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Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
The Government of India Act 1935
- The Government of India Act was passed by the British Parliament in August
- It was the longest act enacted by the British Parliament at that time.
- So, it was divided into two separate acts namely, the Government of India Act 1935 and the Government of Burma Act 1935.
- After the Third Round Table Conference, the Government of India Act of 1935 passed.
- The Act provided for the establishment of an All India Federation and a new system of government for the provinces on the basis of provincial autonomy.
- The federation was to be based on a union of the provinces of British India and the Princely States.
- There would be a bicameral federal legislature in which the States were given disproportionate weightage.
- The representatives of the States were not to be elected by the people, but appointed directly by the rulers.
- Only 14 percent of the total population in British India was given the right to vote.
- Even this legislature, in which the Princes were once again to be used to check and counter the nationalist elements, was denied the real power.
- Defense and foreign affairs remained outside the legislature’s control, while the Governor-General retained special control over the other subjects.
- The Governor-General and the Governors were to be appointed by the British Government and were responsible for the governance.
- In the provinces, local power was increased.
- The ministers responsible for the provincial assemblies were to control all departments of provincial administration.
- But the Governors were given special powers.
- They could veto legislative action and legislate on their own.
- Moreover, the government retained full control over the civil service and the police.
- The Act could not satisfy the nationalist aspiration for both political and economic power continued to be concentrated in the hands of the British Government.
- Foreign rule was to continue as before, only a few popularly elected ministers were to be added to the structure of British administration in India.
- Congress condemned the Act as “totally disappointing.”
- The federal part of the Act was never introduced, but the provincial part was soon put into operation.
- Though bitterly opposed to the Act, the Congress contested the elections under the new Act of 1935.
- The elections conclusively demonstrated that a large majority of Indian people supported the Congress, which swept the polls in most of the provinces.
- Congress ministries were formed in July 1937 in seven out of eleven provinces.
- Later, Congress formed coalition governments in two others.
- Only Bengal and Punjab had non-Congress
- The important features of Congress Ministries after the 1937 election were:
- The Congress ministers reduced their own salaries drastically to Rs. 500 per month;
- Most of them traveled in the second or third class railway compartments;
- They set up new standards of honesty and public service;
- They paid greater attention to primary, technical, and higher education and public health;
- They helped the peasant bypassing anti-usury and tenancy legislation;
- They promoted civil liberties.
- Political prisoners were released;
- There was “relaxation of police and secret service raj;”
- Freedom of the press was enhanced; and
- Trade unions felt freer and were able to win wage increases for workers.
- The period between 1935 and 1939 witnessed several other important political developments which, in a way, marked a new turn in the nationalist movement and the Congress.
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Evolution of the Two-Nation Theory
- The two-nation theory was the basis for the partition of India in 1947.
- This theory supported the proposal that Muslims and non-Muslims should be two separate nations.
- It is the ideology that the main identity and unifying aspect of Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity.
- The term “two-nation theory” was first used by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan due to the Hindu-Urdu Controversy in 1867.
- It was a founding principle of the Pakistan Movement and the partition of India in 1947.
- The ideology that religion is the main factor in defining the nationality of Indian Muslims was used by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
- He called it ‘the awakening of Muslims for the creation of Pakistan’.
The August Offer
- During the Second World War, the Indian National Congress (INC) leaders were upset with the British government for having pulled India into a war without the consent of Indians.
- Lord Linlithgow had declared India to be at war with Germany without consultation.
- France had fallen to the Axis Powers and the Allies were suffering many reverses in the war. There was also a change of government in Britain and Winston Churchill became the British Prime Minister in 1940.
- The British government was keen to get Indian support for the war.
- Britain herself was in danger of being occupied by the Nazis and in this light, the INC softened its stand. It said that support for the war would be provided if power was transferred to an interim government in India.
- Then, the Viceroy Linlithgow made a set of proposals called the ‘August offer’. For the first time, the right of Indians to frame their own constitution was acknowledged.
The terms of the August Offer
- A representative Indian body would be framed after the war to frame a constitution for India.
- Dominion status was the objective for India.
- The Viceroy’s Executive Council would be expanded right away to include for the first time more Indians than whites. However, defense, finance, and home portfolios were to remain with the British.
- An advisory war council was to be established.
- An assurance was given to the minorities that no transfer of power would take place “to any system of government whose authority is directly denied by large and powerful elements in Indian national life.”
The response of the Indian leaders
- The INC rejected this offer at its meeting at Wardha in August 1940.
- It demanded complete freedom from colonial rule.
- Jawaharlal Nehru remarked that the dominion status concept was as dead as a doornail.
- After this, Mahatma Gandhi initiated the Individual Satyagraha to affirm the right to free speech.
- He avoided a mass Satyagraha because he did not want violence.
