Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics

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Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics
Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics
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Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics

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Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics cover the static portion of the INM phase. It also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) to enhance your preparation for Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, Gram Panchayat, Postal Assistant, Agriculture, Court, PSC, LIC, CMAT and all other State Level Public Service Commission exams.

Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics discuss Introduction of the Civil Service exam in India, Development of education, Development of Press in India, Vernacular Press Act, Newspapers and Journals, Governor-General and Viceroys of India, INC Annual Sessions, Famous trials of the Nationalist period.


Introduction of Civil Service exam in India

  • The earliest origins of civil service in India for administration purposes can be traced back to the period after 1757 when the East India Company were the de-facto rulers in parts of India. The company started the Covenanted Civil Services (CCS). CCS members had to sign covenants with the company’s board.
  • After the Revolt of 1857, when the rule of the company ended and power was transferred to the British Crown, i.e., after 1886 the service came to be called the Imperial Civil Service. It later came to be called the Indian Civil Service.
  • In 1854, the Macaulay Committee recommended that an appointment to the service based on the company’s patronage be stopped and a merit-based system be established.
  • Post-1855, recruitment to the ICS was based on merit only through a competitive examination. It was restricted to Indians.
  • In 1886, the Aitchison Commission chaired by Sir Charles Umpherston Aitchison recommended that Indians also get employed in public service.
  • A further prod to the inclusion of Indians in the service happened in 1912 when the Islington Commission suggested that 25 % of the higher posts be filled by Indians.
  • It also recommended that recruitment to higher posts should be done partly in India and partly in England.
  • From 1922, the ICS exam was held in India.
  • The Public Service Commission of India (forerunner of the Union Public Service Commission) was established on 1st October 1926 under the chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker.
  • All India Services were designated as Central Superior Services in 1924. After 1939, the number of Indians in the service increased because of the non-availability of Europeans.
  • After the Government of India Act of 1858, the higher civil service in India came to be known as the Indian Civil Services (ICS).
  • After independence, the ICS became the Indian Administrative Service (IAS).
  • Lord Cornwallis is usually known as the Father of civil services in India.
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was among the top nationalist leaders who had argued for the continuation of the civil services because he had believed that an organized bureaucracy was essential to ensure the unity and integrity of the newly independent India.
  • Initially, the examinations for the Indian Civil Service were conducted only in London.
  • In 1864, the first Indian, Shri Satyendranath Tagore, brother of Shri Rabindranath Tagore succeeded.

Development of Education in India

Individual efforts under company rule
  • Calcutta Madrasah was established by Warren Hastings in 1781 to study Muslim laws and customs.
  • Jonathan Duncan established Sanskrit college at Banaras in 1791 for Hindu laws and philosophy.
  • Fort William College was set up in 1800 by Wellesley for the training of civil servants of the Company. (It was closed in 1802).
Charter Act of 1813
  • 1 lakh rupees were to be spent by the company for the promotion of education in India.
Lord Macaulay’s Minute of 1835
  • Amidst Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, Macaulay supported the latter view.
  • The English language was chosen as the sole medium of education.
  • The government decided to spend limited resources for teaching western sciences and literature.
  • They adopted the ‘downward filtration theory’ instead of mass education.
Wood’s Despatch, 1854
  • This was also known as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India”.
  • It rejected the ‘downward filtration theory’.
  • It recommended English for higher studies and vernaculars at school level.
  • Secular education.
  • Encouraged private enterprises.
Hunter Education Commission, 1882-83
  • Its objective was to assess the Wood Dispatch.
  • It emphasized on state’s role in improving education.
  • Advocated for transfer of control to local bodies (district and municipal boards).
Rayleigh Commission, 1902
  • To review the performance of universities in India.
Indian Universities Act, 1904On the recommendation of the Rayleigh commission, the act provided for:
  • greater control over universities
  • Universities were given due importance for research and studies.
  • the number of fellows reduced.
  • Rules were made stricter for private college affiliations.
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale called this move a “retrograde measure”.
Government Resolution on Education Policy, 1913
  • The government refused to take up the responsibility of compulsory education.
  • It urged the provincial government to do the same.
  • Even private players were encouraged.
Saddler University Commission, 1917-19
  • The commission was set up to review Calcutta University which later extended to all universities.
  • 12+3 program (12-year schooling and 3-year degree)
  • A separate board of secondary and intermediate education was to be set up.
  • It laid stress on Female education, applied scientific and technological education, teachers’ training.
Hartog Committee, 1929
  • Laid emphasis on primary education.
  • Quality of education was given priority over a number of schools and colleges.
  • Admissions were highly restricted.
Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937)
  • Zakir Hussain committee formulated this national scheme for basic education.
  • The main principle of ‘learning through activity’.
  • secular in approach.
  • First seven years of schooling through mother tongue and English after 8th.
Sergeant Plan of Education, 1944
  • The sergeant was the educational advisor to the British Government.
  • He advocated a number of reforms and aimed to make the Indian education system equivalent to that of England in 40 years. But it seriously lacked methodology for implementation.
  • It was just lip service of the government.

