List of Important Personalities and their contribution to the Indian National Movement

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List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

Annie Besant 1847-1933

  • Founded the Theosophical Society in India and started the Home Rule League.
  • Established Central Hindu School and College at Banaras (later Bill]).
  • President of the Calcutta Session of INC, AD 1917.
  • She did not attend the AD 1920 Session at Nagpur due to growing differences with Gandhiji as she felt that the Government of India Act, 1919 were a means to free India.
  • Newspapers — New India and Commonweal.
  • She prepared the Lotus Song, a translation of ‘Gita’ into English.

Acharya Narendra Dev 1889-1956

  • He was a scholar, socialist, nationalist, and a lawyer by profession. He gave up his practice and joined the Non-Co-operation Movement.
  • He became the President of Patna’s Socialist Conference in 1934 and a member of the UP Legislation Assembly in 1937.
  • He was appointed as the Principal of Kashi Vidyapeeth in 1925 and also became the Vice-Chancellor of Lucknow and Banaras Universities.
  • He founded the Socialist Party in 1948.

Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray 1861-1944

  • He was a pioneer of chemical research in India. His book ‘History of Hindu Chemistry’ was published in 1902.
  • Research work in Ayurveda with French Chemist Berthelot.
  • President of Indian Science Congress in 1920.

Acharya Vinoba Bhave

  • Acharya Vinoba Bhave was a freedom fighter and a spiritual teacher.
  • He is best known as the founder of the ‘Bhoodan Movement’ (Gift of the Land).
  • The reformer had an intense concern for the deprived masses.
  • Vinoba Bhave had once said, “All revolutions are spiritual at the source. All my activities have the sole purpose of achieving a union of hearts.”
  • In 1958, Vinoba was the first recipient of the international Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership.
  • He was also conferred with the Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian awards) posthumously in 1983.

Achyut S Patwardhan 1905-1971

  • Founder member of Congress Socialist Party and an active participant in the Quit India Movement.
  • He left politics after independence.

Ajit Singh

  • He was a revolutionary nationalist arrested in 1907 and deported to Mandalay.
  • He founded the Bharat Mata Society and launched a journal, Peshwa.
  • An active member of Ghadar Party.

AK Fazlul Haq

  • Founder member of All India Muslim League and its member from 1916 to 1921.
  • Represented the league in the three Round Table Conferences.
  • Founded the Krishak Praja Party in 1937 and worked as Chief Minister of Bengal from 1938-43.

Amir Chand 1869-1915

  • He was a revolutionary activist and associate of Lala Hardayal and Ras Behari Bose.
  • He was arrested in connection with Lahore Bomb and Delhi Conspiracy cases.
  • He was accused of throwing a bomb on Lord Hardinge and was sentenced to death.

Amritlal Vithalal Thakkar 1869-1951

  • A social activist, founder of Bhil Seva Mandal, and a member of Bharatiya Adamjati Sangh (tribal welfare association).
  • He also served as the Secretary of the Harijan Sevak Sangh.

Anand Mohan Bose 1847-1906

  • Founder member of the Indian Association of Calcutta (1876), Indian National Conference (1883), and Indian National Congress (1885).
  • Presided over the Madras Session of INC (1898).

Aruna Asaf Ali 1909-1996

  • Nicknamed as Aruna Ganguli, she married to Asaf Ali, Indian’s first Ambassador of the USA.
  • She was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930, 1932) and for participating in Individual Satyagrah (1940).
  • In 1942, she hoisted the Indian National Congress Flag tricolor at Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Grounds.
  • Elected as first Mayor of Delhi, 1958.
  • She was awarded the International Lenin Prize in 1964.
  • Newspapers (along with Edanta Narayana and AV Baliga) — Link and Patriot.

Bhagat Singh

  • Bhagat Singh joined the Hindustan Republican Association, a radical group, later known as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
  • He established contact with the members of the Kirti Kisan Party and started contributing regularly to its magazine, the “Kirti”.
  • In March 1926, the Naujawan Bharat Sabha was formed with Bhagat Singh, as its secretary.
  • As an avenge to the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat Singh and his associates plotted the assassination of Scott, the Superintendent of Police, believed to have ordered the lathi charge.
  • The revolutionaries, mistaking J.P. Saunders, an Assistant Superintendent of Police, as Scott, killed him instead. Bhagat Singh quickly left Lahore to escape his arrest.
  • In response to the formulation of the Defence of India Act, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association planned to explode a bomb inside the assembly premises, where the ordinance was going to be passed.
  • On April 8, 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb onto the corridors of the assembly and shouted ‘Inquilab Zindabad!’.The bomb was not meant to kill or injure anyone and therefore it was thrown away from the crowded place. Following the blasts, both Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt courted arrest.
  • Bhagat Singh along with other revolutionaries found responsible for the Assembly bombing and murder of Saunders.
  • On March 23, 1931, Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev.

Badruddin Tyabji 1844-1906

  • He was the first Barrister in Bombay.
  • Appointed to the Bombay Bench in 1895 and in 1902 and also became the second Indian Chief Justice.
  • He advocated Tilak’s case on seditious writings in the new laters journal, Kesari.
  • Founder member of Bombay Legislative Council (1882) and INC (1885).
  • Presided over the third INC Session in Madras.
  • He stressed upon modernization of Muslims and also served as President of the Bombay based Anjuman-i-Islam.

Baliram Keshav Rao Hedgewar 1899-1940

  • He was a medical graduate and an active member of the Congress. He also participated in Tilak’s Home Rule Movement.
  • He established the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh on September 27, 1925.

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay 1833- 1894

  • He was a great scholar best known for the composition or the hymn Bande Mataram.
  • His first novel was Durgesnandini, published in 1864, and he started the journal Bangadarsan.

Barindra Kumar Ghosh 1880-1959

  • He was a revolutionary activist and founder member of the secret organization, Anushilan Samiti started in Calcutta in 1902.
  • He also helped in launching the weekly, Yugantar.
  • He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1909 but was released in 1919, and then he associated himself with The Statesman and Basumati.

Behramji M Malabari 1853-1912

  • He was an eminent scholar and social reformer.
  • He worked for the cause or women and by his efforts, the Age of Consent Act (1891) was passed.
  • He condemned child marriage and forced widowhood in his Notes on Infant Marriage and Enforced Widowhood (1884).
  • He founded a social service organization known as Seva Sadan.
  • His works include Nitivinod (1875), the Indian Muse in English Garb (1876), and Gujarat and Gujarati’s.