- The first three Satyagrahis were Vinoba Bhave, Nehru, and Brahma Datt. All three were jailed.
- The Satyagrahis also started a march towards Delhi which was called the ‘Delhi Chalo Movement’.
- After the failure of the August Offer, the British government sent the Cripps Mission to India in a bid to garner Indian support for the war.
- The Cripps Mission was sent by the British government to India in March 1942 to obtain Indian cooperation for the British war efforts in the 2nd World War.
- It was headed by Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, a labor minister in Winston Churchill’s coalition government in Britain.
- For the first time, the British government acknowledged India’s right to be a dominion.
- Indians could frame their own Constitution.
- The proposal of giving freedom to the provinces to be a separate union turned out to be a model for the country’s partition in 1947.
- In the interim period, Indians were guaranteed a good share in the administration.
Reasons for failure of the Cripps Mission
- The proposals were seen as too radical by the British and as too conservative by the INC who wanted complete independence.
- The Mission was rejected by the INC, the Muslim League, and other Indian groups.
- The Hindu Mahasabha and the Liberals were against the right of states to secede.
- The Sikhs objected because they thought any partition would leave Punjab in the hands of Pakistan.
- After the failure of the mission, Cripps returned to England, and the Congress-led by Gandhi started their new campaign, the Quit India Movement in August 1942.
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Quit India Movement
- Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan also known as August Kranti Maidan is the place where Mahatma Gandhi delivered his speech marking the beginning of the Quit India Movement.
- Mahatma along with other leaders gathered here on August 8 and 9, 1942. The maidan also houses a monument as a tribute to the historical event.
- It was officially launched by the Indian National Congress (INC) led by Mahatma Gandhi on 9 August 1942.
- The movement gave the slogans ‘Quit India’ or ‘Bharat Chodo’. Gandhi gave the slogan to the people – ‘Do or die’.
- Within hours of the speech, almost the entire INC was imprisoned without trial.
- Several national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Abdul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel were arrested.
- Congress was declared an unlawful association, leaders were arrested and its offices all over the country were raided and their funds were frozen.
- The first half of the movement was peaceful with demonstrations and processions. The peaceful protest was carried till Mahatma Gandhi’s release.
- The second half of the movement was violent with raids and setting fire at post offices, government buildings, and railway stations. Lord Linlithgow adopted the policy of violence.
- The Viceroy’s Council of Muslims, Communist Party, and Americans supported Britishers.
- After the arrest of major leaders, young Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session. Despite several police warnings and government notices for banning public processions and assemblies, a large crowd gathered at Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan where Aruna Asaf Ali hoisted the flag.
- The final phase of the movement was marked in September 1942 where mobs getting together and bombings in government places of Mumbai and Madhya Pradesh.
- The British refused to grant immediate independence and stated that it could only be granted after the war ended.
Famine of 1943
- The worst-affected areas were south-west Bengal comprising the Tamluk- COntai- Diamond Harbour region, Dacca, Faridpur, Tippera and Noakhali.
- Around 5 to 3 million people perished in this basically man-made famine, the epidemics (malaria, cholera, and small pox), malnutrition and starvation.
- The fundamental causes of the famine are as follows:
- The need to feed a vast Army diverted foodstuffs.
- Rice imports from Burma and South-East Asia had been stopped.
- The famine got aggravated by gross mismanagement and deliberate profiteering; rationing methods were belated and were confined to big cities.
In the book, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India during World War II, written by Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill was quoted as blaming the famine on the fact Indians were “breeding like rabbits“, and asking how, if the shortages were so bad, Mahatma Gandhi was still alive.
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Formation of Indian National Army
The idea of the Indian National Army (INA) was first conceived in Malaya by Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British Indian Army when he decided not to join the retreating British Army and instead turned to the Japanese for help.
- The Japanese handed over the Indian prisoners of war (POWs) to Mohan Singh who tried to recruit them into an Indian National Army.
- In1942, after the fall of Singapore, Mohan Singh further got 45,000 POWs into his sphere of influence.
- 2 July 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’
- Netaji was made the President of the Indian Independence League and soon became the supreme commander of the Indian National Army. Here he gave the slogan of Jai Hind.
- INA’s three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade, Gandhi Brigade, and Nehru Brigade.
- The women’s wing of the army was named after Rani Laxmibai.
- INA marched towards Imphal after registering its victory over Kohima but after Japan’s surrender in 1945, INA failed in its efforts.
- Under such circumstances, Subhash went to Taiwan & further on his way to Tokyo he supposedly died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash.
- Trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi.
- Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Kailash Nath Katju, Asaf Ali, and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soldiers.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
- Subhas Chandra Bose is one of the most eminent freedom fighters of India.
- Popularly known as Netaji, was born on Jan 23, 1897, at Cuttack.
- He passed the Indian Civil Services Examination in 1920 but refused to take up service since he did not want to serve the British government. He left it on the Gandhiji’s call of Non – Cooperation Movement.
