area.

Surat Salt Agitations:

  • A strong anti-British sentiment resulted in attacks by the local Surat population on the Europeans in 1844 over the issue of the Government’s step to raise the salt duty from 50 Paise to one rupee.
  • Faced with a popular movement, the Government withdrew the additional salt levy.
  • And, again in 1848, the Government was forced to withdraw its measure to introduce Bengal Standard Weights and Measures in face of people’s determined bid to resort to boycott and passive resistance.

Kolhapur and Savantvadi Revolts:

  • The Gadkaris were a hereditary military class which was garrisoned in the Maratha forts.
  • These garrisons were disbanded during an administrative reorganization in Kolhapur state after 1844.
  • Facing the specter of unemployment, the Gadkaris rose in revolt and occupied the Samangarh and Bhudargarh forts.
  • Similarly, the simmering discontent caused a revolt in Savantvadi areas.

South India

Revolt of Raja of Vizianagaram:

  • The East India Company invited the wrath of the people of Northern Sarkar when, after the acquisition of these territories in 1765, it demanded a tribute of three lakh rupees from the Raja and also asked the Raja to disband his troops.
  • The Raja supported by his subjects rose up in revolt. The Raja died in a battle in 1794.
  • Finally, the Company offered the estate to the deceased Raja’s son and reduced the demand for presents.

North India

Wahabi Movement (1820 to 1870):

  • Saiyed Ahmad (1786-1831) of Rae Bareilly was the founder of the Wahabi movement in India.
  • In 1820-21 he began to preach doctrines of religious reforms.
  • In 1822 he set up a regular organization at Patna.
  • His fundamental creed was that India being an enemy territory (Dar-ul-harb), it was incumbent on Muslims or his followers either to wage a war against the infidels and the British or to migrate to some other Muslim country.
  • In 1830 he captured Peshawar but in the following year, he was killed in the battle of Balakot.
  • The death of Saiyed Ahmad was a great blow to the movement but his Khalifas made it more vigorous within a short time.
  • The Wahabi movement was more planned than the uprising of 1857.
  • The British Government struck at the root of the movement by taking stern action against different pockets and persons of the movement.

Kuka Revolt:

  • The Kuka Movement was founded in 1840 by Bhagat Jawahar Mai (also called Sian Saheb) in western Punjab.
  • After the British took Punjab, the movement transformed from a religious purification campaign to a political one.
  • Its basic tenets were the abolition of caste and similar discriminations among Sikhs, discouraging the eating of meat and taking of alcohol and drugs, and encouraging women to step out of seclusion.
  • In 1872, one of their leaders, Ram Singh, was deported to Rangoon.

Peasant Movements (1857-1947)

Early Peasant Movements

Indigo Rebellion

Causes of the Indigo Rebellion/Revolt
  • Indigo cultivation started in Bengal in 1777.
  • Indigo was in high demand worldwide. Trade-in indigo was lucrative due to the demand for blue dye in Europe.
  • European planters enjoyed a monopoly over indigo and they forced Indian farmers to grow indigo by signing fraudulent deals with them.
  • The cultivators were forced to grow indigo in place of food crops.
  • They were advanced loans for this purpose. Once the farmers took loans, they could never repay it due to the high rates of interest.
  • The tax rates were also exorbitant.
  • The farmers were brutally oppressed if they could not pay the rent or refused to do as asked by the planters.
  • They were forced to sell indigo at non-profitable rates so as to maximize the European planters’ profits.
  • If a farmer refused to grow indigo and planted paddy instead, the planters resorted to illegal means to get the farmer to grow indigo such as looting and burning crops, kidnapping the farmer’s family members, etc.
  • The government always supported the planters who enjoyed many privileges and judicial immunities.