Bhulabhai Desai 1877-1946

  • He participated in the Home Rule Movement (1916) and was imprisoned during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • He represented INC in the Central Legislative Assembly for nine years.
  • He formulated the Desai-Liaqat formula in 1944 for negotiations with the League.
  • He advocated from the prisoner’s sides during the INA trials

Chandra Shekhar Azad 1906-1931

  • He was a famous revolutionary activist, member of the Hindustan Republican Association, and leader of the Hindustan Social Republican Army.
  • He gained his title “Azad” during the Non-Co-operation Movement when he was arrested and the court asked his name, he repeatedly answered “Azad”.
  • He was involved in the Kakori Conspiracy of 1925, the Second Lahore Conspiracy, the Delhi Conspiracy, the killing of Saunders in Lahore, and the Central Assembly bomb episode.
  • He shot himself while fighting with the police at Alfred Park in Allahabad.

Chhakravarti Rajagopalachari 1879-1972

  • He was a politician and lawyer from Tamil Nadu.
  • He gave up his practice during NCM.
  • He held the post of the General-Secretary of the INC in 1921-1922 and was a member of the Congress Working Committee from 1922 to 1924.
  • He hoisted the CDM in Tamil Nadu and was arrested for leading a Salt March from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast.
  • He was elected as the Chief Minister of Madras in the 1937 Elections.
  • He resigned from INC in 1942 for not accepting the Cripp’s Proposal.
  • He prepared the CR Formula for Congress-League Co-operation.
  • He served as the Governor of Bengal (August-November 1947) and was the first and last Indian Governor-General of India (1948-50).
  • He became the Minister of Home Affairs in the country’s first Cabinet.
  • He founded the Swatantra Party in 1959.
  • His rational ideas are reflected in the collection of Satyameva Jayate.
  • He was awarded the ‘Bharat Ratna‘ in 1954.

Chittaranjan Das 1870-1925

  • A lawyer by profession, he defended Aurobindo in the Alipur Bomb Conspiracy case.
  • He was the member of the Congress Enquiry Committee set up to look into the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • He founded the All India Swaraj Party in 1923.
  • He was elected as the first Mayor of the Calcutta Co-operation in 1924.
  • He prepared the Das Formula for Hindu-Muslim Co-operation.
  • He was nicknamed as Deshbandhu Chittaranjan.
  • His works include Malancha in 1895 (poems), Mala in 1904, Antaryami in 1915, Kishore-Kishoree, and Sagar-Sangit in 1913.
  • Newspapers/Journal- Narayana (Bengali monthly) and Forward.

List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement | List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

Dadabhai Naoroji

  • Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader.
  • He was a Member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Asian to be a British MP.
  • Naoroji is also credited with the founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha.
  • He was also a member of Second International along with Kautsky and Plekhanov.
  • He viewed that the intervention of India by foreigners was clearly not favorable for the country.
  • C. Dutta and Dadabhai Naoroji first cited the drain of wealth theory.
  • Naoroji’s book ‘Poverty and Un-British Rule in India’ brought attention to the draining of India’s wealth into Britain. R C Dutt blamed the British policies for economic ills in his book “Economic History of India”.
  • The drain of wealth refers to the portion of the national product of India, which was not available for the consumption of Indians.
  • The drain of wealth began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey when the Company’s servants began to extort fortunes from Indian rulers, zamindars, merchants, and common people and send home.
  • In 1765, the Company acquired the Diwani of Bengal and began to purchase the Indian goods out of the revenue of Bengal and exported them. These purchases were known as the Company’s investments. Duty-free inland trade provided British merchants a competitive edge over their Indian counterparts.
  • The actual drain, as a part of the salaries and other incomes of the English officials and the trading fortunes of English merchants, was even more.
  • The drain of wealth stunted the growth of Indian enterprise and checked and retarded capital formation in India.

Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar 1891-1956

  • Leader of the depressed class and an eminent jurist.
  • He founded the Depressed Classes Institute (1924) and Samaj Samata Sangh (1927).
  • He set up network colleges in the name of Peoples Education Society.
  • Participated in all the Three Round Table Conferences and signed the Poona Pact with Gandhiji in 1932.
  • He was in the Governor General’s Executive Council from 1942 to 1946 and organized the Indian Labour Party and Scheduled Caste Federation.
  • Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution.
  • As the first Law Minister of Independent India, he introduced the Hindu Code Bill.
  • He started ‘The Republican Party’ in 1956.
  • Towards the end of his life, he embraced Buddhism.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad 1884-1963

  • Participated in Swadeshi Movement (established Bihari Students, Conference), Champaran Satyagrah, NCM, CDM and Quit India Movement.
  • Founded the National College at Patna.
  • Minister-in-charge of Food and Agriculture in the Interim Government (1946).
  • President of the Constituent Assembly.
  • First President of the Indian Republic.
  • Honored with ‘Bharat Ratna‘ in 1962.
  • Newspaper — Desh (Hindi weekly).

Dr. Zakir Hussain 1897-1969

  • An educationist and nationalist from Hyderabad, Hussain was the student of Mohammedan Anglo-Oriented College at Aligarh.
  • He was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Jamia University at the age of 29 years.
  • In 1937, he participated in the National Conference on Education in Wardha.
  • He was elected to the post of vice-Chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University in 1948 and was selected to the executive board of UNESCO.
  • He served as the 3rd President of the Indian Union and was honored with Bharat Ratna in 1963.
  • He translated Plato’s Republic and Edwin Cannan’s Elementary Political Economy also wrote a book titled Die Botschaft des Mahatma Gandhi in German. The Dynamic University contains his addresses during the convocation ceremonies. He also wrote a book on short stories for children, named Ruqayya Rehana.

Dhondo Keshav Karve 1858-1962

  • A social reformer and educationalist who worked for the upliftment of women.
  • He founded the Vidhva Vivahottejak Mandali (Society for the promotion of widow remarriage) in 1893 which was named Vidhwa Vivaha Pratibandh Nivarak Mandali in 1895.
  • Other institutions include-Mahisasuramardini (home for widows) in 1898, Mahila Vidyalaya, Nishkam Karma Math Monastery of Disinterested Work in 1908, Indian Women’s University in 1916, and Samata Sangh in 1944.
  • He was awarded Padma Vibhushan’ in 1955 and ‘Bharat Ratna in 1958.

Dinbandhu Mitra 1830-1873

  • He was a Bengali writer who highlighted the cause of Indigo planters through his play ‘Neel Darpan Natakam’, published in 1860.
  • The play was translated in English by Madhu Sudan Dutt.