- Bose joined the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1921.
- He also started a newspaper called ‘Swaraj’.
- He was the President of the All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary of the Bengal State Congress.
- In 1924, he became the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation.
- In 1930, he became the Mayor of Calcutta.
- He founded the Independence for India League with Jawahar Lal Nehru.
- In 1938, he was elected the President of the INC at its Haripura session (Gujarat), and in 1939, he was elected President of its Tripuri session by defeating Gandhiji’s candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya.
- But he had to resign from Tripuri due to differences with Gandhiji.
- He founded the Forward Block in 1939.
- In 1941, he escaped to Berlin and met Hitler.
- In 1943, he took charge of the Indian National Army in Singapore and set up the Indian Provisional Government
- He gave the war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’.
- He addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the “Father of the Nation.”
- He gave the slogan of ‘Jai Hind.’
- Bose authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’ which covers the Indian independence movement from 1920 to 1942. The book was banned by the British government.
- He supposedly died in a plane crash on Aug 18, 1945
- He coined the term ‘Jai Hind’. His charisma and powerful personality inspired many people into the freedom struggle and continues to inspire Indians. He was called Netaji.
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Netaji’s Role in Indian Independence Struggle
- Bose was sent to prison in Mandalay for nationalist activities in 1925. He was released in 1927 and became the INC’s general secretary.
- He worked with Jawaharlal Nehru and the two became the Congress Party’s young leaders gaining popularity among the people.
- He advocated complete Swaraj and was in favor of the use of force to gain it.
- He had differences with Gandhi and he wasn’t keen on non-violence as a tool for independence.
- Bose stood for and was elected the party’s president in 1939 but was forced to resign due to differences with Gandhi’s supporters.
- Bose’s ideology tilted towards socialism and leftist authoritarianism.
- He formed the All India Forward Bloc in 1939 as a faction within the Congress.
- At the start of the Second World War, Bose protested against the government for not consulting Indians before dragging them into the war.
- He was arrested when he organized protests in Calcutta for the removal of the monument memorializing the Black Hole of Calcutta.
- He was released after a few days but was kept under surveillance.
- He then made his escape from the country in 1941 to Germany via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. He had previously traveled to Europe and met with Indian students and European political leaders.
- In Germany, he met with the Nazi leaders and hoped to stage an armed struggle against the British to gain independence. He hoped to befriend the Axis powers since they were against his ‘enemy’ the British.
- He founded the Indian Legion out of about 4500 Indian soldiers who were in the British army and had been taken prisoners by the Germans from North Africa.
- In 1943, he left Germany for Japan disillusioned with German support for Azad Hind.
- Bose’s arrival in Japan revived the Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) which had been formed earlier with Japanese help.
- Azad Hind or the Provisional Government of Free India was established as a government-in-exile with Bose as the head. Its headquarters was in Singapore. The INA was its military.
- Bose motivated the troops with his fiery speeches. His famous quote is, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!”
- The INA supported the Japanese army in its invasion of northeast India and also took control of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. However, they were forced to retreat by the British forces.
Death of Netaji Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
- Bose died of third-degree burns which he suffered in a plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945.
- However, many in India refused to believe that he had died.
- Many inquiry committees were tasked with finding out what happened on that day.
- The Figgess Report (1946) and the Shah Nawaz Committee (1956) concluded that Bose died in the plane crash in Taiwan.
- The Khosla Commission (1970) also concurred with the previous reports.
- But the Mukherjee Commission (2005) said that Bose’s death could not be proved. This report was rejected by the government.
C. R. Formula
- C. Rajagopalachari’s formula (or C. R. formula or Rajaji formula) was a proposal formulated by Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress on independence of India from the British.
- C. Rajagopalachari, a Congress leader from Madras, devised a proposal for the Congress to offer the League the Muslim Pakistan based on plebiscite of all the peoples in the regions where Muslims made a majority.
- Although the formula was opposed even within the Congress party, Gandhi used it as his proposal in his talks with Jinnah in 1944.
However, Jinnah rejected the proposal and the talks failed.
Cabinet Mission (1946)
- On 15 March 1946 Lord Atlee (PM of England) made a historic announcement in which the right to self-determination and the framing of a Constitution for India were conceded.
- Consequently, 3 members of the British Cabinet – Pattrick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps, and A V Alexander – were sent to India, known as the Cabinet Mission.
- The main features of Cabinet Mission were –
- Provisions for three groups of provinces to possess their separate constitutions.
- Proposed the formation of a Union of India, comprising both British India and the Princely States.
- Union would remain in charge of only foreign affairs, defense, and communications leaving the residuary powers to be vested in the provinces.
