Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

Arab Invasion in India

  • By the 8th Century AD, the Arabs had acquired a core position from Spain to India, connecting the trade of Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
  • Arabs were attracted by the wealth of India. However, the reason for the invasion of Sindh was to avenge the plunder of Arab Ships by pirates of Debol. King Dahir refused to punish the pirates.
  • Hajjaj the governor of Iraq despatched an army under Muhammad Bin Qasim.
  • At Rawar, in AD 712 Muhammad Bin Qasim attacked Dahir who was defeated. Dahir was caught and killed.
  • Muhammad Bin Qasim now proceeded forward and within a short span he conquered various important places in Sind including Brahmanabad.


  • Al-Hajjajj, the Governor of Iraq sent Muhammad-bin-Qasim to India
  • He Conquered Sind with the permission of Caliph Walid

Battle of Rewar

  • Fought between Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Dahir the ruler of Sind
  • Dahir was defeated. Sind and Multan was captured.
  • Muhammad-bin-Qasim called Multan as ‘The City of Gold’ 

Administrative System

  • Sind and Multan were divided into number of Iqtas or districts by Muhammad-bin-Qasim and Arab military officers headed the Iqtas.
  • The sub-divisions of the districts were administered by the local Hindu Officers.
  • Jizya was imposed on non-Muslims. 

Muhammad bin Qasim’s Army

  • 25,000 troops with 6000 Camels, 6000 Syrian horses, 3000 Bactrian Camels and an artillery force with 2000 men, advanced guards, and five catapults.

End of Muhammad-bin-Qasim

  • Caliph Walid was succeeded by Caliph Sulaiman.
  • He was an enemy of Al-Hajjaj, the Governor of Iraq.
  • Muhammad-bin Qasim was the son-in-law of Al-Hajjaj, so he dismissed him and sent to Mesopotamia as a prisoner where he was tortured to death.
  • For more than 150 years, Sind and Multan continued to remain as the part of the Caliph’s Empire. 

Effects of Arab Conquest

  • The subjugation of Sind made way for Islam into India.
  • The art of administration, astronomy, music, painting, medicine and architecture were learnt by Arabs from our land and they spread astronomy, Indian Philosophy, and numerals to Europe.
  • Islam was first introduced in India by Malik Ibn Dinar in Kerala in 644 AD.

The Turkish Invasion in India

  • In the 8th and 9th centuries, the Turks dominated the Caliphs of Baghdad
  • They extended their dominion beyond Sind and Multan into India and finished the work begun by the Arabs.
Rani Bai’s heroic defense
  • The wife of Dahir and the other women of Sind put up a heroic defense within the Fort of Rewar.

Indian Impact

Brahma Siddhanta

  • Brahma Siddhanta a Sanskrit work of Brahma Gupta was translated into Arabic in which the names of Indian Scientists like Sindbad, Bhala, Manaka are mentioned.
  • In a hospital at Baghdad, Dhana was appointed as a chief Medical officer.
  • A serious disease of Caliph Harun-al-Rashid Manaka, a physician cured.

Mahmud of Ghazni (971 to 1030)

  • In all Mahmud Ghazni invaded India 17 times during AD 1000-1026. He was the first Turkish to invade India.
  • Mahmud Ghazni was Son of Sabuktigin, the founder of Ghazni dynasty & Turkish slave commander.
  • He was the first Muslim ruler to penetrate deep into India.
  • The chief motive of Mahmud invasions in India was the desire to secure its wealth.
  • Mahmud attacks on India were an attempt to fulfil his ambition to make Ghazni the formidable power in the politics of Central Asia.
  • Firddausi, who wrote Shah Nama in which he glorified the ancient Iranian heroes, was the poet laureate of Mahmud.
  • Alberuni, who wrote ‘Kitabul-Hind or An Enquiry Into India’ had accompanied him to India along with his corps of army.
  • Mahmud’s invasions exposed the weak defence of Indian kingdoms and opened possibility of attacks in future by the Turks.
  • He returned to Ghazna with enormous wealth after defeating
  • Jaipala, the ruler of Hindu Shahi Dynasty
  • Fateh Daud of Multan
  • Anandpala of Nagarkot
  • the Chandelas, the rulers of Mathura
  • Kanauj, and Gwalior.
  • Mahmud’s significant invasion in Hindustan was against the Somnath temple in 1025 A.D., located on the coast of Kathiawar and Raja Bhima Dev the ruler of Kathiawar and his followers escaped from the place.