Durgabai Deshmukh 1909-1981

  • She was popularly known as “Iron Lady.”
  • She organized Salt Satyagrah during CDM in Madras and was imprisoned.
  • She was a member of the Constituent Assembly.
  • She was awarded the Tamrapatra and Paul Hoffman Award after independence in recognition of her service to society.
  • Her social works include the establishment of Andhra Mahila Sabha (1941), Andhra Education Society, Sri Venkateswar College in the Delhi University, Central Society welfare Board, and she also edited the journal Andhra Mahila.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale 1886-1915

  • Gandhiji regarded him as his political guru.
  • President or the Banaras Session of INC, 1905, supported the Swadeshi Movement.
  • Founded the Servants of Indian Society in 1905, to train people who would work as national missionaries.

Gopal Hari Deshmukh ‘Lokahitwadi’ 1823-1892

  • He was a social reformer from Maharashtra.
  • He founded the Punar Vivah Mandal at Ahmedabad to encourage widow remarriage.
  • He wrote articles in the Maharashtra weekly, Prabhakar, under the pen name, Lokhitwadi.
  • He helped in the launch of periodicals like Jhan Prakash, Indu Prakash, and Lokhitwadi and also started a weekly ‘Hitechchhu’ in both Gujarati and English.

Govind Ballabh Pant 1889-1961

  • He participated in the agitation against the Simon Commission, CDM, and Quit India Movement.
  • He was the first Chief Minister of UP and prepared the “Pant Report” on agrarian reforms in UP.
  • He abolished Zamindari System in UP.
  • He was elected as the Home Minister in 1955 and is a recipient of ’Bharat Ratna’.

Indulal Yagnik 1892-1972

  • He was a social reformer freedom fighter and journalist from Gujarat.
  • He participated in Home Rule Movement and Kaira Satyagrah.
  • He was a member of Antyaj Seva Mandal and set up schools for tribal children.
  • He presided over the Akhil Hindu Kisan Sabha in 1942.
  • He founded the Gujarat Vidyapeeth and established Maha Gujarat Janta Parishad after independence.
  • Newspapers/Journals—Navjivan Ane Satya (monthly), Nutan Gujarat (daily)

Jawaharlal Nehru 1889-1964

  • General Secretary of INC in 1928 and its President in 1929.
  • The Independence resolution was passed under his Presidentship at the Lahore Session.
  • First Prime Minister of Republic India (from 1947 to 1964), also known as the architect of Modern India.
  • He authored the Doctrine of Panchseel and believed in the policy of non-Alignment.
  • Books — ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of world, History’, ‘A Bunch of old Letters’, ‘The Unity of India’, ‘Independence and After’, ‘India and the world’ etc.
  • His autobiography was entitled “Autobiography”.

Jamnalal Bajaj 1889-1942

  • An industrialist and freedom fighter from Rajasthan, he was given the title of Rai Bahadur in 1921.
  • He founded Gandhi Seva Sangha, Gau Seva Sangha, Sasta Sahitya Mandal, and assisted in the establishment of Satyagrah Ashram at Wardha.
  • He gave Seagon village to Gandhiji who renamed it as Sevagram.
  • He remained as the treasures or INC throughout his life.

Jayaprakash Narayana 1902-1979

  • A freedom fighter from Bihar, he is popularly known as Loknayak.
  • He was a follower of Marxist philosophy and advocated for the nationalization of heavy industries and the abolition of Zamindari.
  • He joined INC on Nehru’s offer and was jailed during CDM.
  • He formed the All India Socialist Party in 1934.
  • He actively participated in Quit India Movement and was imprisoned.
  • He joined the Bhoodan Movement of Vinoba Bhave.
  • In 1975, he protested against the National Emergency and founded the Janata Party.

Jatindra Nath Das 1904-1929

  • A revolutionary activist and freedom fighter from Bengal, he was arrested for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case.
  • He died in imprisonment after observing 63 days fast, demanding better conditions of living for Indian prisoners.

Jyotiba Phule 1827-1890

  • A social reformer from Maharashtra, he worked for the upliftment of the low castes.
  • He was against the Brahmins’ organization like Prathana Samaj and Sarvajanik Sabha as they were concerned about the upper Varna only Phule wanted to replace the Hindu religion with the“Sarvajanik Ishwar Pranit Satya”.
  • He founded the Satyasadhak Samaj in 1873 for educating low caste people and authored the Sarvajanik Satyadharma Pustak.

Kalpana Dull 1913-1978

  • A woman revolutionary from Bengal, she was influenced by Surya Sen, hence joined the Chittagong Republican Army.
  • She was sentenced to transportation for life for participating in Chittagong Armoury Raids.
  • After her release in 1936, she joined the Communist Party of India.

Kanahiyalal Manaklal Munshi 1887-1971

  • A freedom fighter and lawyer from Gujarat, he participated in the Salt Satyagrah and CDM as a Congress members.
  • He was appointed as Home Minister Bombay in the 1937 elections.
  • He was also arrested during individual Satyagrah (1940).
  • He was a member of the Constituent Assembly.
  • He played a significant role in merging Hyderabad with the Indian Union.
  • He served as Union Food Minister in the 1952 Cabinet, and Governor of UP (1953-58).
  • In 1960, he joined the Swatantra Party.
  • Magazines/journals- Bhargava, Gujarat, Social Welfare, Journal.
  • Books—’I Follow the Mahatma’, ‘The Creative Art or Life’, ‘Akhand Hindustan, and Pilgrimage to Freedom’.

Kasturba Gandhi 1869-1944

  • A freedom fighter and wife of M K Gandhi, popularly known as “Ba”.
  • She supported Gandhi in all his political programs and was the first woman to be imprisoned by the British in Transvaal.
  • She was arrested during Quit India Movement in 1942 and died in Poona jail two years later.