- Proposed setting up an Interim Government, which would remain in office till a new government was elected on the basis of the new Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly
- Rejection of the demand for a full-fledged Pakistan
- Both the Muslim League and the Congress accepted the plan
- Consequently, elections were held in July 1946 for the formation of a Constituent Assembly.
- Congress secured 205 out of 214 General seats.
- The Muslim League got 73 out of 78 Muslim seats.
- An Interim Government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2 September 1946.
- Between March and May of 1947, Mountbatten decided that the Cabinet Mission Plan had become untenable and formulated an alternative plan.
- This plan envisaged the transfer of power to separate provinces (or to a confederation, if formed before the transfer)
- Punjab and Bengal were given the option to vote for partition of their provinces.
- The various units thus formed along with the princely states (rendered independent by lapse of paramountcy) would have the option of joining India or Pakistan or remaining separate.
- The plan was quickly abandoned after Nehru reacted violently to it.
Mountbatten Plan (1947)
- On 20 February l947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the House of Commons the definite intention
- To affect the transference of that power Atlee decided to send Lord Mountbatten as Viceroy to India.
- Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India’s Viceroy on 24 March 1947.
- The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him.
- After extensive consultation, Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947.
- The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan.
Indian Independence Act of 1947
- British Government accorded formal approval to the Mountbatten Plan by enacting the Indian Independence Act on 18 July 1947. The salient features of this Act were –
- Partition of the country into India and Pakistan would come into effect from 15 August 1947.
- British Government would transfer all powers to these two Dominions.
- A Boundary Commission would demarcate the boundaries of the provinces of the Punjab and Bengal.
- Act provided for the transfer of power to the Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions, which will have full authority to frame their respective Constitutions.
- Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan.
- On 15th August 1947 India, and on the 14th August Pakistan came into existence as two independent states.
- Lord Mountbatten was made the first Governor-General of Independent India, whereas Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor-General of Pakistan.
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Integration of Princely States after Independence
- The Indian Independence Act of 1947gave princely states an option to accede to the newly born dominions India or Pakistan or continue as an independent sovereign state.
- At that time more than 500 princely states have covered 48 percent of the area of pre-Independent India and constituted 28% of its population.
- These kingdoms were not legally part of British India, but in reality, they were completely subordinate to the British Crown.
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel(India’s first deputy prime minister and the home minister) with the assistance of P Menon (the secretary of the Ministry of the States) was given the formidable task of integrating the princely states.
- He also introduced the concept of “privy purses”— a payment to be made to royal families for their agreement to merge with India.
- Bikaner, Baroda, and few other states from Rajasthan were the first ones to join the union.
- There were several other states that were adamant to not join India. Some of them thought this to be the best moment to acquire independent statehood, while there were others who wanted to become a part of Pakistan.
- The southern Indian maritime state was strategically placed for maritime trade and was rich in both human and mineral resources.
- It was one of the first princely states to refuse accession to the Indian union and question the Congress’ leadership of the nation.
- By 1946, the Dewan of Travancore, Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyardeclared his intention of forming an independent state of Travancore that would be open to the idea of signing a treaty with the Indian union.
- Sir C.P. Aiyar is also said to have had secret ties with the UK government who were in support of an independent Travancore in the hope that they would get exclusive access to a mineral called monazite that the area was rich in, and would give an edge to Britain in the nuclear arms race.
- He stuck to his position till as late as July 1947. He changed his mind soon after he survived an assassination attempt by a member of the Kerala Socialist Party.
- On July 30, 1947, Travancore joined India.
- The Rajput princely state despite having a Hindu king and a large Hindu population strangely had a tilt towards Pakistan.
- Young and inexperienced, Jodhpur prince, Hanvant Singh reckoned that he may get a better “deal” from Pakistan since his state was contiguous with the country.
- Jinnah reported having given the Maharaja a signed blank sheet of paper to list all his demands.
- He also offered him free access to the Karachi port to arms manufacturing and importing along with military and agrarian support.
- Seeing the risks in the border state acceding to Pakistan, Patel immediately contacted the prince and offered him sufficient benefits.
- Patel assured him that importing arms would be allowed, Jodhpur would be connected to Kathiawar by rail, and that India would supply grain to it during famines.
- On 11th August 1947, Maharaja Hanvant Singh, King of Jodhpur signed the Instrument of Accession, and the State of Jodhpur was integrated into the Indian Dominion.
- It was another state that wished to declare independence.
- Here a Muslim Nawab, Hamidullah Khan, was ruling over a majority Hindu population.
- He was a close friend of the Muslim League and staunchly opposed the Congress rule.
- He had made clear his decision to attain independence to Mountbatten.
- However, the latter wrote back to him stating that “no ruler could run away from the dominion closest to him”.
- By July 1947, the Prince became aware of the large number of princes who had acceded to India and decided to join India.
- It was the largest and richest of all princely states, covered a large portion of the Deccan plateau.