Mahmud of Ghazni’s Character Estimation

  • Mahmud of Ghazni was one of the greatest Muslim rulers of Asia.
  • He patronised art and letters and scholars like Firdausi and Alberuni.

End of Ghazni’s rule in India

  • Ghazni’s rule declined by 1186 A.D. and the Mahmud of Ghori grew up. 

Muhammad of Ghori (1149 – 1206)

  • He was the third Muslim ruler who invaded India.
  • In A.D. 1173, Shahabuddin Muhammad also known as Muizzuddin Muhammad bin Sam (called Muhammed Ghori) ascended the throne of Ghazni.
  • Mohd. Ghazni established the Ghaznavi empire with capital at Ghazni.

Muhammad of Ghori invasions

  • He first invaded India in 1176 A.D. 

First Battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.)

  • He seized the fortress of Bhatinda in 1189 A.D. and then progressed into the kingdom of Prithviraj Chauhan.
  • Muhammad of Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj in the first Battle of Tarain in 1191 A.D. and recovered Bhatinda. 
  • Alternatively it has also been mentioned that, Ghori’s army surrendered and Muhammad was made prisoner. Muhammad of Ghor begged for mercy and Prithviraj pardoned him.

Second Battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.)

  • In the second battle of Train, the joined forces of the Rajput rulers under Prithviraj were defeated by Muhammad of Ghori.
  • Prithviraj was held as a prisoner and later put to death.
  • The Turkish rule began for the first time in Indian history with end The Second Battle of Tarain.
  • Qutb-ud-din Aibak was appointed as the commander by Muhammad of Ghori.
  • Later, Prithviraj shot his arrow through Ghori and killed him in his court with the verbal assistance of Chand Bardai.

Rajput Uprisings

  • There were many Rajput mutinies between 1193 and 1198 A.D.
  • Qutb-ud-din-Aibak defeated them and brought many regions under his control.
  • Muhammad of Ghori made Delhi as the capital.

Battle of Chandwar (1194 A.D.)

  • Muhammad of Ghori defeated Jaichandra, the greatest Rajput ruler of Kanauj and killed him in the battle. 

Conquest of Bengal and Bihar

  • Muhammad-bin-Baktiyar Khilji, one of the commanders of Muhammad of Ghori destroyed Vikramasila in 1202 and Nalanda Universities in 1203A.D. 

Death of Muhammad of Ghori

  • He was assassinated on 25th March 1206 A.D. in Central Asia by some Shia rebels and Khokhars.
  • He is considered to be the real founder of the Turkish Empire in India because of his various invasions and subjugations of the Rajput territories in North India.

The Rajputs

  • The period between 647 A.D. and 1192 A.D., i.e. 500 years is known as the Rajput period in the history of India.
  • The most   powerful   Rajputs: Gahadavalas     [Kanauj),     the Paramaras(Malwa),    and    the

Chauhans (Ajmer)

  • Other smaller dynasties: Kalachuris- Jabalpur, the Chandellas in Bundelkhand),    the    Chalukyas (Gujarat), and the Tomars [Delhi), etc.
  • Prithviraj Chauhan’s [1178-92 AD) empire included Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • His court’s poet Chand Bardai wrote Prithviraj Chauhan’s biography “Prithviraj Raso“.
  • He defeated     Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarrain in ll91,
  • In the Second Battle of Tarrain (1192), Muhammad Ghori won and killed Prithviraj Chauhan.
  • Jayachandra was the king of Kannauj. Muhammad Ghori defeated and killed Jayachandra in the Battle of Chadawarin 1194.
  • Rana Kumbha was the ruler of Mewar, a state in western India.
  • Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, the Vimala Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi were built by Solankis of Gujarat.

Chola Dynasty

  • Three states, namely, Cholas, Cheras, and Pandya emerged in south India.
  • Sangam literature believes that the dynasties of Chola, Chera, and Pandya belong to immemorial antiquity.