Indigo Rebellion

  • The indigo farmers revolted in the Nadia district of Bengal by refusing to grow indigo.
  • They attacked the policemen who intervened. The planters, in response to this, increased the rents and evicted the farmers which led to more agitations.
  • In April 1860, all the farmers in the Barasat division of the districts Nadia and Pabna went on a strike and refused to grow indigo.
  • The strike spread to other parts of Bengal.
  • The farmers were led by the Biswas brothers of Nadia (Digambar Biswas and Bishnu Biswas), Rafiq Mondal of Malda and Kader Molla of Pabna.
  • The revolt also received support from many zamindars notably Ramrattan Mullick of Narail.
  • The revolt was suppressed and many farmers were slaughtered by the government and some of the zamindars.
  • The revolt was backed by the Bengali intelligentsia, Muslims and the missionaries. The whole of the rural population supported the revolt.
  • The press also supported the revolt and played its part in portraying the plight of the farmers and fighting for their cause.
  • The play Nil Darpan(The Mirror of Indigo) by Dinabandhu Mitra written in 1858 – 59 portrayed the farmers’ situation accurately.
    • It showed how farmers were coerced into planting indigo without adequate payment.
    • The play became a talking point and it urged the Bengali intelligentsia to lend support to the indigo revolt.
    • Reverend James Long translated the play into English on the authority by the Secretary to the Governor of Bengal, W S Seton-Karr.
    • The planters who were treated as villains in the play sued Rev. Long for libel. Rev. Long was pronounced guilty and had to pay Rs.1000 as compensation and serve a month in prison.

Assessment of the Indigo Rebellion

  • The revolt was largely non-violent and it acted as a precursor to Gandhiji’s non-violent satyagraha in later years.
  • The revolt was not a spontaneous one. It was built up over years of oppression and suffering of the farmers at the hands of the planters and the government.
  • Hindus and Muslims joined hands against their oppressors in this rebellion.
  • It also saw the coming together of many zamindars with the ryots or farmers.
  • The revolt was a success despite its brutal quelling by the government.
  • In response to the revolt, the government appointed the Indigo Commission in 1860. In the report, a statement read, ‘not a chest of Indigo reached England without being stained with human blood.’
  • A notification was also issued which stated that farmers could not be forced to grow indigo.
  • By the end of 1860, indigo cultivation was literally washed away from Bengal since the planters closed their factories and left for good.
  • The revolt was made immensely popular by its portrayal in the play Nil Darpan and also in many other works of prose and poetry. This led to the revolt taking center stage in the political consciousness of Bengal and impacted many later movements in Bengal.

The Pabna Agrarian League (1872-76)

  • The peasantry in East Bengal was oppressed by the zamindars. They frequently evicted, harassed, and arbitrarily enhanced the rent through ceases (abwabs) and use of force.
  • The zamindars also prevented the peasants from acquiring the Occupancy rights under the Act of 1859.
  • In the Yusufzahi Pargana of Pabna district, Bengal, an Agrarian League was formed in May 1873.
  • The tenants refused the enhanced payments and the peasants showed legal resistance against the zamindars in the courts.

Note: The All India Kisan Sabha was formed in 1936 at Lucknow. This was presided over by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati. The secretary of this association was NG Ranga. They worked for the abolishment of the Zamindari system, reduction of land revenue, the institutionalization of credit.

Later Peasant Movements

The Kishan Sabha Movement

  • Mainly due to the efforts of the Home Rule Movement activists, the Kishan Sabhas were organized in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The U.P Kishan Sabha was set up in February 1918 by Gauri Shankar Mishra and Indra Narayan Dwivedi.
  • Madan Mohan Malviya supported their efforts.
  • Other prominent leaders include Jhinguri Singh, Durgapal Singh, and Baba Ramchandra.

All India Kisan Congress/ Sabha

  • This Sabha was founded in Lucknow in April 1936 with Swami Sahajanand as its President and N.G Ranga as the General-Secretary.

The Deccan Peasants Uprising (1875):

  • It was against the corruption of the Marwari and Gujarati money lenders. It started as a social boycott of the moneylenders by the peasants but was later transformed into an armed peasant revolt in the Poona and Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra.
  • The peasants then attacked the moneylender’s houses, shops and burnt their records and bond documents down.
  • The uprising later received support from M G Ranade of Poona Sarvajanik Sabha.