- Nizam Mir Usman Ali was presiding over a largely Hindu population in the princely state.
- He was very clear on his demand for an independent state and blatantly refused to join the Indian dominion.
- He drew support from Jinnah and the tussle over Hyderabad grew stronger over time.
- Both requests and threats from Patel and other mediators failed to change the mind of the Nizam, who kept expanding his army by importing arms from Europe.
- Things took a turn for the worse when armed fanatics (called Razakars)unleashed violence targeted at Hyderabad’s Hindu residents.
- The Congress government decided to make a more decisive turn after the Lord Mountbatten’s resignation in June 1948.
- On September 13, 1948, Indian troops were sent to Hyderabad under ‘Operation Polo’.
- In an armed encounter that lasted for about four days, the Indian army gained full control of the state and Hyderabad became an integral part of India.
- Later, in an attempt to reward the Nizam for his submission, he was made the governor of the state of Hyderabad.
- The princely state, situated on the southwestern end of Gujarat, also did not accede to the Indian union by August 15, 1947.
- It was the most important among the group of Kathiawar states and contained a large Hindu population ruled by the Nawab, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III.
- On September 15, 1947, Nawab Mahabat Khanji chose to accede to Pakistan ignoring Mountbatten’s views, arguing that Junagadh adjoined Pakistan by sea.
- The rulers of two states that were subject to the suzerainty of Junagadh — Mangrol, and Babariawad— reacted by declaring their independence from Junagadh and acceding to India.
- In response, the nawab of Junagadh militarily occupied the two states. Rulers of the other neighboring states reacted angrily, sending troops to the Junagadh frontier, and appealed to the Government of India for assistance.
- India believed that if Junagadh was permitted to accede to Pakistan, communal tension already simmering in Gujarat would worsen, and refused to accept the Nawab’s choice of accession.
- The government pointed out that the state was 80% Hindu, and called for a plebiscite to decide the question of accession.
- India cut off supplies of fuel and coal to Junagadh, severed air and postal links, sent troops to the frontier, and occupied the principalities of Mangrol and Babariawad that had acceded to India.
- Pakistan agreed to discuss a plebiscite, subject to the withdrawal of Indian troops, a condition India rejected.
- On 26 October, the Nawab and his family fled to Pakistan following clashes with Indian troops. Before leaving, the Nawab had emptied the state treasury of its cash and securities.
- On November 7, 1947 Junagadh’s court, facing collapse, invited the Government of India to take over the State’s administration.
- The Dewan of Junagadh, Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto, the father of the more famous Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, decided to invite the Government of India to intervene.
- The government of India accepted the invitation of the Dewan to intervene.
- A plebiscite was conducted in February 1948, which went almost unanimously in favor of accession to India.
- Junagadh became a part of the Indian state of Saurashtra until November 1, 1956, when Saurashtra became part of Bombay state.
- In 1960, Bombay state was split into the linguistic states of Maharashtra and Gujarat, in which Junagadh was located and since then Junagadh is part of Gujarat.
- It was a princely state with a Hindu king ruling over a predominant Muslim population which had remained reluctant to join either of the two dominions.
- The case of this strategically located kingdom was not just very different but also one of the toughest as it had important international boundaries.
- The ruler of Kashmir Maharaja Hari Singh had offered a proposal of standstill agreement to both India and Pakistan, pending a final decision on the state’s accession.
- Pakistan entered into the standstill agreement but it invaded the Kashmir from north with an army of soldiers and tribesmen carrying weapons. In the early hours of 24th October 1947, thousands of tribal Pathan swept into Kashmir.
- The Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir appealed to India for help. He sent his representative Sheikh Abdullah to Delhi to ask for India’s help.
- On 26th October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh fled from Srinagar and arrived in Jammu where he signed an ‘Instrument of Accession’ of J&K state.
- According to the terms of the document, the Indian jurisdiction would extend to external affairs, communications, and defense. After the document was signed, Indian troops were airlifted into the state and fought alongside the Kashmiris.
- On 5th March, 1948, Maharaja Hari Singh announced the formation of an interim popular government with Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah as the Prime Minister.
- In 1951, the state constituent assembly was elected. It met for the first time in Srinagar on 31st October 1951.
- In 1952, the Delhi Agreement was signed between Prime Ministers of India and Jammu & Kashmir giving the special position to the state under the Indian Constitutional framework.
- On 6th February 1954, the J&K constituent assembly ratified the accession of the state to the Union of India.
- The President subsequently issued the constitution order under Article 370of the Constitution extending the Union Constitution to the state with some exceptions and modifications.
- As per Section 3of the J&K constitution, Jammu & Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India.
- On 5thof August 2019, the President of India promulgated the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019.
- The order effectively abrogates the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under the provision of Article 370 – whereby provisions of the Constitution that were applicable to other states were not applicable to Jammu and Kashmir (J&K).