Khudiram Bose 1889-1908

  • A revolutionary from Midnapore, he participated in the Swadeshi Movement and later joined the Revolutionary Party of Bengal.
  • He was arrested for organizing a bomb attack on the carriage of Kingsford, the Session Judge at Muzaffarpur (Bihar), and was sentenced to death.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

  • Khân Abdul Ghaffâr Khân (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988) was an independence activist of Pashtun descent.
  • He was a political and spiritual Gandhian, a leader known for his non-violent opposition to the British Rule in the sub-continent, and a lifelong pacifist and devout Muslim.
  • A close friend of Mahatma Gandhi, Khân Abdul Ghaffâr Khân has been nicknamed Frontier Gandhi.
  • In 1910, he opened a mosque school at his hometown Utmanzai, and in 1911 joined the freedom movement of Haji Sahib of Turangzai. However, in 1915, the British authorities banned his mosque school.
  • Having witnessed the repeated failure of revolts against the British Raj, he decided that social activism and reform would be more beneficial for the Pashtuns. This led to the formation of Anjuman-e Islâh al-Afghân (“Afghan Reform Society”) in 1921, and the youth movement Paxtûn Jirga (“Pashtun Assembly”) in 1927.
  • After he returned from the Hajj in May 1928, he founded the Pashto language monthly political journal Paxtûn.
  • In November 1929, Khan founded the Khudai Khidmatgar (“Servants of God”) movement, whose success triggered a harsh crackdown by the British Empire against him and his supporters and they suffered some of the most severe repression of the Indian independence movement.
  • In 1962, he was named the Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience of the Year.
  • In 1987, he became the first non-Indian to be awarded Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award.
  • Khan is a Pashtun national hero and a key figure of Pashtun nationalism.
  • Khan strongly opposed the All-India Muslim League’s demand for the partition of India.
  • After partition, he pledged allegiance to Pakistan and demanded an autonomous “Pashtunistan” administrative unit within the country.

Lal Bahadur Shastri

  • Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the third Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.
  • Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. Deeply impressed and influenced by Mahatma Gandhi, he became a loyal follower, first of Gandhi, and then of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • During the “Salt Movement” Lal Bahadur lead a door-to-door campaign, urging people not to pay land revenue and taxes to the British authority.
  • He was one of the leading and prominent faces that continued the Quit India movement, called by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Lal Bahadur, in 1937, was elected to the UP Legislative Assembly.
  • After Independence, he became the Minister of police in the Ministry of Govind Vallabh Panth in Uttar Pradesh. His recommendations included the introduction of “water-jets” instead of sticks to disperse the unruly mob.
  • Impressed with his efforts in reforming the state police department, Jawaharlal Nehru invited Shastri to join the Union cabinet as a Minister for railways.
  • He was a responsible man and known for his ethics and morality. In 1956, Lal Bahadur Shastri resigned from his post, following a train accident that killed around 150 passengers near Ariyalur in Tamil Nadu.
  • Nehru had once said, “No one could wish for a better comrade than Lal Bahadur, a man of the highest integrity and devoted to ideas”.
  • In 1961, he became Minister for Home and formed the “Committee on Prevention of Corruption” headed by K. Santhanam.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru was succeeded by a mild-mannered and soft-spoken Lal Bahadur Shastri on 9 June 1964.
  • He was a follower of Nehruvian socialism. Shastri tackled many elementary problems like food shortage, unemployment, and poverty. To overcome the acute food shortage, Shastri asked the experts to devise a long-term strategy. This was the beginning of the famous “Green Revolution”.
  • Apart from the Green Revolution, he was also instrumental in promoting the White Revolution. The National Dairy Development Board was formed in 1965 during Shastri as Prime Minister.
  • The 1965 Indo-Pak war took place during the tenure of Shastri which ended on 23 September 1965 after the United Nations passed a resolution demanding a ceasefire.
  • The Russian Prime Minister, Kosygin, offered to mediate and on 10 January 1966, Lal Bahadur Shastri and his Pakistan counterpart Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Declaration.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri, who had earlier suffered two heart attacks, died of the third cardiac arrest on 11 January 1966.
  • He is the only Indian Prime Minister, to have died in office, overseas.
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri was the first person to be posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, (India’s highest civilian award).

Lakshminath Bezbarua 1868-1938

  • A writer from Assam, he started his journal Janaki in 1889 and also wrote the Assamese state anthem.

Lala Hardayal 1884-1939

  • A revolutionary from Delhi, he took up the cause of India’s freedom to a foreign land in order to win international support for the freedom movement
  • He was the first President of the Ghadar Party founded in San Francisco in 1913.
  • He founded the Indian Independence Committee in Germany and an Oriental Bureau to translate the writings in the local language.
  • Books – Wealth of Nations, and Hints for Self Culture.

M.N. Roy

  • Manabendra Nath Roy (21 March 1887 – 26 January 1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian revolutionary, radical activist, and political theorist, as well as a noted philosopher in the 20th century.
  • Roy was a founder of the Mexican Communist Party and the Communist Party of India.
  • He was also a delegate to congresses of the Communist International and Russia’s aide to China.
  • Following the rise of Joseph Stalin, Roy left the mainline communist movement to pursue an independent radical politics.
  • In 1940 Roy was instrumental in the formation of the Radical Democratic Party, an organization in which he played a leading role for much of the decade of the 1940s.
  • Roy later moved away from Marxism to become an exponent of the philosophy of radical humanism.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 1890-1958

  • Joined INC during Swadeshi Movement.
  • President of Khilafat Committee. Presided over the Congress Special Session at Delhi in 1923, to become the youngest President. Also the longest-serving President of INC.
  • He headed the Jamiat-ul-Ulema (1924), Nationalist Muslim Conference, Shimla Conference (1945), and negotiated with Cabinet Mission, 1946.
  • Elected as a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1946 and became Minister of Education and Arts in the Interim Government.
  • First Education Minister of Independent India. Also given the portfolios of natural resources and scientific research.
  • Contributed to the foundation of UGC, AICTE, and IIT Kharagpur.
  • Book – ‘India Wins Freedom’.

Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari 1880-1936

  • A freedom fighter and surgeon from UP, he helps in organizing the All-India Medical Mission to Turkey in 1912-13.
  • He participated in the Home Rule Movement, NCM, and Khilafat Movement.
  • He was elected as the General Secretary of Congress in 1927 and President over the All Parties Conference and convention in 1928.
  • He also helped in the establishment of Jamia Millia Islamia in 1920.

Madam Bhikaji Cama 1861-1936

  • She was a freedom fighter from Mumbai.
  • She participated in the Socialist Congress at Stuttgart in 1907.
  • She founded the Free India Society and the Bande Mataram.

Madan Lal Dhingra 1887-1909

  • A revolutionary from Punjab, he was a member of the Indian Home Rule Society, the Abhinav Bharata, and India Houses.
  • He was sentenced to death for assassinating Sir William Curzon Wyllie, an Advisor to the Secretary of State of India during a public function in the Imperial Institute, London.

Madan Mohan Malaviya 1861-1946

  • A moderate leader and a lawyer by profession, he served the provincial and central legislature for many terms.
  • Through his efforts, a memorial was built at the Jallianwala Bagh site.
  • He founded the Nationalist Party in 1926.
  • He was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.
  • He served as the editor of Hindustan, Abyudaya, and the Indian Union.