The Punjab Peasants Discontent (1890-1900):

  • Peasant discontent in Punjab occurred due to rural indebtedness and the large scale alienation of agricultural land for non-cultivating classes.
  • The Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900 was passed to prohibit the sale and mortgage of lands from peasants to moneylenders. This gave Punjab peasants partial relief against oppressive land revenue demand by the authorities.

The Champaran Satyagraha (1917):

  • The peasants of Champaran district of Bihar were excessively oppressed by the European planters. They were forced to grow indigo on 3/20th of their land under the tinkathia system, and to sell this at prices fixed by the planters.
  • Gandhiji reached Champaran in 1917 accompanied by Babu Rajendra Prasad, Mazhar -ul-Huq, J.B. Kripalani, and Mahadev Desai to conduct a detailed inquiry into the condition of the indigo peasants.
  • The baffled district officials ordered him to leave, but he defied the order and invited trial and imprisonment.
  • This led the Government to appoint an Enquiry Committee in June 1917, with Gandhiji as one of its members.

The Kheda Satyagraha (1918):

  • The Kheda campaign took place in the Kheda district of Gujarat directed against the Government.
  • In 1918, the crops failed in the Kheda districts in Gujarat due to low rains but the government refused to let go of the land revenue and insisted on its full collection of revenue.
  • Gandhi along with Vallabhbhai Patel came in support of the peasants and led them to withhold all revenue payment until their demand for remission was fulfilled.
  • By June 1918, the Government had to concede the demands of the satyagrahi peasants.

The Mappila Rebellion (1921):

  • The Moplahs were mainly Muslim tenants of Hindu landlords in the Malabar district of Kerala.
  • In August 1921, these tenants rebelled due to grievances regarding the lack of security of tenure, high rents, renewal fees, and other oppressive landlord actions.
  • They were encouraged to rebel by the radical leaders there. In 1920, the Khilafat Movement had taken over the tenant rights agitation which had been ongoing in the Malabar since 1916. After the arrest of established leaders of the Congress and the end of the Khilafat movement, only radical leaders had control.
  • Initially, the rebels targeted symbols of authority like the unpopular enemies (landlords, mostly Hindu), courts, police stations, treasuries and offices, and the European planters. Later the movement took a communal turn and eventually lost base.

The Bardoli Satyagraha (1928):

  • In Surat district, the Bardoli taluk was the center of this intensely politicized peasant movement.
  • It was led by Vallabhbhai Patel. The locals gave him the title of “Sardar” for his leadership.
  • When the British government increased the land revenue by 30% in present-day Gujarat, resistance was showed by the residents.
  • This led to the organization of a ‘No-Revenue Campaign’ by the Bardoli peasants including women.
  • There were unsuccessful attempts by the British to suppress the movement. But finally, an Inquiry committee was appointed to look into the matter. It found the hike unjustified.

Tebhaga Movement (1946):

  • In Bengal, rich farmers (Jotedars) leased the farms to sharecroppers known as Bargadar or Bagchasi or Adyar.
  • The Flood Commission had recommended tebhaga, under that the Bargadars (sharecropper) should get 2/3 of crop share and the Jotedar (landlord) should get 1/3rd of crop produce share.
  • Tebhaga movement was aimed at getting the recommendations of the Flood Commission implemented through mass struggle.
  • It was led by – Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha, against the zamindars, rich farmers (Jotedars), moneylenders, local bureaucrats, and Traders.
  • The main slogan of the movement was –” nij khamare dhan tolo”.
  • The Muslim league government led by the Suharwardy introduced the Bargardari Bill along with repression by force.