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)
Important Points to remember about Indian National Movement
- By the end of the 19th century, the annual per capita income of India was Rs. 18.
- In 1867 several Bengali intellectuals floated a Hindu Mela, with the aim of spreading Nationalists ideas and promoting indigenous arts and crafts.
- Bengal British India Society was founded by Dwarkanath Tagore in 1843.
- The Poona Sarvajankik Sabha was founded by M.G. Ranade and G.V. Joshi in 1870.
- The East India Association was founded by Dada Bhai Naoroji in 1866.
- The venue of the first session of the Indian National Congress was fixed at Pune.
- The venue was shifted to Bombay because cholera broke out at Pune.
- At Bombay, the session was held at Tejpal Sanskrit Pathshala, Bombay.
- 72 delegates participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress.
- At the time of the first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885, the secretary of state for India was Kimberely.
- The government servants were forbidden to take any part in the proceedings of the Congress after the Allahabad session (1888).
- The Boycott against the partition of Bengal was suggested by a Bengali weekly ‘Sanjivani’ and was adopted at a public meeting at Bagerhat.
- The All India Muslim League was established on 3 December. 1906.
- Vasudeo Balwant Phadke created a terror for British authorities in 1878 in Maharashtra.
- The great revolutionary Sri Shyamji Krishna Verma was a great Sanskrit scholar and also been the Dewan of Udaipur and Junagarh States.
- Shyamji Verma, the first man to initiate and fight for India’s struggle of independence from outside India started to publish a journal ‘Sociologists’ from January 1905.
- D. Savarkar wrote a book ‘Joseph Mazzini-Biography and Politics’ in 1906.
- Madam Bhikaji Cama was arrested in 1914 and deported to an island for four years.
- The original name of the Gadar Party was the ‘Hindi Association of the Pacific Coast’.
- The branches of the Gadar Party were established in Manila, Bangkok. Hongkong, Shanghai, and Panama.
- In 1915 an Indian Independence Committee was formed with the help of the German Government to organize invasion of Burma from Siam and China.
- Tilak set up the Indian Home Rule league on 28 April 1916 with headquarters at Poona.
- Annie Beasant founded the Home Rule League on 1 September. 1916 with Headquater at Madras.
- In 1910. Baba Gurdit Singh floated a shipping company under the name of ‘Guru Nanak Navigation Company‘ and hired a Japanese Ship ‘Kamagate Mn’.
- Vishnu Ganesh Pingle, Ras Behari Bose, and Sachin Sanyal arrived in Punjab to organize a final revolt on 21 February. 1915.
- Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta threw bombs in the Legislative Assembly at Delhi on 8 April 1929.
- Jatin Das started a hunger strike to protest the ill-treatment of prisoners in Jail. He died on 18 September 1920 after a fast of 64 days.
- Chandrashekhar died in a skirmish with the police in 1931 at Alfred Park. Allahabad.
- The Hindustan Republic Association was reorganized in September 1928 as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association or Army (H.S.R.A.) with provincial units at Bengal, Punjab, U.P. Bihar, Delhi, and Madras.
- Suryasen masterminded the Chittagong Armoury Raid and declared himself the president of the provincial Independent Government of India.
- Madan Lal Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Wyllie, political A.D.C. to the Indian office in 1909.
- In 1905. Shyamji Krishan Verma set up the Indian Home Rule Society in London popularly known as the Indian House.
- The dead bodies of Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru, and Sukhdev were cremated at Hussain walla off Ferozpur on 23 March. 1931.
- The slogan of “Inquilab Zindabad” under which Gandhiji fought the struggle was first popularised by the revolutionaries.
- Barinder Kumar Ghosh was the younger brother of Aurbindo Ghosh.
- In 1905 Barinder Ghosh and Pulin Das published a book entitled ‘Bhavani Mandir‘ in 1905.
- In 1907 they wrote another book called ‘Vartaman Rajniti‘.
- A periodical ‘Yugantar‘ was started by the leaders of Anusilan Samiti which openly preached armed rebellion against the British.
- Unfortunately, two European ladies were killed (30 April 1908) in place of the unpopular British judge Kingsford.
- Narendra Gasain was the black sheep who disclosed the secret of the society.
- He was shot dead by Kanhai Lal Dutta and Satyen Bose.
- Bandar Ghosh, Hemchandra Das, Ullas Dutta, Upendra Bannerjee, etc. were convicted in the Alipur conspiracy case.
- Jatindra Nath Mukherjee earned the imperishable title of ‘Bagh Jatin‘ for his epic struggle against the police force at Balasore.
- The Chapekar brothers were associated with the revolutionary society ‘Hindu Dharma Sabha’.
- Abhinav Bharat Society was founded by V.D. Savarkar in 1904.
- Nilakanta Brahmachari and Vanchi Aiyar founded Bharat Mata Association.