Margaret Elizabeth Noble (Sister Nivedita 1867-1911)

  • An Irish lady, Elizabeth met Vivekananda in 1890 and inspired by him, she joined the Ramakrishna Mission and became a nun.
  • She worked as a social-it reformer for the upliftment of women.
  • She organized relief works during the plague epidemic in 1899 and during the Bengal famine of 1905.
  • She wrote the articles—The Master as I Saw Him and The Web of Indian Life.

Motilal Nehru 1861-1931

  • A lawyer by profession, Motilal became an active supporter of the Home Rule Movement in 1916 and started the journal ‘The Independent’.
  • He headed the Congress Commission looking into the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • He gave up his practice during NCM and was arrested while following the visit of Prince Wales.
  • He founded the Swarajya Party along with CR Das.
  • He had renamed Anand Bhawan as the Swaraj Bhawan and gifted it to the Congress.

Muhammad Iqbal 1873-1938

  • He was a renowned poet and a lawyer by profession.
  • He joined Muslim League and presided over its Allahabad Session in 1930.
  • He was the first person to give the idea of a separate Muslim State.
  • He composed the song, “Share Jahan Se Achha.”

List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement | List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and eminent leader during the national movement.
  • Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress’s twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December 1904.
  • Born in Karachi and trained as a barrister at Lincoln’s Inn in London, Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century.
  • He was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favoring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, and following such leaders as Mehta, Naoroji, and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  • In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated Hindu–Muslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, a party in which Jinnah had also become prominent.
  • Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims should a united British India become independent.
  • In 1920, however, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of satyagraha, or non-violent resistance, advocated by the influential leader, Mohandas Gandhi.
  • In 1940, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation.
  • During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, and in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims.
  • Ultimately, the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for a united India, leading all parties to agree to separate independence for a secular India, and for a Muslim-majority state, to be called Pakistan.
  • Lahore Session of Muslim League (1940) passed the “Pakistan Resolution” demanding for a separate state for Muslims. Jinnah stuck to League’s demand in all the negotiations with Britain, and finally, Pakistan was formed.
  • Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until and as Pakistan’s first Governor-General from independence until his death.

Pherozeshah Mehta 1845-1915

  • He was a moderate leader from Bombay.
  • He had denounced the Ilbert Bill in 1883.
  • He was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay University in 1915.
  • He presided over the Lahore Session of Congress (1907) after the Surat Split.
  • He was given the title of “The uncrowned king of Bombay”.
  • He started a newspaper, ‘The Bombay Chronicle’, and founded the Central Bank of India.

Rabindranath Tagore 1861-1941

  • He was a poet, philosopher, educationist, internationalist, and patriot.
  • He has his elder brother, Satyendranath Tagore, the first Indian to become an ICS.
  • His first poem was published in the ‘Amrit Bazar Patrika’ and then he wrote ‘Banaphul‘ (story and ‘Bhanusinher Padavali’ (series of lyrics).
  • He founded Shantiniketan near Bolpore on December 22, 1901.
  • He wrote ‘Gitanjali‘, which fetched him the Nobel Prize in 1913.
  • He inaugurated the Raksha Bandhan festival to oppose the Partition of Bengal (1905).
  • He founded the Vishva Bharati University.
  • In 1915, the British Crown granted him a ‘knighthood’ which he renounced after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
  • His compositions were chosen as National Anthem by two nations
    • India — Jana Gana Mana
    • Bangladesh — Amar Shonar Bangla

Rajkumari Amrit Kaur 1889-1964

  • A freedom fighter from Punjab, she participated as a Congress activist in the Satyagrah of 1930. She was arrested during the Quit India Movement.
  • She was appointed as the first Health Minister of India, after independence.
  • She founded the Indian Council of Child Welfare and was the founder member of the All India women’s Conference.

Ram Manohar Lohia 1910-1968

  • He was the founder member of the Congress Socialist Party (1934) and edited the journal, The Congress Socialist’.
  • He played a major role in building the foreign relations of the Congress Party.
  • He founded the Socialist Party of India after Independence and worked for the development of Hindi as the National Language.

Ram Prasad Bismil 1897-1927

  • A revolutionary from Uttar Pradesh, he was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association
  • He was sentenced to death in the Kakori Mail Dacoity Case (August 9, 1925).
  • His most famous composition is “Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai”.

Rani Gaidinliu 1915-1981

  • She was a nationalist leader from Nagaland.
  • She organized tribal revolts against the Britishers in Manipur. She was arrested in 1932 and was released only after independence.
  • JL Nehru gave her the title of “Rani of the Nagas”.

Ras Behari Bose 1886-1945

  • A revolutionary from Bengal, Bose organized several clandestine activities in UP, Delhi, and Punjab at an early age.
  • He was associated with Hardinge Bomb Case and Lahore Conspiracy Case after which he managed to escape to Japan.
  • He founded the Indian Muslim League and organized its first session in Bangkok in 1942.
  • He also served as the President of the Council of Action for the formation of INA, and later handed it over to Subhash Chandra Bose.
  • Bose died in Tokyo on January 21, 1945.

Sachindra Nath Sanyal 1895-1945

  • An associate of Ras Behari Bose, Sanyal organized a revolt by the soldiers of the 7th Rajput Regiment in the United Provinces.
  • He was the founder member of the Hindustan Republican Association and was sentenced to life imprisonment in the Kakori Conspiracy Case in 1925.

Sachidananda Sinha 1871-1950

  • A lawyer and educationist from Bihar, Sinha joined Congress in 1899 as a moderate leader.
  • He participated in the Home Rule League Movement and served as a member of the Executive Council of Government of Bihar and Orissa in 1921.
  • He held the post of Vice-Chancellor of Patna University from 1936 to 1944.
  • He was the Interim President of the Indian Constituent Assembly.
  • He published the journal, ‘Indian Nation’, and edited ‘Hindustan Review’.

Subhash Chandra Bose 1897-1945

  • He passed the Indian Civil Services Examination in 1920 in England but left it on Gandhiji’s call of NCM.
  • Founded the Independence for India League with JL Nehru.
  • Elected as the President of INC at its Haripura Session (1938) and Tripuri Session (1939) hut resigned from Tripuri due to differences with Gandhiji.
  • He founded the Forward Block (1939) and Kisan Sabha.
  • He escaped to Berlin in 1941 and met Hitler. He took the charge of Indian Army (Azad Hind Fauz) in 1943 in Singapore and set up Indian Provisional Government there.
  • He addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the “Father of the Nation.”
  • He supposedly died in a plane crash in 1945.
  • Slogans — “Dilli Chalo” and “Jai Hind”.
  • Autobiography — ‘The Indian Struggle’.