Labour Movements in India

The chronological history of the working-class movement in British India is discussed below:

  • The early nationalist advocated the improvement of the economic conditions of the working classes.
  • In 1870, Sasipada Banerjeestarted a Working Man’s Club and newspaper ‘Bharat Shramjeevi’.
  • In 1878, Sorabjee Shapoorji Bengaleedrafted a bill for providing better working conditions to the laborers and tried to pass in the Bombay Legislative Council.
  • In 1880, the Bombay Mill and Millhands Association was set up by Narain Meghajee Lokhanday. He also started the newspaper ‘Deenbandhu’.
  • In 1899, the first strike took place in the Indian Peninsula Railways.
  • Tilak’s newspaper i.e. Kesari and Maharattasupported the strike and launched the campaign for months.
  • During the Swadeshi Movement, Indian working classes came with wider political issues.
  • Ashwini Coomar Banerjee, Prabhat Kumar Roy Chaudhari, Premtosh Bose, and Apurba Kumar Ghosh organised mass level strikes in the government press, railways, and the jute industries. The biggest strike was organized when Bal Gangadhar Tilak was arrested and faced trial.
  • Formation of Trade Union:
    • On October 31, 1920, All India Trade Union Congress was founded.
    • Lala Lajpat Rai was then became the first president and Dewan Chaman Lal was the first general secretary.
    • Lala Lajpat Rai was the first person who linked capitalism with imperialism and gave the statement, ‘Imperialism and militarism are the twin children of capitalism’.
    • CR Das, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, CF Andrews, JM Sengupta, Satyamurthy, VV Giri, and Sarojini Naidu supported the formation of a trade union.
  • In 1918, the trade Union has emerged as a pressure group in a capitalist society because during this year Gandhi helped to organize the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association and their demand in wage hike which was arbitrated 35 percent instead of 27.5 percent.
  • In 1926, the British government came with the trade union Act to formalize the trade union as a legal association. It also laid down eligibility criteria for registration and regulation of trade union activities. This act not only secured the immunity for both civil and criminal from prosecution for the legitimate activities of the trade union activity but also imposed restrictions on their political activities.
  • In 1928 during Bombay Textile Mills, the strike led by Girni Kamgar Union changed the picture of Trade union politics due to the emergence of Communist. SA Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, PC Joshi, and Sohan Singh Joshi were the famous trade union leaders of that time.
    • This strike was an alarming situation for the British government that laid the formation of the Public Safety Ordinance of 1929 and the Trade Disputes Act of 1929. These acts made compulsory to the appointment of courts of Inquiry and Consultation Boards for settling industrial disputes. It also made strikes in public utility services like posts, railways, water, and electricity as an illegal action unless working-class union prior notified to the administration a month before.
  • Meerut Conspiracy Case of 1929:
    • The British arrested 31 labor leaders and a trial of three and a half years resulted in the conviction of working-class leaders like Muzaffar Ahmed, SA Dange, Joglekar, Philip Spratt, Ben Bradley, and Shaukat Usmani.
    • This case and trial received worldwide publicity but weakened the working-class movement in India.
  • After 1930, the working-class union of India fractioned as the communist approach of trade union and corporatist approach.
    • NM Joshiset up All India Trade Union Federation in 1931. In 1935, the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was reaffirmed by communists, congress socialist, and leftist nationalists like JL Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose.
  • Impact of Second World War: Initially, the working-class opposed the war when Russia joined the war on the behalf of the allies supported by the working class. In 1945, dock workers of Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) refused to load ships taking supplies to the warring troops in Indonesia.

Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

Points to Remember

  • In the Faqir uprising, the leader Chirag Ali was supported by two leaders namely Bhawani Pathak and Devi Chadudhrani.
  • The pagal panthis preached the doctrine of equality, fraternity, and truthfulness.
  • The real founder of the Wahabi movement was Abdul Wahab of Nazd (1703 to 1787)
  • Saiyed Ahmad Rae Bareilvi was killed in the battle of Balakot.
  • Bhagat Jawahar Mal. the founder of the Kuka movement was popularly known as Sian Saheb.
  • Ram Singh the other important Leader of the Kuka revolt was deported to Rangoon in 1872.
  • Farazi or Faraidi movement was founded by Haji Shariat Ullah of East Bengal.
  • Saiyad Ahmed appointed 4 Khalifas namely Maulvi Qasim, Inayat Ali. Vilayat Ali and Ahmadulla to propagate the Wahabi movement.
  • ‘Dike were outsiders who settled down in tribal areas.
  • Mariah was a practice of human sacrifice followed by the Khonds tribe of Orissa.
  • Santhals defeated a British army led by Major Burrough.
  • Kukis had the peculiar custom of burying their deceased rulers along with human heads.
  • Singphos killed the British Political agent Colonel White.
  • The leaders of the Vishakhapatnam revolt were Birbhadra Rauze and Jagannath Rauze.
  • A tribal revolt in Burma broke out in 1853 which was led by Gaung Gyi.
  • In 1842 Bijai Singh, the talukdar of Kunja, near Roorkee, revolted. It was suppressed by the British ruthlessly.
  • The Sepoy mutiny at Govindgarh was suppressed by Charles Napier.
  • Raja of Dhalbhum, Jagannath Dhal revolted in 1867. The revolt was crushed by Captain Morgan.
  • The cultivators of Savda and Chopda (Khandesh) revolted in 1852.
  • The Central headquarters of the Wahabi movement was Patna.
  • The Wahabi movement is also known as the Waliullahi movement.
  • The stoppage of allowances for active service in a foreign country was the cause of mutiny of the Bengal army in 1844.
  • In Saurashtra, the revolt of the Wagheras took place against the imposition of British rule.
  • Kerala Verma, Raja of Wynoad, raised the banner of revolt against the British.
  • The failure of the British Government to withdraw and restore the Ahom government after the Burmese war caused the revolt of Assam in the 1820s.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) on Peasant, Tribal and Labour Movements in India