- Vanchi Aiyar killed the District Magistrate of Tirunelvelli. Mr. Ashe and later committed suicide.
- Sister Nivedita, the Irish disciple of Swami Vivekanand supported the Anusilan Samiti.
- Bipin Behari Ganguly founded a secret society Atmonnaati Samiti.
- A Marathi Scholar Sakharam Ganesh Desukar who was proficient in Bengali. provided a link between the revolutionaries of Bengal and Maharashtra.
- Shyamji Krishna Verma founded the Indian Home Rule Society with the object of securing Home rule for India.
- Tarak Nath Das formed the Indian Independence League in 1907 in California.
- Raja Mahendra Pratap and Barkatullah set up a provisional Government of India in Kabul with the support of Russia and Germany.
- Kakori is a wayside Railway station on the Lucknow-Saharanpur line.
- Ram Prasad Bismil also participated in the Mainpuri conspiracy case.
- Michael O’ Dyer was shot dead by Udham Singh where he was scheduled to attend a lecture in Caxton hall London on 131h March 1940.
- British philosopher C.E.C. Joad called Gandhi a ‘moral genius’.
- The first poetry of Rabindra Nath Tagore was published in Tatya Bodhini Patrika in 1874.
- During the 1905 partition of Bengal, the song of Rabindra Nath Tagore ‘Amar Sonar Bangla‘ became very popular.
- In 1911 Rabindra Nath Tagore composed the National Anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana‘.
- Rabindra Nath Tagore is called the ‘Goethe of India’ and the ‘Leonardo da Vinci’ of the Indian Renaissance.
- Gandhi established ‘Phoenix Farm’ near Durban in South Africa.
- Gandhi was influenced by the writings of John Ruskin.
- The ryotwari system was first introduced in Tamil Nadu by Thomas Munroe and Captain Read.
- Merttins Bird is regarded as the Father of Land settlements in Northern India.
- Opium was grown in British territories of Banaras and Patna and also in some Indian States.
- The East India Company had the monopoly of trade in salt and opium.
- Salt was manufactured by solar evaporation along the Coromandel and Malabar Coast.
- The theory of ‘Drain of Wealth’ was propagated by Dada Bhai Nauroji.
- C. Dutta propagated this theory in his book ‘The Economic History under Early British Rule’.
- The Drain of Wealth was officially adopted by the Indian National Congress in 1896 at the Calcutta session.
- The growth of modern industries in India was greatly hampered on account of the lack of Indian capital and technical education.
- Before the 19th century India was known as the ‘sink of precious metals’ because India was the pool of manufacture and distribution of diverse commodities all over the world.
- Karl Marx was the first to formulate the theory of three successive phases of British Colonisation in India, i.e., Mercantilist, Free trade Mercantile Capitalism and Finance imperialism.
- Dada Bhai Nauroji said that “The British rule was a bleeding drain from India.”
- In 1875 even Salisbury, the secretary of state for India, remarked ‘India must be bled, but the bleeding should be done injudiciously.
- In 1865 Dada Bhai Nauroji founded the ‘London Indian Society‘ in collaboration with W.C. Banerjee with the objective of publicizing Indian grievances.
- Dada Bhai was the first Indian to be elected to the British House of Commons.
- Papers Presented by Dada Bhai Nauroji on Drain of Wealth
- Poverty and unBritish Rule in India (1857)
- The Wants and Means of India (1870) and
- On the Commence of India (1871)
- Dada Bhai Nauroji is known as ‘the grand old man of India‘.
- The First Factory Act was passed in 1881 during the Governor Generalship of Lord Ripon.
- The Second Factory Act was passed in 1891 during the Governor Generalship of Lord Lansdowne.
- In 1908, the textile workers of Bombay went on strike over the imprisonment of Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
- The Madras Labour Union was the first modern trade union organization of India.
- The All India Trade Union Congress in 1920 was a direct outcome of the establishment of the International Labour Organization in 1919.
- The term ‘Left’ and ‘Right’ were used for the first time as political terms in France.
- The Communist Party of India was formed by MN. Roy.
- In July 1934 the Communist Party of India was declared an illegal organization.
- The communists branded the Congress socialists as ‘Fake Socialists’.
- The Congress Socialists branded the communists as ‘Social-Chauvinists’.
- The Bihar Socialist Party was formed in 1931 by Jai Prakash Narayan, Phulan Prasad Velma, etc.
- The Congress Socialists described Jinnah as a tool in the hands of imperialists.
- Einstein. Harold Laski. H.G. Wells and American president Roosevelt sympathetically commented on Meerut conspiracy trials.
- The Meerut trial dealt a heavy blow to the working-class movement.
- The Nationalist leaders who were in close touch with AITUC included Lala Lajpat Rai. V.V. Girl, CR. Das, Subhash Chandra Bose, Sarojini Naidu, etc.