Development of Press in India

  • In 1780, James Augustus Hickey started “The Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser” which was seized in 1872 because of its outspoken criticism of the Government.
  • Later, more newspapers/journals came up – The Bengal Journal, Calcutta Chronicle, Madras Courier, and Bombay Herald.
  • And this effort of Hickey laid the foundation of the press in India. The evolution of the Indian Press is discussed below:
Lord Wellesley enacted the Censorship of Press Act, 1799
  • It was enacted by Lord Wellesley, anticipating French invasion of India.
  • It imposed almost wartime press restrictions including pre-censorship which was later relaxed by the Lord hasting.
Licensing Regulations, 1823
  • It was enacted by John Adams.
  • According to this regulation, press without a licence was a penal offense.
  • The restriction was directed mainly to Indian language newspapers or those edited by the Indians.
Press Act of 1835 or Metcalfe Act
  • Metcalfe Governor-General (1835 – 36) repealed the obnoxious 1823 ordinance and was named, “liberator of the Indian press”
Licensing Act, 1857
  • This act imposed licensing restriction and the right to stop publication and circulation of books, newspapers or printed matter reserved with the Government.
Registration Act, 1867
  • This act relaxed the restrictions put by Metcalf‘s Act of 1835 and hence states that Government acts as a regulatory not a restrictive body.
Vernacular Press Act, 1878
  • It was constituted for ‘better control’ of the vernacular press and effectively punished and repressed seditious writing.
  • The provisions of the Act are given below:
  • The district magistrate was empowered to call upon the printer and publisher of any vernacular newspaper to enter into a bond with the Government undertaking not to cause disaffection against the government or antipathy between persons of different religions, caste, race through published material; the printer and publisher could also be required to deposit security which could be seized if the offences reoccurred.
  • The magistrate’s action was final and no appeal could be made in a court of law.
  • A vernacular newspaper could get an exemption from the operation of the Act by submitting proof to a government censor.
Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act, 1908
  • This act empowered the magistrates to confiscate press property which published objectionable material likely to cause incitement to murder/acts of violence against the Extremist nationalist activity.
Indian Press Act, 1910
  • This act was a revision of the Vernacular Act that empowered the local government to demand security at registration from the printer/publisher and forfeit/deregister if it was an offending newspaper, and the printer of a newspaper was required to submit two copies of each issue to local government

In a nutshell, we can say that the evolution of the Indian press was fraught with developmental difficulties, illiteracy, colonial constraints, and repression. It disseminated the ideas of freedom and became a prominent tool for the freedom struggle.