  • The Cholas have occupied the region of Kaveri delta and the adjoining area. The region of Kanchi was also part of the Cholas kingdom.
  • The Kingdom was situated towards the north-east of Pandya kingdom and it was also called as Cholamandalam in early medieval times.
  • In the beginning, its capital was Uraiyur in Tiruchirapalli, but subsequently shifted to Kaveripattanam. It was called as ‘Puhar’ at that time.
  • A Chola king, known as Elara, conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for about 50 years during the middle of the 2nd century B.C.
  • Karikala was a famous Chola king of the early time. He was credited because of his two achievements −
    • He had defeated the joint forces of Chera and Pandya kings and
    • He successful invaded Sri Lanka and ruled there.
  • Karikala was defeated in a great battle at Venni near Tanjore by a confederacy of (about) a dozen rulers headed by Chera and Pandya kings.
  • Karikala maintained a powerful navy and conquered Sri Lanka.
  • Karikala built big irrigation channels and embankment about a 160 km along the river Kaveri.
  • Karikala fortified the town and the famous sea part of Puhar at the mouth of the Kaveri.
  • Karikala was a great patron of literature and education.
  • He was a follower of Vedic religion and performed many Vedic sacrifices.
  • The successors of Karikala were quite weak and family members squabbled for power and position therefore the Chola kingdom faced confusion and chaos after Karikala.
  • Illanjetcenni was the only king after Karikala who is known. He had captured two fortresses from the Cheras. However, after Karikala, the Chola empire declined and the Cheras and Pandyas extended their territories.
  • The Cholas were reduced to a small ruling family from about the 4th to the 9th century A.D.

Chera Dynasty

  • The Cheras were also known as ‘Keralaputras’ in the history. The Chera kingdom occupied the region of a narrow strip between the sea and the mountains of Konkan range.
  • The Chera rulers also occupied high position in the history of south India. Nedunjeral Adan was a famous Chera king. He conquered Kadambas with his capital at Vanavasi (near Goa). He also defeated the Yavanas.
  • Nedunjeral Adan had a good relation with the Greeks and Romans who came in large numbers as traders and set up large colonies in south India.
  • Nedunjeral Adan fought a battle with the father of the Chola king Karikala. In this battle, both the kings were killed.
  • Nedunjeral Adan was called as Imayavaramban. The literary meaning of the term Imayavaramban is “one who had the Himalaya Mountains as the boundary of his kingdom.” However, it seems to be mere exaggeration.
  • Sengutturan was the greatest king of the Chera dynasty as mentioned in the Chera tradition. He had defeated the Chola and the Pandya kings.
  • The Chera power declined at the end of the 3rd century A.D. They again acquired power in the 8th century A.D.
  • The important facts about the three early kingdoms of south India are −
    • They constantly fought with each other;
    • They made new alliances against the ones who became powerful; and
    • They also fought regularly with Sri Lanka and ruled there at some point of time.

Objective Multiple Choice Questions on Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India

  1. In the First Battle of Tarain Muhammad of Ghori was defeated by ________.
    (A) Sabuktigin
    (B) Ghiyasuddin
    (C) Prithiviraj Chauhan
    (D) none
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Prithiviraj Chauhan
  2. Somnath temple was plundered by Mahmud of Ghazni in ____________.
    (A) 1025 A.D.
    (B) 1027 A.D.
    (C) 1001 A.D.
    (D) none
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1025 A.D.
  3. The Commander of Muhammad of Ghori was _____________.
    (A) Qutb-ud-din Aibak
    (B) Balban
    (C) Nasir-ud-din
    (D) none
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Qutb-ud-din Aibak
  4. Mahmud of Ghazni defeated __________ the ruler of Hindu Shahi dynasty.
    (A) Jaichand
    (B) Jaipala
    (C) Rajya Pal
    (D) none
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jaipala
  5. Who was the father of Mahmud Ghaznavi?
    (A) Subuktgin
    (B) Qadirbillah
    (C) Alberuni
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Subuktgin
  6. During Mahmud expedition of invasion, who got first defeat in Peshawar?
    (A) Rajyapal

    (B) Jaipal
    (C) Surajpal
    (D) Anandpal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jaipal
  7. Arrange the correct chronology of Mahmud invasion?
    I. Invasion on Somnath

    II. Invasion on Kalinjar
    III. Invasion on Mathura & Kannauj
    IV. Invasion of Thaneshwar
    V. Battle with Anandpal
    (A)  IV, V, III, I, II
    (B) I, II, III, IV, V
    (C) V, IV, III, II, I
    (D) V, I, III, IV, II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) V, IV, III, II, I
  8. Who was the ruler of Gujarat when Mahmud invaded the Somnath temple?
    (A)  Sukhpal

    (B)  AQueen
    (C)  Gand Chandel
    (D)  Bhimdev
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D)  Bhimdev
  9. Which invasion of Mahmud appreciated by Caliph and called Mahmud as Star of Islamic World?
    (A)  Invasion of Thaneshwar