  1. Munda Uprising/Rebellion took place in which region?
    (A) Assam
    (B) Chhotangapur region Ranchi
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D)  Punjab
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chhotangapur region Ranchi
  2. Which of the following tribal rebellion was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee through his novel Anandmath?
    (A) Sanyasi Rebellion
    (B) Revolt of Ramosis
    (C) Kittur Rising
    (D) Sambalpur Outbreaks
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Sanyasi Rebellion
  3. Who was the leader of the Bundela Revolt of Bundelkhand?
    (A) Dhar Rao Pawar and Narsing Dattatreya Pettkar
    (B) Phond Savant-(leading noble) and Anna Sahib (heir apparent)
    (C) Madhukar Shah and Jawahir Singh
    (D) Phoolchand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Madhukar Shah and Jawahir Singh
  4. Why was the Kuka Movement started?
    (A) The movement against the moneylenders
    (B) Resentment of the peasants against the oppression of zamindars
    (C) Forced cultivation off Indigo without any proper remuneration
    (D) Degeneration of Sikh religion and loss of Sikh sovereignty
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Degeneration of Sikh religion and loss of Sikh sovereignty
  5. Which of the following is not tribal movement?
    (A) Tebhaga movement
    (B) Chuars movement
    (C) Bhils movement
    (D) Kolis movement
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tebhaga movement
  6. Which of the following uprising/rebellion is also known as Ulgulan (great commotion)?
    (A) Ramosi Uprising
    (B) Munda Uprising/Rebellion
    (C) Santhal Rebellion
    (D) Kol Uprising
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Munda Uprising/Rebellion
  7. Consider the following statement (s) related to the Naikdas movement.
    I. Revolt of Naikdas under Rupsingh in 1858 and the conclusion of peace between British
    II. Rupsingh in 1859; their revolt again in 1868, and establishment of a kingdom with Joria as the spiritual head of Rupsingh as temporal head; suppression of the revolt after the capture and execution of Rupsingh and Jori(A)
    Which of the following is/are the correct statement (s)?
    (A) Only I
    (B) Only II
    (C) Both I & II
    (D) Neither I nor II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Both I & II
  8. Which of the following statement (s) is/are correct about Kol Revolt?
    (A)  It rose when the region leased out to Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh money-lenders for revenue collection.
    (B) The most significant uprising was the Durjol Singh led a revolt in 1789-90 which was brutally put down by the govern­ment.
    (C) Both A & B
    (D) Neither A nor B
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  It rose when region leased out to Hindu, Muslim and Sikh money-lenders for revenue collection.
  9. Find out the odd one.
    (A) Kols- Chhota Nagpur
    (B) Koyas- Rampa Region
    (C) Singhos- Assam
    (D) Pagal Panti Movement- Andhra Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Pagal Panti Movement- Andhra Pradesh
  10. Which of the following is not a correct pair?
    (A) Tebhaga movement- Lucknow
    (B) Bardoli Satyagraha- Gujarat
    (C) All India Kisan Congress- Lucknow
    (D) Eka Movement- Madari Pasi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tebhaga movement- Lucknow
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  11. The Sanyasi Revolt happened:
    (A) During the 1770 famine
    (B) Britishers had put restrictions on visits to pilgrimages.
    (C) The Sanyasi organized raids on company factories.
    (D) All of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above.
  12. Chuar aboriginals were tribesmen of:
    (A) 24 Paraganas
    (B) Midnapore
    (C) Birbhum
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Midnapore
  13. Ho and Munda tribesman were from:
    (A) Chhotanagpur
    (B) Rajmahal Hills
    (C) Aravalli
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chhotanagpur
  14. Kol Mutiny took place in the year:
    (A) 1832
    (B) 1833
    (C) 1831
    (D) 1839
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1831
  15. Kandh Uprisings covered:
    (A) Kalahandi
    (B) Patna
    (C) China-ki-Medi
    (D) Ghumsar
    (E) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (E) All of the above
  16. Find the correct answer:
    (i) Santhals were from Rajmahal Hills.
    (ii) Santhals rose up under Sido and Kanu.
    (iii) A separate district of Santhal Paraganas was created by the government.
    Options:
    (A) Only i and ii
    (B) Only ii and iii
    (C) Only i and iii
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: D) All of the above
  17. Ahom revolt happened because:
    (A) British tried to annex Ahom’s territories.
    (B) The rebellion sparked off in 1828.
    (C) Their leader was Gomdhar Konwar.
    (D) All
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All
  18. Upper Assam was handed by Britishers to:
    (A) Maharaja Narendra
    (B) Maharaja Shailendra
    (C) Maharaja Purandar Singh Narendra
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Maharaja Purandar Singh Narendra
  19. Khasi uprising was under:
    (A) Tirath Singh
    (B) Somil Singh
    (C) Rajnath Singh
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tirath Singh
  20. Karam Shah founded:
    (A) Pagal Pacheli
    (B) Pagal Panthis
    (C) Pather Panchali
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Pagal Panthis
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  21. Faraizis were the followers of:
    (A) Haji Shariat Allah
    (B) Dadu Mian
    (C) Both
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Haji Shariat Allah