Newspapers during the Indian Freedom Struggle

YearNameNewspaper/ JournalFounder
1780Bengal GazetteEnglish newspaperJames Augustus Hicky
1819Samvad KaumudiBengali weekly newspaperRam Mohan Roy
1822Mirat-ul-AkbarPersian language journalRaja Ram Mohan Roy
1854Rast GoftarGujarati NewspaperDadabhai Naoroji
1858Som PrakashWeekly newspaperIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
1862Indian MirrorNewspaperDevendra Nath Tagore
1868Amrita Bazar PatrikaNewspaperSisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
1871Tahzib-ul-AkhlaqJournalSir Syed Ahmed Khan
1878HinduNewspaperVir Raghavacharya and G.S. Aiyar
1881KesariMarathi NewspaperB.G. Tilak
1888SudharakNewspaperG.K. Gokhale
1892Hindoo PatriotEnglish weeklyGirish Chandra Ghosh
1896Prabuddha BharataEnglish monthly journalSwami Vivekananda
1899UdbodhanaMagazineSwami Vivekananda
1903Indian OpinionNewspaperM. K Gandhi
1905Bande MataramEnglish language newspaperAurobindo Ghosh
1910Bombay ChronicleEnglish-language newspaperFiroze Shah Mehta
1911ComradeWeekly English newspaperMaulana Mohammad Ali
1912Al-BalaghUrdu weekly newspaperAbul Kalam Azad
1912Al-HilalUrdu weekly newspaperAbul Kalam Azad
1913PratapHindi language newspaperGanesh Shankar Vidyarthi
1914New IndiaEnglish-language daily newspaperAnnie Besant
1919IndependentNewspaperMotilal Nehru
1919Young IndiaWeekly journalM. K Gandhi
1920Mook NayakMarathi weeklyB.R. Ambedkar
1924Hindustan TimesEnglish daily newspaperSunder Singh Lyallpuri
1929Nav JeevanWeekly newspaperM. K Gandhi
1932HarijanWeekly journalM. K Gandhi
1936Free HindustanJournalTarak Nath Das
1936Hindustan DainikHindi newspaperM.M. Malviya

Important Points to remember from Newspapers during the Indian Freedom Struggle

  • In 1684, the British had established a printing Press in Bombay.
  • The first newspaper in India was published on 29 January 1780 by James Augustus Hicky under the British Raj and its name was ‘The Bengal Gazette’. It was also called as ‘Calcutta General Advertiser’ and people simply remember it as ‘Hicky’s Gazette’.
  • Many other newspapers were also started, namely Calcutta Gazette (1784), The Bengal Journal (1785).
  • In 1785, Richard Johnson in Madras brought out ‘Madras Courier’ in the English language. R. William’s ‘Madras Gazette’ in 1795 and Humphrey’s ‘India Herald’ in 1796.
  • In Bombay’s first newspaper was ‘Bombay Herald’ in 1789‘, Bombay Courier’ in 1789, and ‘Bombay Gazette’ in 1791.
  • Some merchants of Calcutta in 1811 started ‘Calcutta Chronicle’ and the editor was James Silk Buckingham. 
  • He had introduced a new approach to Journalism in India.
  • He initiated clear journalistic practices and covered the problems of local people and their lives.
  • Even he had started a movement against the evil practice of ‘Sati’.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy a social reformer recognized the power of newspapers and started a Bengali newspaper ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ in 1822 and a Persian paper ‘Mirat-ul-Akhbar’ in 1822.
  • Fardaonji Murzban in 1822 started ‘Bombay Samachar’, he was a pioneer of the Vernacular Press in Bombay.
  • 3 November 1838 – The Times of India issued its first edition as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
  • 1857 is known as the year of the emergence of journalism in India.
  • 1861 – The first edition of The Times of India was published by Robert Knight.
  • 1868  ‘Amrit Bazaar Patrika’ was started by two brothers, Shishir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh.
  • 1878 – “The Hindu” was started in the English language, which was mainly distributed in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • News agency services became available on a regular basis with the Press Trust of India which was started in 1946.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak brought Kesari and Mahratta newspaper, Mahatma Gandhi started Young India and HarijanJawaharlal Nehru started the National Herald.
  • The Bombay Samachar, founded in 1822 and printed in Gujarati is the oldest newspaper in Asia still in print.

Governor Generals and Viceroys

Difference between Governor-General and Viceroy

  • Governor-General was the head of all governors of states under East India Company.
  • After the power shifted in the hands of the British Crown, Viceroy was appointed, who was the head of colonial India and governed the territory on behalf of the British Crown.
  • Their functioning was almost the same with the only difference that the Governor-General served EIC’s interests whereas the Viceroy that of the British Crown.

In the British Nobility, the order of the peerages is given below.