Sarojini Naidu 1879-1949

  • Popularly known as the “Nightingale of India”, she was a nationalist and poetess from Uttar Pradesh.
  • She was married to Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu in 1893.
  • Under the guidance of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, she became the first woman to participate in India’s struggle for independence.
  • She participated in the Dandi March with Gandhiji and presided over the Kanpur Session of Congress in 1925.
  • She was the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh State.
  • Her famous poetries include – The Golden Threshold (1905), The Feather of the Dawn; The Bird of Time (1912), and The Broken Wing (1917).
  • She was the first Indian woman to become the president of the Congress, was involved, it a March towards the Dharsana Salt Works, a government salt depot.
  • Other leaders who participated in this totally non-violent affair were Imam Saheb, Gandhi’s comrade of the South African struggle, and Manilal, Gandhi’s son.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 1888-1975

  • An educationalist from Tamil Nadu. Radhakrishnan was associated with many educational institutions in India.
  • He served as the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra University (1931) and Banaras Hindu University (1942).
  • He gave lectures on theology and philosophy in the universities of Chicago, Manchester, London, and Oxford, among others.
  • He was the leader of the Indian delegation to UNESCO from 1946-50, its chairman in 1948, and President of UNESCOs University Education Commission in 1952.
  • He was also appointed as the Vice-President of International PEN.
  • In 1962, he represented the Calcutta University at the Congress of Philosophy at Harvard University.
  • He was twice elected as the Vice-President of India (1952-56 and 1957-62) and served as the President of the nation from 1962 to 1967.
  • His birthday (5th September), is celebrated as ‘Teacher’s Day’.
  • His works include — The Ethics of the Vedanta and its Material Presupposition (1908); The Philosophy of Rabindranath Tagore (1918): Idealistic view of Life (1932); Eastern Religion and Western Thought: Indian Philosophy and Kalki on the Future of Civilization.

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar 1883-1966

  • He was a poet, scholar, social worker, historian, and one of the earliest revolutionaries from Maharashtra.
  • He founded the Mitra Mela (Assembly of friends) in 1889 and renamed it the Abhinav Bharat, Society (New India Society) in 1904.
  • He founded the Free India Society in London in 1906.
  • He described the Revolt of 1857 as the first war or independence in his book, ‘Indian war of Independence’.
  • He was arrested for his involvement in Nasik Conspiracy Case.
  • He was elected as the President of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1937.

Vallabhbhai Patel 1875-1950

  • A freedom fighter and social reformer from Gujarat, he is popularly known as Sardar Pater and honored with the title of “The Iron Man of India”.
  • His father, Jhaverbhai Pate), is supposed to have fought in the army of Rani of Jhansi in the Revolt of 1857.
  • He started the Kheda or Kaira Satyagrah in 1918 and fought for the rights of the peasants in Bardoli Satyagrah. Here, he was honored with the title “Sardar”.
  • He was the first national leader to be arrested during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • He participated in Gandhi’s Individual Satyagrah and Quit India Movement.
  • In the post-independence period, he was appointed as the First Deputy Prime Minister of India along with the portfolios of the Information and Broadcasting and Home Ministry.
  • He played a major role in integrating the 562 states in the Indian Union.

Vithalbhai Patel 1871-1933

  • A freedom fighter from Gujarat and elder brother of Vallabhbhai Patel, Vithalbhai rebelled against the leadership or Gandhiji over the abortion of the NCM and formed the Swarajya Party.
  • He was elected for the Central Legislative Assembly in 1923.
  • He rejoined Congress upon the declaration of Poorna Swaraj but after the end of Salt Satyagrah, he became a fierce critic of Gandhi and a strong ally of Subhas Chandra Bose.

List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement | List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

Personalities Associated with Civil Disobedience Movement during British India

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

  • He formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement on April 6, 1930, by picking a handful of salt after the completion of the historic ‘Dandi March’ from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, thus breaking the salt law imposed by the Government.
  • He was the major force behind the movement and inspired grass-roots participation in the freedom struggle.


  • He led a salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast in Tamil Nadu, in support of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • He was arrested on April 30, 1930.


  • He was a Nair Congress leader, launched the Vaikom Satyagraha, and marched from Calicut to Payanneer in defiance of salt laws. Jawaharlal Nehru was actively involved in the movement and was arrested on April 17, 1910, for defiance of the salt law.
  • He formulated a radical agrarian program and suggested the formation of the Constituent Assembly as the prime political slogan.

Krishna Pillai

  • He defended the national flag and resisted the lathi charge on the Calicut beach on November 11, 1930.
  • He later founded the Kerala Communist Movement.

Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan

  • He formed a clan of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars (known as Red Shirts), who played an active role in the movement.

Surya Sen

  • He started Chittagong Revolt Group, which carried out a raid on two armories and declared the establishment of a provisional government.
  • He issued a manifesto in the name of the Indian Republican Army and called on the Indians to revolt against the British rule.

Abbas Tayabji

  • He was a leader of the nationalist Muslims in Bombay, took the place of Gandhi in the movement after the latter’s arrest.
  • However, he too was arrested by the Government.

Ambalal Sarabhai and Kasturbhai Lakhai

  • They gave their cooperation to Motilal Nehru in removing the barriers between the Congress and the Bombay mill-owners and industrialists.

List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement | List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

Indian Industrialist

  • D. Birla (who donated from one to five lakh rupees), Jamunalal Bajaj (who served as the AICC treasurer for several years and represented Gandhian leadership in Bombay), Homi Modi, Walchand Hirachand, Lalji Naranji, Purushottamdas Thakurdas, Lala Sri Ram, etc. supported the movement in its first phase.
  • Homi Modi, in his presidential speech to Bombay Mill-owners’ Association in March 1931 said that though the Swadeshi Movement had helped the Indian industry, frequent strikes had dislocated trade and industry.
  • Naranji and Thakurdas, who had remained indifferent to the nationalist struggle in 1921, demanded Indian control over finance, currency, fiscal policy, and railways. However, from September 1930, there was a sharp decline in support from the industrialists and traders; with the promoter businessmen having differences of opinion with Congress.

Chandraprabha Saiktani

  • He instigated the aboriginal Kachari villagers in Assam to break forest laws.