  22. Munda Rebellion happened under:
    (A) Kanu Sanyal
    (B) Birsa Munda
    (C) Karia Munda
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Birsa Munda
  23. Bhils were concentrated around:
    (A) Sandesh
    (B) Khandesh
    (C) Bundelkhand
    (D) Baghelkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Khandesh
  24. Cutch Rebellion happened:
    (A) As British interfered in internal feuds of Cutch.
    (B) A British resident governed the area as the de facto ruler.
    (C) The Chiefs demanded the restoration of Bharamal.
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  25. Waghera Rising happened in:
    (A) 1811
    (B) 1813
    (C) 1819
    (D) 1822
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1819
  26. Kol rising happened in:
    (A) 1829
    (B) 1839
    (C) 1844-48
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  27. Ramosi were the hill tribes of:
    (A) Eastern Ghats
    (B) Western Ghats
    (C) Aravalli
    (D) Himalaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) the Western Ghats
  28. Kolhapur and Savantvadi revolt were done by:
    (A) Gadkaris
    (B) Bhumihars
    (C) Brahmins
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gadkaris
  29. Revolt in Northern Sircars in 1765 was done by:
    (A) Raja of Vizianagaram
    (B) Raja of Pratapgarh
    (C) Both
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Raja of Vizianagaram
  30. Poligars revolt was done by the residents of:
    (A) Dindigul
    (B) Malabar
    (C) Both
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Both
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  31. During Diwan Velu Tampi revolt, the Governor-General was:
    (A) Lord Canning
    (B) Lord Wellesley
    (C) Lord Hastings
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Lord Wellesley
  32. Rampa revolt started in:
    (A) 1879
    (B) 1889
    (C) 1899
    (D) 1869
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1879
  33. Kuka revolt was founded in 1840 by:
    (A) Jitender Singh
    (B) Bhagat Jawahar Mal
    (C) Syed Ahmed Barelvi
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bhagat Jawahar Mal
  34. At which of the following place Indigo revolt took place?
    (A) Bengal
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Kerala
    (D) Bihar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bengal
  35. Who among the following had setup The UP Kisan Sabha?
    (A) Gauri Shankar Mishra
    (B) Indra Narayan Dwivedi
    (C) Both A and B
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Both A and B
  36. In which of the following area Eka Movement was concentrated?
    (A) United Provinces
    (B) Bengal
    (C) Kerala
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) United Provinces
  37. In which of the following region, Mappila revolt took place?
    (A) United Provinces
    (B) Bengal
    (C) Malabar
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Malabar
  38. In which of the following movement, Vallabhbhai Patel was given the title of “Sardar”?
    (A) Bardoli Satyagraha
    (B) Indigo Revolt
    (C) Pabna Agrarian League
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bardoli Satyagraha
  39. Who among the following was the founder of the Pagal Panth-a semi-religious sect of Bengal?
    (A) Haji Shariat-Allah
    (B) Karam Shah
    (C) Gomdhar Konwar
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Karam Shah
  40. In which of the following area Munda revolt took place?
    (A) Chhotanagpur
    (B) Bengal
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chhotanagpur
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  41. Who among the following leaded Ramosi rising of Western ghat?
    (A) Chittur Singh
    (B) Syed Ahmed
    (C) Abdul Wahab
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chittur Singh
  42. At which of the following places, Rampa revolt took place?
    (A) United Provinces
    (B) Bengal
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Andhra Pradesh
  43. Who among the following founded the Kuka movement of Western Punjab?
    (A) Bhagat Jawahar Mal
    (B) Syed Ahmed
    (C) Abdul Wahab
    (D) Bhagat Ram Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bhagat Jawahar Mal
  44. The unique contribution of Rani Gaidiliu’s Naga Movement was that
    (A) she gave considerable support to the Indian National Army (IN
    (B) it was the only Nationalist Movement by the tribal of the North-East
    (C) For the first time, the tribals of the North-East demanded autonomy
    (D) she integrated the Tribal Movement with the civil disobedience movement
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) she integrated the Tribal Movement with the civil disobedience movement
  45. Who was the general secretary of the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)?
    (A) Lala Lajpat Rai
    (B) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
    (C) Narayan Guru
    (D) Diwan Chaman Lal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Diwan Chaman Lal
  46. Who was” the leader of the Champaran Indigo Movement?
    (A) Mahatma Gandhi
    (B) Birsa Munda
    (C) Baba Ramchandra
    (D) Ram Singh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mahatma Gandhi
  47. Which was the working area of Birsa Munda?
    (A) Champaran
    (B) Ranchi
    (C) Balia
    (D) Alipur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ranchi
  48. Moplah Revolt of 1921 took place in?
    (A) Kashmir
    (B) NWFP
    (C) Kerala
    (D) Asom
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kerala
  49. Where was the first All India Kisan Sabha formed?
    (A) Calcutta
    (B) Madras
    (C) Lucknow
    (D) Patna