  • Duke: The highest rank and title in the British peerage.
  • Marquess/Marquis: The second order of the British peerage, in rank next to that of the Duke.
  • Earl: Also called as Count, now the third degree of rank and dignity in the British peerage.
  • Viscount: The fourth degree of rank and dignity in the British peerage.
  • Baron: The lowest rank in the British peerage.
  • Baronet: A hereditary rank, lower than the peerage.
  • Knights: Lowest rank, or sometimes considered at par with Baronet, but is not heritage but awarded for the Service to Crown.

Governor Generals during British India

GOVERNOR GENERALS OF BENGAL (BEFORE 1773)

Robert Clive (1754-1767)

  • Founder of the British Indian Empire, popularly known as “Clive of India”.
  • He was a British administrator and military leader to start with, however, his destiny brought him to India and he worked in various capacities for British East India Company.
  • He was Governor of Bengal before the “Regulating Act of 1773” – which actually marks the beginning of British rule.
  • He was involved in the Battle of Plassey (1757) and consequent annexation of Bengal.
  • Started Dual administration in Bengal (1765-1772), the practice was stopped by Warren Hastings.
  • Civil Services were organized during Clive’s tenure.
  • He prohibited employees of the company from undertaking any private or accept any gift.
  • During First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-69), Robert Clive was recalled during the course of the war in 1767. English was defeated by Haider Ali.

Lord Warren Hastings (1773-1785)

  • Governor of Bengal was designated as Governor-General of Bengal.
  • He annexed Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa in 1772.
  • He started modern western administration in India.
  • He entered into business with Egypt, Tibet, and Bhutan. He stopped the annual pension to Mughal Emperor and reduced the pension of the Nawab of Bengal.
  • Overall administration including Civil Services was very corrupt during Hastings’s tenure.
  • He initiated the Rohilla War (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by Nawab of Awadh, with the help of British.
  • During his tenure Act of 1781 came under which the powers of jurisdiction between the Governor-General-in-council and the Supreme Court at Calcutta were clearly divided.
  • He led the First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-82) followed by the Treaty of Salbai as Marathas were defeated.
  • Pitts India Act of 1784 was enacted.
  • He was involved in the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84), Haider All died and Mysore was defeated.
  • During his tenure Judicial Murder of Nand Kumar in 1775 took place. Nand Kumar was a critic of Warren Hastings, indicted in a false cases and sentenced to death.

Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)

  • He was the founding father of ‘Indian Civil Services’. (Reforms for purification of Administration).
  • He was the father of modern police administration in India.
  • He created the post of DSP. He believed in the separation of powers, therefore he deprived the District Collector of judicial powers and created the new post of District Judge. He also carried out the gradation of courts.
  • He proposed the Cornwallis Code (1793) incorporating several judicial reforms. He codified the personal laws (IPC and CrPC are codified personal laws) and separation of revenue and civil administration.
  • Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92) followed by the Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792).
  • Introduction of the Permanent Revenue Settlement that is the Zamindari system in Bengal and Bihar (1793). It was the worst measure of Lord Cornwallis.
  • Europeanization of administrative machinery and the introduction of civil services.
  • He established a Permanent revenue settlement with a class of revenue collectors (Zamindars under Zamindari rights).

Sir John Shore (1793-1798)

  • First civil servant to become Governor-General. He played an important role during the introduction of the Permanent revenue settlement that is the Zamindari system in 1793.
  • The charter act of 1793 was enacted during his period.
  • He defeated Nizam of Hyderabad who later on joined the Subsidiary Alliance with the British during Wellesley’s tenure.
    Lord Arthur Wellesley (1798-1805)
  • During his tenure introduction of Subsidiary Alliance in 1798 occurred. The rulers of the state of Nizam of Hyderabad, Mysore, Tanjore, Awadh, Jodhpur, Jaipur and finally Peshwas also signed the Subsidiary Alliance.
  • During his tenure, the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1799) & Second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-05) occurred.

Lord George Barlow (1805-1807)

  • Pursued moderate policy, that is, the policy of non-intervention with princely states.
  • Tried to establish peaceful relations with Marathas.
  • White Mutiny at Vellore (1806) occurred during his tenure.