    (B)  Invasion on Kalinjar
    (C)  Invasion on Mathura & Kannauj
    (D)  Invasion on Somnath
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D)  Invasion on Somnath
  10. Which invasion of Mahmud made furious on Pratihara’s ruler Rajyapala?
    (A) Mahmud’s plundered and looting acts in the Kannauj

    (B) When Rajyapala surrenders to the Mahmud
    (C) When Chandel ruler attack Kalinjar
    (D)  When he gifted his state to the Mahmud
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) When Rajyapala surrenders to the Mahmud
    Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  11. Who was the ruler of Multan at the time of Mahmud invasion?
    (A) Bhimdev

    (B) Anandpal
    (C) Sukhpal
    (D) Rajaram
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sukhpal
  12. Who had given Mahmud an investiture to rule as an independent ruler?
    (A) Subuktgin

    (B) Caliph of Baghdad named Qadirbillah
    (C) Ottoman Turk
    (D) Caliph of Arab named Al-hitmatdai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Caliph of Baghdad named Qadirbillah
  13. Who among the following ruler commit suicide after battle with Mahmud?
    (A) Bhimdev

    (B) Rajyapal
    (C) Jaipal
    (D) Sukhpal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jaipal
  14. During which of the following events Indians got the earliest contact with Islam?
    (A) Arab invasion of Sindh in 7th Century
    (B) Turkish Invasion in 11th century
    (C) Arab merchants at the Malabar Coast
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Arab merchants at the Malabar Coast
  15. Dwarasamudra was the capital of which of the following dynasties?
    (A) Hoysala
    (B) Satavahana
    (C) Pandyas
    (D) Cholas
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (A) Hoysala
  16. Who among the following died in consequence of falling from his horse playing chaugan?
    (A) Humayun
    (B) Qutub Ud Din Aibak
    (C) Mohd Ghori
    (D) Alludin Khilji
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Qutub Ud Din Aibak
  17. Silapaddikaram’ and ‘Manimekalai’ are the immortal epic works belonging to which of the following period?
    (A) Pre-Mauryan Age

    (B) Sangam Age
    (C) Gupta Age
    (D) Early Medieval Age
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Sangam Age
  18. The area around which among the following modern cities of India, a Hindu Silhara dynasty ruled from 9th to 13th century AD?
    (A) Mumbai
    (B) Chennai
    (C) Kolkata
    (D) Hyderabad
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (A) Mumbai
  19. After the attack of Mahmud of Ghazanavi, who among the following reconstructed the Somnath Temple?
    (A) Bhimraja -I

    (B) Bhimdev
    (C) Mularaj I
    (D) Jay Singh Siddharaaj
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Bhimdev
  20. Who among the following was known as Lakha Baksh?
    (A) Mohammed Ghori
    (B) Qutubuddin Aibak
    (C) Iltutmish
    (D) Balban
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (B) Qutubuddin Aibak
    Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  21. Who among the following founded the principality of Ghazani in AD 962?
    (A) Mahmood Ghazani
    (B) Subuktgeen
    (C) Alptigin
    (D) Shah Mahmoud
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Alptigin
  22. Who among the following was defeated by Mohammed Ghori in battle of Chandawar?
    (A) Prthviraj Chauhan

    (B) Mularaja
    (C) Jaichandra
    (D) Jaypala
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Jaichandra
  23. Who among the following built the mosque Quwal-ul-lslam at Delhi?
    (A) Alauddin Khilji
    (B) Iltutmish
    (C) Qutubuddin Aiabak
    (D) Babur
    Correct Answer
    Ans: (C) Qutubuddin Aiabak
  24. Which of the following were the first Muslims invaded on India?
    (A) Afghans
    (B) Turks
    (C) Persians
    (D) Arabs
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Arabs
  25. Muhammad Prophet was born in
    (A) 540 A.D