Subhash Bose and J.M. Sengupta

  • They led the faction group in Bengal Congress and set up rival organizations to conduct civil disobedience. Bose criticized Gandhi when the latter suspended the movement in May 1933.
  • He was supported by Vithalbhai Patel.

Bonga Majhi and Somra Majhi

  • They led the movement in Hazaribagh along the sanskritising lines with the Congress. Kalka Prasad, a local leader in Rai Bareilly, promoted the no-rent campaign.
  • Santi and Suniti Chaudhari assassinated the district magistrate of Tippera Stevens. Their action marked the entry it women in the revolutionary movement.

Seth Achal Singh

  • He was a nationalist landlord, financed the Gram Seva Sangh in Agra, and remained indifferent to riots in the area, while strictly following the policy of non-violence.

Sheikh Abdullah

  • He was a Muslim graduate, started an agitation, and attacked the Srinagar jail on July 31, 1931, where 21 persons were killed in police firing.
  • He also developed close contacts with a group of anti-autocratic Jammu Hindus led by P.N. Bazaz.

Mohammed Yasin Khan

  • He was a Muslim leader in Punjab, organized the Meos (semi-tribal peasant community with leanings towards Islam) to protest against Maharaja Jaisingh Sawai’s hike in revenue, begar, and reservation of forests for the purpose of hunting.

K.M. Ashraf

  • He was India’s first Marxist historian, was associated with the movement.

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya

  • He has been an upholder of Gandhian policies since the 1920s, began to drift away with the launch of the Harijan campaign by Gandhi.
  • He started a breakaway Congress Nationalist Party.

Satyamurthy, Bhulabhai Desai, M.A. Ansari and B.C. Roy

They demanded a return to electoral politics by way of a revived Swarajya Party. Jayaprakash Narayan, Achhut Patwardhan, Yusuf Mehrauli, Ashok Mehta and Minoo Masani wanted the Congress to have an affinity with the left-wing.


  • He formulated ‘A Tentative Socialist Programme’ for India and a Congress Socialist Party was started in 1934, which was supported by Narendra Dev.

K.F. Nariman and Yusuf Meher Ali

  • They led the Congress youth wing and later emerged as socialist leaders.

Swami Govindanand

  • He led the movement in Karachi and Sindh.

N.V. Gadgil

  • He supported the temple entry movement in 1929 on socialist norms established friendly ties with the non-Brahmin Satyashodhak Samaj (represented by Keshsvrao Jedhe of Poona).

BR Ambedkar

  • He was the leader of the untouchable Mahars, attended the Round Table Conference in 1930.
  • However, Congress failed to win over the political agitation of the Mahars.

Gopabandhu Chaudhuri

  • He popularised the movement in Orissa and led the Salt Satyagraha in the coastal areas of Balasore, Cuttack, and Puri districts.

Tarunaram Phookan and N.C. Bardoloi

  • They were two prominent Congress leaders who were against the movement in Assam. They refused to take up forest Satyagraha officially.

Jadunandan Sharma

  • He activated the Kisan Sabha Movement in the Gaya district of Bihar.

Duggirala Balaramakrishnaya of the Krishna district

  • He initiated a no-revenue campaign in 1931 in coastal Andhra. He also wrote a Telugu ballad Gandhi Oita, which aroused patriotic sentiments.

N.V. Rama Naidu and N.C. Ranga

  • They organized a forest Satyagraha in Venkatagiri estate in Nellore in 1931.

A.K. Gopalan

  • He was a school teacher and popular activist at Guruvayoor in Kerala and later became Kerala’s most popular communist peasant leader.

Mannu Gond and Chaitu Koiku

  • He offered forest Satyagraha in Betul in Central Provinces. Maulana Bhasani organized a large Praja Sammelan at Sirajgunj and demanded the abolition of zamindari and reduction in debts.

Young Communist Militants

  • T. Ranadeve and S.V. Deshpande in Bombay and Abdul Halim, Somnath Lahiri, and Ranen Sen in Calcutta, where the young communist militants who organized several labor strikes. V.B. Karnik, Maniben Kara, Rajani Mukherji, and Niharendu Dutta were other leaders who started trade union activities.

M.N. Roy

  • He and his followers popularised socialist ideas in the villages and a no-tax campaign was started in Awadh.

List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement | List of Important Personalities and their Contribution to the Indian National Movement

List of Personalities Associated with the Swadeshi Movement of British India

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a social reformer and freedom fighter and was one of the prime architects of modern India and the strongest advocates of Swaraj (Self Rule).
  • He was a great reformer and throughout his life, he emphasized the concepts of women’s education and women empowerment.
  • To inspire a sense of unity, he introduced the festivals like ‘Ganesh Chaturthi’ and Shivaji Jayanti’. In present times Ganesh Chaturthi is considered as the prime festival of the Marathis.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak launched two newspapers called ‘Mahratta’ (English) and ‘Kesari’ (Marathi). Both the newspaper stressed on making the Indians aware of the glorious past and empowered them to be self-reliant. The newspaper actively propagated the cause of national freedom.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak joined the Indian National Congress Party in 1890.
  • Realizing that the constitutional agitation in itself was futile against the British, Tilak opposed the moderate views of the party. This subsequently made him stand against the prominent leaders like Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  • His movement was based on the principles of Swadeshi (Indigenous), Boycott, and Education. But his methods also raised bitter controversies within the Indian National Congress Party and the movement itself.
  • As a result, Tilak formed the extremist wing of the Indian National Congress Party. Tilak was well supported by fellow nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. The trio was referred to as the Lal-Bal-Pal.
  • Massive trouble broke out between the moderate and extremist factions of the Indian National Congress Party in the 1907 session of the Congress Party. As a result of which, the Congress split into two factions.
  • During 1908-1914, Bal Gangadhar Tilak spent six years rigorous imprisonment in Mandalay Jail, Burma. He was deported because of his alleged support to the Indian revolutionaries, who had killed British people.
  • Tilak returned to India in 1915 when the political situation was fast changing under the shadow of World War I.
  • Tilak decided to reunite with his fellow nationalists and founded the All India Home Rule League in 1916 with Joseph Baptista, Annie Besant, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
  • In mid-July 1920, his condition worsened and on August 1, he passed away.