Lord Minto-I (1807-1813)

  • Concluded the important Amritsar treaty (1809) with Maharaja Ranjit Singh which decided the later course of Anglo-Sikh relations.
  • Governor-General of Bengal at the time of passage of the Charter Act of 1813.
    Francis Rawdon Hastings (1813-1823): (Marques of Hastings)
  • Renounced the policy of non-intervention followed by his predecessor and revived aggressive imperialistic policy marking the beginning of the second phase of British imperialism in India, so as to build a large British Asiatic Empire by conquering territories bordering India.
  • During his tenure Anglo-Nepal War; Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1819) and Pindari War (1817-18) occurred.

Lord Amherst (1823-28)

  • First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826) and signed the Treaty of Yaudaboo in 1826 by which British merchants were allowed to settle on the southern coast of Rangoon.
  • The capture of Barakhphr (1826) occurred.

GOVERNOR GENERALS OF INDIA (1832-1858)

Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835)

  • Charter Act of 1833 was enacted.
  • He was the most liberal British Governor-General of India.
  • Tenure coincides with the socio-religious reform movements of the 19th century (Abolition of Sati and other cruel rights (1829) that occurred during his tenure.
  • Resolution of 1835 and Educational reforms.
  • Suppression of `Thuge’ that is highway robbery in 1830 by Colonel Sleeman.
  • Raja of Mysore was deposed and territories of the kingdom were annexed (1831).
  • The annexation of Cachar (1834) and Jaintia (1832) and Coorg (1834) on the charges of mal-administration.
  • Formation of Agra province in 1834.
  • Provincial courts of appeal and circuits were replaced by commissioners of revenue and circuit.
  • Treaty of `Perpetual friendship’ with Ranjit Singh took place.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835-1836)

  • Brief tenure marked by the liberation of the Indian press of prohibitory restrictions as new press law was passed.

Lord Auckland (1836-1842)

  • The disastrous First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842) occurred during his tenure.

Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)

  • Successfully completed the Afghan war and annexed Sindh province for the British in 1843.
  • Became first Governor-General of India to be recalled for defying the orders of the Court of Directors of East India Company.
  • War with Gwalior (1843) occurred during his tenure.

Lord Hardinge-I (1844-1848)

  • Issued orders for the prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the Goads of Central India.
  • Anglo-Sikh War (1845-1846) occurred during his tenure.

Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856 great imperialist and colonist)

  • Application of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ (one of the principal political reasons for “Revolt of 1857) annexed Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur (1849), Bhagat (1850), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854) and Awadh (1856) under `Doctrine of Lapse’
  • The introduction of Railways (first train Bombay to Thane), Telegraph, and Postal systems (first telegraph line – Calcutta – Agra) in India in 1853.
  • Postal reforms (Post Office Act 1854) initiated during his tenure.
  • Charter- Act of 1853 passed.
  • Wood’s Education Dispatch 1854 (Magna Carta of Modern Western Education in India) also passed.
  • The Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852) and annexation of lower Burma occurred during his tenure.
  • Widow Remarriage Act (1856) enacted.
  • The military headquarters of British India was moved to Shimla, where the summer capital of British India was also established. The headquarters of Bengal artillery was moved to Meerut.
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-56) and annexation of Punjab from Maharaja Dalip Singh (Maharaja Dalip Singh handed over Kohinoor diamond to the British).
  • Establishment of separate Public Works Department in every province.

Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics | Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics

Viceroy of India (1858-1947)

Lord Canning (1856-1857 and 1858-1862)

(Last Governor of East India Company and first Viceroy and Governor-General of India)

  • The establishment of three universities at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay in 1857 occurred during.
  • Witnessed and suppressed the Revolt of 1857.
  • ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ started by Lord Dalhousie was finally withdrawn in 1859.
  • Two arms of British administration originated (Secretary of State of India, Viceroy and Governor-General of India to look after the administration of India)
  • Regressive laws, such as Criminal Procedure Codes (CrPC) and Indian Penal Codes (IPC) were introduced.
  • Introduction of the new tax such as income tax, on an experimental basis in 1859.
  • `White Mutiny’ by European troops in 1859 occurred.
  • Indian Councils Act of 1861 enacted.