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Lucknow
  50. Kol Revolt of 1831-32 was led by?
    (A) Buddhu Bhagat
    (B) Surga
    (C) Singrai
    (D) Jatra Bhagat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Buddhu Bhagat
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  51. Santhal Revolt (1855-56) was led by?
    (A) Siddhu-Kanhu
    (B) Chand-Bhairav
    (C) Both (a) and (b).
    (D) Neither (a) nor (b)
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Both (a) and (b)
  52. Who among the following, was the founder of the Satya Shodhak Samaj?
    (A) BR Ambedkar
    (B) Jyotiba Phule
    (C) Narayan Guru
    (D) Rama Svvami Naiker
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jyotiba Phule
  53. Where had Baba Ramchandra organized the farmers?
    (A) Awadh
    (B) Bihar
    (C) Bengal
    (D) Andhra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Awadh
  54. Bhil revolts against the British took place in
    (A) MP and Maharashtra
    (B) MP and Bihar
    (C) Bihar and Bengal
    (D) Bengal and Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) MP and Maharashtra
  55. Which one of the following may be regarded as the first labor association in India?
    (A) The Bombay Mill Land’s Association
    (B) The Bombay Worker’s Association
    (C) The Indian Worker’s Association
    (D) The Printer’s Union, Calcutta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) The Bombay Mill Land’s Association
  56. The All India Kisan Sabha was formed in?
    (A) 1926
    (B) 1936
    (C) 1946
    (D) 1956
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1936
  57. Gandhiji’s Champaran Movement was for?
    (A) the security of rights of Harijans
    (B) Civil Disobedience Movement
    (C) maintaining the unity of Hindu society
    (D) solving the problem of Indigo workers
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) solving the problem of Indigo workers
  58. Who founded All India Harijan Sevak Sangh?
    (A) BR Ambedkar
    (B) Mahatma Gandhi
    (C) Jay Prakash Narayan
    (D) Raj Narayan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mahatma Gandhi
  59. The first Indian Factory Act (1881) was passed by
    (A) Lord Curzon
    (B) Lord-Wellesley
    (C) Lord Cornwallis
    (D) Lord Ripon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Lord Ripon
  60. Where did the Tebhaga Movement occur in 1946?
    (A) Bihar
    (B) Punjab
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Bengal
    Peasant, Tribal, and Labour Movements in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  61. Siddhu was associated with
    (A) Santhal Rebellion
    (B) Munda Rebellion
    (C) Kol Rebellion
    (D) Sanyasi Rebellion
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer:(A) Santhal Rebellion
  62. The leader of the Bardoli Satyagraha (1928) was?
    (A) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
    (B) Mahatma Gandhi
    (C) Vitthalbhai Patel
    (D) Mahadev Desai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  63. Who, among the following, was not associated with the formation of ‘UP Kisan Sabha’ in February 1918?
    (A) Indra Narayan Dwivedi
    (B) Gauri Shankar Mishra
    (C) Jawaharlal Nehru
    (D) Madan Mohan Malaviya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Madan Mohan Malaviya
  64. Which one of the following revolts was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in his novel ‘Anand Math’?
    (A) Bhil Uprising
    (B) Rangpur and Dinajpur Uprising
    (C) Bishnapur and Birbhum Rebellion
    (D) Sanyasi Rebellion
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sanyasi Rebellion
  65. Who of the following founded Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association?
    (A) Mahatma Gandhi
    (B) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
    (C) NM Joshi
    (D) JB Kripiani
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mahatma Gandhi
  66. Consider the following statements
    1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad persuaded Mahatma Gandhi to come to Champaran to investigate the problem of peasants.
    2. Acharya JB Kripiani was one of the Mahatma Gandhi’s colleagues in his Champaran Satyagraha.
    Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
    (A) Only 1
    (B) Only 2
    (C) Both 1 and 2
    (D) Neither 1 nor 2
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Only 2
  67. Consider the following statements
    The first Modern Trade Union founded in India was Madras Labour Union, 1918byBPWadia.
    2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was organized in 1920 by NM Joshi.
    3. The Indian National Social Conference (founded in December 1887), which held its annual session at the same time and the same place as the Indian National Congress was founded by MH Ranade and Raghunath Rao.
    Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
    (A) 1 and 2
    (B) 2 and 3
    (C) Only 3
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
  68. Which of the following reasons intensified the labor movement in India in the first quarter of the 20th century?
    (1) Influence of the British Labour movement
    (2) Russian Revolution of 1917
    (3) Rise in cost of living
    (4) Legislative measures of the British against Indian labor
    Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
    (A) 2 and 3
    (B) 1 and 4
    (C) 2 and 4
    (D) 1 and 3
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 2 and 3
  69. The tribal Rebellion against the British known as “Ulgulaan” was organized by
    (A) Korra Mallaya
    (B) Ranade
    (C) Birsa Munda
    (D) Konda Dora
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Birsa Munda

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