Lala Lajpat Rai

  • Lala Lajpat Rai immensely contributed to attaining independence in the nation and helped to establish the nationalistic Dayanand Anglo-Vedic School and became a follower of Dayanand Saraswati.
  • In 1888 and 1889 he was a delegate to the annual sessions of the National Congress.
  • In 1895 Rai helped found the Punjab National Bank, demonstrating his concern for self-help and enterprise.
  • In 1897 he founded the Hindu Orphan Relief Movement to keep the Christian missions from securing custody of these children.
  • In the National Congress in 1900 he stressed the importance of constructive, nation-building activity and programs for self-reliance.
  • In October 1917, he founded the Indian Home Rule League of America in New York.
  • In 1920, after his return from America, Lajpat Rai was invited to preside over the special session of the Congress in Calcutta, (now Kolkata).
  • He plunged into the non-cooperation movement, which was being launched in response to the Rowlatt Act, in principle.
  • The movement was led by Lajpat Rai’s in Punjab and he soon came to be known as “Punjab Kesri” (The Lion of Punjab).
  • Lala Lajpat Rai was also a noted writer. The United States of America: A Hindu’s impressions and a study, History of the Arya Samaj, Swaraj and social change, England’s Debt to India: India, The Problems Of National Education In India were among the books, he had written.
  • On October 30, 1928, he died after the police lathi-charged on the activists, protesting the arrival of the Simon Commission.

Syed Haider Raza

  • He popularised the Swadeshi Movement in Delhi.

Chidambaram Pillai

  • He spread the movement to Madras and organized the strike of the Tuticorin Coral Mill. He founded the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company in Tuticorin on the east coast as Province.

Bipin Chandra Pal

  • He played a major role in popularising the movement; especially in the urban areas.
  • He was the editor of New India.

Laikat Hossain

  • He took the movement to Patna and organized the East Indian Railway strike in 1906.
  • He also wrote fiery articles in Urdu to rouse nationalist sentiments in Muslims.
  • He was supported by other Muslim swadeshi agitators like Ghaznavi, Rasul, Din Mohammed, Dedar Bux, Moniruzzaman, Ismail Hussain, Siraji, Abdul Hussain and Abdul Gaffar.

Shyamsunder Chakrabarti

  • He helped the swadeshi political leader in organizing strikes.

Ramendra Sunder Trivedi

  • He called for observance of arandhan (keeping the hearth unlit) as a mark of mourning and protest on the day the partition was put into effect.

Aurobindo Ghosh

  • He was in favor of extending the movement to the rest of India.
  • He was appointed as the principal of Bengal National College founded in 1906 to encourage patriotic thinking and an education system related to Indian conditions and culture.
  • He was also the editor of Bande Mataram and through his editorials encouraged strikes, national education, etc in the spirit of the Swadeshi Movement. He was assisted by Jatindranath Bannerjee and Barindrakumar Ghosh (who managed the Anushilan Samiti).

Surendranath Banerjee

  • He held moderate nationalist opinion launched powerful press campaigns through news-papers like ‘The Bengali’and addressed mass meetings.
  • He was assisted by Krishnakumar Mitra and Narendra Kumar Sen.

Ashwini Kumar Dutt

  • He was a school teacher who set up Swadesh Bandhab Samiti to propagate the Swadeshi Movement and led the Muslim peasants of Barisal in their protests.

Promotha Mitter, Barindrakumar Ghosh, Jatindranath Bannerjee

  • They founded the Anushilan Samiti in Calcutta.

G.K Gokhale

  • He presided the Benaras session of the Indian National Congress, 1905, and supported the Swadeshi Movement.

Abdul Halim Guznavi

  • He was a zamindar and a lawyer who set up Swadeshi Industries and helped Aurobindo Ghosh to extend revolutionary activities outside Bengal. He was assisted by Abul Kalam Azad.

Dadabhai Naoroji

  • He declared that the goal of the Congress was to attain swaraj during the 1906 session.

Acharya P.C. Roy

  • He set up the Bengal Chemicals Factory to promote the swadeshi movement.

Mukunda Das, Rajanikanta Sen, Dwijendralal Roy, Girindramohini Dosi, Sayed Abu Mohammed

  • They composed patriotic songs on swadeshi themes. Girish Chandra Ghosh, Kshirodeprasad Vidyavinode, and Amritlal Bose were play-wrights who contributed to the swadeshi spirit through their creative efforts.

Ashwini Coomar Bannerjee

  • He was a swadeshi activist who led the jute mill workers to form an Indian Millhands’ Union at Budge-Budge in August 1906.

Satish Chandra Mukherjee

  • He promoted an education system under indigenous control through his Dawn Society.

Motilal Ghosh of the Amrit Bazar Patrika Group

  • He contributed several fiery articles in the paper to arouse patriotic sentiments and was in favor of Extremism.

Brahmabandhab Upadhyay

  • He popularised swaraj and the Swadeshi Movement through his newspaper Sandhya and Yugantar (brought out by a group associated with Barindrakumar Ghosh).

Kalisankar Sukul

  • He brought out several pamphlets on the Swadeshi Movement and argued that a new kind of business class should be built to promote national interests.

Kunwarji Mehta and Kalyanji Mehta

  • They began organizational work through the Patidar Yuvak Mandal.

Lala Harkishan Lal

  • He promoted Swadeshi Movement in Punjab through the Brahmo-leaning group which began The Tribune newspaper.
  • He also founded the Punjab National Bank.

Muhammed Shafi and Fazal-i-Husain

  • They lead Muslim group in Punjab and involved in constructive swadeshi, rather than boycott.

Krishnaswami Iyer

  • He headed the ‘Mylapore’ group in the Madras Presidency.

Subramaniya Bharati

  • He was a member of the Tamilian revolutionary group and an eminent poet, played a significant role in arousing nationalism in the Tamil areas.

Prabhatkusum Roy Chaudhuri, Athanasuis Apurba-kumar Ghosh

  • They were lawyers by profession who helped in organizing labor; Premtosh Bose was another pioneer labor leader.

Hemachandra Kanungo

  • He was one of the first revolutionary leaders who got military training from Paris), a combined bomb factory and religious school was He set up a combined bomb factory and religious school in Calcutta.

Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki

  • They were the member’s revolutionary party who murdered Kennedy on April 30, 1908.

Pulin Das

  • He organized the Deccan Anushilan, with the Barrah dacoity as its first major venture.

Madan Mohan Malaviya and Motilal Nehru

  • They were in favor of cooperation with provincial governments and the non-political Swadeshi Movement.

Sachindranath Sanyal

  • He emerged as a revolutionary leader in Benaras through contacts with Mokhodacharan Samadhyay (the editor of Sandhya after the death of Brahmabandhab).

Savarkar Brothers

  • They founded the Mitra Mela in 1899 and were directly involved in extremism in Maharashtra.

Dinshaw Wacha

  • He persuaded mill-owners in Maharashtra to sell dhotis at moderate prices.

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