Lord Elgin-I (1862-1863)

  • Wahabi’s movement occurred during his tenure and get suppressed.

Lord Lawrence (1862-1869)

  • Followed a policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called Policy of Masterly Inactivity.
  • Setting up of High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras (1865).

Lord Mayo (1869-1872)

  • Opening of the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo College at Ajmer for political training of Indian princes.
  • The establishment of the Statistical Survey of India occurred.
  • Establishment of Department of Agriculture and Commerce.
  • Introduction of State Railways.

Lord North Brook (1872-1876)

  • The visit of the Prince of Wales in 1875 occurred.
  • Kuka movement in Punjab occurred during his tenure.

Lord Lytton (1876-1880)

  • The famine of 1876-1878 affecting Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, parts of Central India, and Punjab occurred.
  • The famine commission under the presidency of Richard Strachey (1878) appointed.
  • Royal Titles Act (1876), Queen Victoria assumed the title of ”Kaiser-i-hind” or “Queen Empress of India”.
  • The Vernacular Press Act (1878) and the Arms Act (1878) enacted.
  • The Second Afghan War (1878-1880) took place.

Lord Rippon (1880-1884)

  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882) took place.
  • The first Factory Act, 1881, to improve labor conditions enacted.
  • Government resolution on Local Self Government (1882) also passed.
  • Continuation of Financial decentralization.
  • Appointment of education commission under the chairmanship of Sir William Hunter (1882).
  • The IIbert bill controversy (1883-1884) occurred.

Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)

  • The third Burmese war (1885-86) and establishment of the Indian National Congress occurred during his tenure.

Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)

  • The factory act (1891) enacted.
  • Categorization of civil services as imperial, provincial, and subordinate occurred.
  • Indian Council Act (1892) enacted.
  • Setting up of Durand Commission (1893) to define the Durand line between India and Afghanistan (now between Pakistan and Afghanistan).

Lord Elgin-II (1894-1999)

  • Two British officials assassinated by Chapekar brothers (1897) during his tenure.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

  • Appointment of Police Commission (1902) under Sir Andrew Frazer to review police administration.
  • Appointment of Universities Commission (1902) and passing of the Indian Universities Act (1904) Establishment of the department of Commerce and industry.
  • Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) enacted.
  • Ancient Monument Preservation act (1904) & Partition of Bengal (1905) enacted.
  • The Curzon-Kitchener controversy started.
  • Partition Bangal (1905) of Bengal occurred.
  • The young husbands’ mission to Tibet (1904) started.

Lord Minto-II (1905-1910)

  • The popularization of Anti-partition and Swadeshi movements.
  • Split in Congress in the annual session of 1907 in Surat occurred.
  • Establishment of Muslim League by Aga Khan (1906).

Lord Hardinge-II (1910-1916)

  • Creation of Bengal presidency (like Bombay and Madras) in 1911.
  • Coronation Durbar of King George V held in Delhi 1911.
  • Transfer of Capital from Calcutta to Delhi 1911.
  • Establishment of Hindu Mabasabha (1915) by Madan Mohan Malviya.

Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)

  • Formation of Home Rule Leagues by Annie Besant and Tilak (1916).
  • Lucknow session of the Congress (1916).
  • Lucknow pact between Congress and the Muslim League (1916) signed.
  • Foundation of Sabarmati Ashram (1916) after Gandhiji’s return; Launch of Champaran Satyagraha (1916), Kheda Satyagaha (1918), and Satyagraha at Ahmedabad (1918) occurred.
  • Montague’s August declaration (1917) proposed.
  • Government of India’s Act (1919) enacted.
  • The Rowlatt Act (1919) enacted.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919) took place.
  • The launch of the Non-cooperation and Khilafat movement occurred.
  • Foundation of women’s university at Pune (1916) and appointment of Saddler’s commission (1917) for reforms in educational policy.
  • Appointment of S.V. Sinha as Governor of Bihar (the first Indian to become a Governor).