    (B) 570 A.D
    (C) 580 A.D
    (D) 545 A.D
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 570 A.D
  26. Muhammad Prophet went to Madina in
    (A) 598 A.D
    (B) 602 A.D
    (C) 610 A.D
    (D) 622 A.D
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 622 A.D
  27. Prophet Muhammad was died in
    (A) 600 A.D
    (B) 610 A.D
    (C) 630 A.D
    (D) 632 A.D
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 632 A.D
  28. Who was the last Hindu king ruled North India?
    (A) Pulakesi
    (B) Kanishka
    (C) Chandradeva
    (D) Harsha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Harsha
  29. The first Muslim expedition on India took place in
    (A) 716 A.D.
    (B) 718 A.D.
    (C) 712 A.D.
    (D) 720 A.D.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 712 A.D.
  30. Who was the Hindu king at the time of invasion of Muhammad-Bin-Quasim on Sind?
    (A) Dahir
    (B) Hala
    (C) Krishna
    (D) Ananda Pala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Dahir
    Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  31. Who established first Islamic empire in India?
    (A) Hizzaz
    (B) Muhammad-Bin-Quasim
    (C) Muhammad Ghazni
    (D) Muhammad Ghori
    Correct Answer: (D) Muhammad Ghori
  32. Muhammad Ghazni invaded India 17 times between
    (A) 900-950 A.D.
    (B) 950-1000 A.D.
    (C) 1000-1026 A.D.
    (D) 1025-1046 A.D.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1000-1026 A.D.
  33. Muhammad Ghazni plundered Somnath temple in Kathiawar in
    (A) 1020 A.D.
    (B) 1025 A.D.
    (C) 1030 A.D.
    (D) 1029 A.D.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1025 A.D.
  34. The first Tarain war took place in
    (A) 1191 A.D.
    (B) 1193 A.D.
    (C) 1195 A.D.
    (D) 1197 A.D.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1191 A.D.
  35. The second Tarain war took place in
    (A) 1193 A.D.
    (B) 1198 A.D.
    (C) 1199 A.D.
    (D) 1192 A.D.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1192 A.D.
  36. The Rajput king who was defeated and killed in second Tarain was
    (A) Nagabhatta
    (B) Prithviraj Chauhan
    (C) Rana Pratap
    (D) Jaya Chandra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Prithviraj Chauhan
  37. The king of Kanauj Jaya Chandra was defeated and killed by Muhammad Ghori in the battle of
    (A) Tarain war

    (B) Kanwa
    (C) Panipat II
    (D) Chandwar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Chandwar
  38. Who among the following gave stiff resistance to Arabs?
    (A) Gurjara Prathiharas
    (B) Chandelas
    (C) Solankies
    (D) Gahadvalas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gurjara Prathiharas
  39. The battle of Chandwar took place in
    (A) 1192
    (B) 1193
    (C) 1194
    (D) 1195
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1194
  40. Which of the following were conquered by Muhammad Ghori in 1195 A.D?
    (A) Marwar
    (B) Bayana and Gwaliyar
    (C) Mewar
    (D)Marwar and Bundelkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bayana and Gwaliyar
    Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download
  41. Muhammad Ghori was died while suppressing the rebellion of
    (A) Gokkars
    (B) Santals
    (C) Gonds
    (D) Moplas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gokkars
  42. Muhammad Ghori was assassinated in
    (A) 1209
    (B) 1204
    (C) 1203
    (D) 1206
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1206
  43. The first expedition of Muhammad Ghori in 1175 was against
    (A) Lahore
    (B) Multan
    (C) Sindh
    (D) Punjab
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Multan
  44. The ruler of Sindh who was defeated and deposed by Arab invaders
    (A) Harsha
    (B) Dahir
    (C) Vikramaditya
    (D) Maues
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Dahir
  45. The battle that took place between Muhammad Bin Quasim and Dahir, the Sindh ruler
    (A) Chausa

    (B) Belgram
    (C) Chandwar
    (D) Rewar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rewar
  46. Who was the court poet of Muhammad Ghazni?
    (A) Alberuni
    (B) Utbi
    (C) Hasan Nizami
    (D) Firadausi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Firadausi
  47. The period of 17 raids by Muhammad Ghazni on India
    (A) 990-1020
    (B) 1001-1026
    (C) 980-1010
    (D) 998-1046
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1001-1026
  48. When did Muhammad Ghori conquered Punjab?
    (A) 1160
    (B) 1175
    (C) 1180
    (D) 1189
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1175
  49. In the year _____the second battle of Tarain took place
    (A) 1092
    (B) 1292
    (C) 1192
    (D) 1392
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1192
  50. Battle of Waihind took place between
    (A) Jaipala and Muhammad of Ghazini

    (B) Jaipala and Ghori Muhammmad
    (C) Prithviraj and Muhammad Gazini
    (D) Prithviraj and Muhammad Ghori
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jaipala and Muhammad of Ghazini
    Invasion of Arabs and Turks in India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

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