- The Nationalists Trade Union Federation (NTUF) was formed in 1933.
- In May 1944 the Indian National Trade Union Congress was established whose aim was to work in the labor movement according to the Gandhian guidelines.
- A conference of Trade Unions was held in 1941 in Lahore.
- NTUF and AITUC jointly held a common session at Nagpur in 1938 which led to their assimilation in 1940.
- The indigo revolt began from Govindpur village in Nadia district.
- The intelligentsia and the press gave tremendous support to indigo planters. ‘Neel Darpan‘ a play written by Deen Bandhu Mitra vividly portrayed the oppression of Indigo planters.
- Another indigo movement started in 1867-68 in Champaran.
- The Deccan riot began from the village Kardeb in Sirur Taluka in December 1874.
- The three principal leaders of the Pabna unrest were Shah Chandra Roy, Khoodi Mallah, and Shambhu Pal.
- Pabna unrest was centered around the permanent settlement areas. Abwab was a variety of ceases levied upon the peasants.
- The Muslim landholders of South Malabar (Kerala) were popularly known as Moplah.
- The Moplahs were mainly converted to Islam from the lower caste Hindus like llyya.
- The Moplah outbreaks assumed the dimensions of class conflict with religious favor.
- The Moplah declared All Musaliar as Raja and Khilafat flags were unfurled over government buildings in the Erode taluk of South Malabar.
- Twenty-two Moplah uprisings were recorded between 1836 and 1854.
- The Bengal Indigo movement of 1860 spread to Pabna, Nadia, Decca, Maid& Khulna, Jessore, Rajshahi, Dinajpur, and other places of Bengal.
- British Government of India appointed an Indigo Commission in 1860 whose recommendations were included in Act VI of 1862.
- Punjab Land Alienation Act was passed in 1900.
- The first session of All India Kisan Sabha witnessed the participation of Jawahar Lal Nehru, Acharya Narendra Deva, Ram Manohar Lohia, Indulal Yagnik, Sohan Singh Josh, Kamal Sarkar, Jai Prakash Narain, etc.
- ‘Bakasht’ was self-cultivated lands.
- In Bengal and Bihar, powerful peasant movements were launched against the hated ‘Chaukidari’ Tax.
- Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up at Pratapgarh in October 1920 at the instigation of M.M. Malviya.
- The main grievance of the ‘Eka movement’ was the extraction of rent which used to 50% higher than the recorded rent.
- The Bihar Kisan Sabha was founded by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati.
- Nehru built up a ‘left-wing lobby within the Congress’ whose campaign was first started by Rafi Ahmad Kidwai in Rae-Bareli.
- The All India Kisan Sabha organized a Bihar Kisan day on 18 October 1937 against police repression on Satyagrahis.
- Swami Sahajanand resigned from the Kisan Sabha in 1945. The event marked the beginning of the complete control of the communists over the Kisan Sabha.
- Lord Canning was the first Governor-General to adopt the additional title of Viceroy.
- The power was transferred from the company to Crown by the Act of 1858.
- The two Boundary commissions for Punjab and Bengal were set up by the Act of 1947 under the chairmanship of Cyril Radcliffe.
- Burma ceased to be a part of India by the Act of 1935.
- Commenting on the provisions of the Act of 1935, Jawahar Lal Nehru said, “The Act had all brakes but no engine.”
- The system of the portfolio was introduced for the first time by the Act of 1861.
- The significant feature of the Indian Council Act of 1892 was the introduction of the principle of election.
- The word Dyarchy is taken from the Greek words ‘di’ meaning two and ‘archia’ meaning rule. Thus the meaning is the rule for the government by two rulers.
- The Royal Commission, popularly known as Simon Commission was headed by John Simon, a member of the British Liberal Party.
- Lord Birken Head was the secretary of state at the time of the arrival of the Simon Commission in India.
- Lala Lajpat Rai died by the injuries caused by a lathi charge at Lahore while protesting against the Simon Commission.
- The Cripps Mission of 1942 was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps. Gandhiji described the Cripps proposals as a ‘Post-dated cheque on a failing bank‘.
- The Wavell plan was published on 4 June 1945. The political conference on Wavell’s plan began on 29th June 1945 in Simla. It is popularly known as the Simla conference.
- The talks crashed because Mr. Jinnah did not agree to appoint any Muslim in the Executive council of Muslims who did not belong to the League. The Cabinet Mission consisted of three British Cabinet Ministers
- Lord Pethick Lawrence
- Sir Stafford Cripps and
- The Muslim League rejected the Cabinet Mission plan and observed 16 August 1946 as ‘Direct Action Day’.
- The Constituent Assembly first met on 9 December. 1946.
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- Revolutionary Activities During the 1920s
Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947) | Indian National Movement Phase- III (1935-1947)