Lord Reading (1921-1926)

  • Chauri Chaura incident (February 5, 1922) and the subsequent withdrawal of the non-cooperation movement.
  • The Moplah rebellion in Kerala (1921) started.
  • Repeal of the Press Act of 1910 and the Rowlatt Act of 1919 occurred.
  • Criminal Law Amendment Act and Abolition of cotton exercise.
  • Communal riots in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, Aligarh, Arvi, and Calcutta occurred.
  • Kakori train robbery (1925) also happened during his tenure.
  • Establishment of Swaraj party by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru (1922).
  • The decision to hold a simultaneous examination for the ICS both in Delhi and London with effect from 1923.

Lord Irwin (1926-1931)

  • The visit of the Simon Commission to India (1928) and the boycott of the commission by the Indians occurred.
  • An All Parties Conference held at Lucknow (1928) for suggestions for (future) Constitution of India, the report of “Nehru Report” of the ” Nehru Constitution” proposed.
  • Appointment of Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission 1927.
  • Murder of Saunders, the Assistant Superintendent of Police of Lahore; bomb blast in the assembly hall of Delhi; the Lahore conspiracy case and the death of Jatin Das after prolonged hunger strike (1921) and bomb accident on a train in Delhi (1929).
  • Lahore session of the Congress (1929); Puna Swami resolution.
  • Dandi March (March 12, 1930) by Gandhi to launch the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Deepavali declaration by Lord Erwin (1929).
  • Boycott of the first round table conference, the Gandhi-Irwin pact (1931), and the suspension of the civil disobedience movement (March 1931).

Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)

  • Second round table conference (1931) and failure .of the conference, presumption of civil disobedience.
  • Announcement of communal award 1932 under which separate communal electorates were set up.
  • “Fast unto Death” by Gandhi in Yeravada prison, broken after the Pune pact (1932).
  • The third round table conference (1932) occurred.
  • Launch of individual Civil Disobedience Movement (1933).
  • The Government of India Act (1935) enacted.
  • Establishment of All India Kisan Sabha (1936) and Congress Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayprakash Narayan (1934).
  • Burma-separated from India (1935).

Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944)

  • First general elections (1936-37); occurred Congress gained the majority in 5 provinces and formed a coalition in 3 other provinces.
  • Resignation of the Congress ministries after the outbreak of the World War-II (1939).
  • Subash Chandra Bose elected President of Congress at the 51st session of the Congress (1938).
  • The resignation of Bose in 1939 and the formation of the Forward Bloc (1939) occurred.
  • Lahore resolution (March 1940) by the Muslim League demand for a separate state for Muslims.
  • ‘August offer’ (1940) by the viceroy; criticism by the congress and the endorsement by the Muslim league.
  • Vincent Churchill was elected Prime Minister of England (1940).
  • Escape of Subash Chandra Bose from India (1941) and organization of the Indian National Army.
  • Cripps Mission, Cripps Plan to offer dominion status to India and setting up of a constituent assembly and its rejection by the congress.
  • Passing of the ‘Quit India resolutions’ by the congress (1942); the outbreak of ‘August Revolution’; or Revolt of 1942 after the arrest of National leaders.
  • ‘Divide and Quit’ slogan at Karachi session (1944) of the Muslim League.

Lord Wavell (1944-1947)

  • Rajagoapalachari’s `C.R.Formula’ (1944) was proposed.
  • The failure of the Gandhi-Jinnah pacts (1944) occurred.
  • Wavell Plan and the Shimla Conference (1942) took place.
  • End of World War-II (1945).
  • Proposals of the Cabinet Mission (1946) and its acceptance by the Congress.
  • Observance of ‘Direct action day”(August 16, 1948) by the Muslim League.
  • Elections to the constituent assembly, the formation of an interim government by the congress (September 1946)
  • Announcement of the end of British rule in India by Clement Atlee (Prime Minister of England) on February 20, 1947

Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)

  • June 3 Plan (June 3, 1947) announced.
  • Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the House of Commons.
  • Appointment of two boundary commissions under Sir Cyril Radcliffe for the partition of Bengal and Punjab.

Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics | Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics

Indian National Congress Annual Sessions

  • The Indian National Congress was founded by members of the Theosophical Society on December 28, 1885, at Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay, with 72 delegates in attendance.
  • It was formed during the period of Governor-General Lord Dufferin ( 1884 – 1888 ).
  • Allan Octavian Hume’s ( the founder of INC ) main purpose in encouraging the foundation of the congress was probably to provide a “safety valve” to the growing discontent among the educated Indians.

Important Points to Remember from Indian National Congress Sessions

  • The first president of the Indian National Congress was Womesh Chandra Banerji.
  • The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in December 1885 in Mumbai.
  • The first Muslim president of the INC was Badruddin Tayabji. ( 1887 at Madras session )
  • The first Englishman to become the president of INC was George Yule. ( 1888 at Allahabad session )
  • The first woman president of INC was Mrs. Annie Besant. ( 1917 at Kolkata session )
  • Mahatma Gandhi presided over the Belgaum session of INC in 1924.
  • The first Indian woman president of the INC was Mrs. Sarojini Naidu. ( 1925 at Kanpur session )
  • The president of INC at the time of India’s independence was Acharya JB Kripalani.
  • Maximum Number of Congress session was held in Calcutta.
  • Maulana Abul Kalam Azad had the longest duration of serving as a President. He became the youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress.

Most Important Sessions of Indian National Congress

Year – Place – PresidentImportance Of INC Annual Sessions
1885 – Bombay – W. C. BanerjeeThe first session of INC. It was attended by 72 delegates.
1887 – Madras – Badruddin TyabjiThe first Muslim President was elected. It appealed to Muslim friends to join.
1888 – Allahabad – George JuleThe first season of INC to be presided over by an Englishman.
1896 – Calcutta – Rahimtulla M. SayaniThe national song ‘Vande Mataram’ was sung for the first time.
1899 – Lucknow – Romesh Chunder DuttDemand for permanent fixation of land revenue was raised.
1906 – Calcutta – Dadabhai NaorojiWord “Swaraj” mentioned for the first time.
1907 – Surat – Rash Behari GhoshParty splits into extremists and moderates.
1908 – Surat – Rash Behari GhoshConstitution of Indian National Congress was drawn.
1909 – Lahore – Madan Mohan MalviyaDisapproval on Morley-Minto reform ( separate electorate for Muslims )
1911 – Calcutta – Bishan Narayan DasJana Gana Mana was sung for the first time.
1916 – Lucknow – A. C. MajumdarLucknow Pact – joint session with the Muslim League
1925 – Kanpur – Sarojini NaiduFirst Indian woman President of INC.
1928 – Calcutta – Motilal NehruFirst, the All India Youth Congress formed.
1929 – Lahore – Jawaharlal NehruResolution for Poorna Swaraj or complete independence was passed. Agreement on launching the Civil Disobedience movement.
1931 – Karachi – Sardar Vallabhbhai PatelResolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy, later known as Karachi Resolution
1938 – Haripur – S. C. BoseNational Planning Committee set up under Nehru.
1939 – Tripuri – S. C. BoseS. C. Bose was elected, but he resigned and then, Rajendra Prasad became president.
1946 – Meerut – J. B. KripalaniLast INC session before the Independence of India.
1948 – Jaipur – Pattabhi SitaramayyaThe first session after the Independence of India.

Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics | Indian National Movement: Miscellaneous topics

Famous trials of the Nationalist period

Muzaffarpur Conspiracy Case (1908 AD)

  • It was a revolutionary conspiracy by the Khudiran Bose and Praful Chaki to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate DH Kingsford of Muzaffarpur.
  • They threw bombs on a vehicle of DH Kingsford but he was safe and unfortunately, two British women were killed in the attack.
  • Later on, Kudiram Bose was arrested by the Indian British police officer Nandalal Banerjee, who was later shot dead by the Narendranath Banerjee.
  • Prafulla Chaki committed suicide when he was about to be arrested by the Police.
  • Khudiram Bose was the youngest Indian who was hanging by the British.

Delhi Conspiracy Case (1912 AD)

  • This incident was also called a Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy.
  • It was organized by the Indian revolutionary underground in Bengal and Punjab and headed by Rashbehari Bose to assassinate the then Viceroy of India, Lord Hardinge.  
  • Basant Kumar Biswas, Amir Chand, and Avadh Behariwere convicted and executed in the trial of this Delhi Conspiracy Case. 
  • Rash Behari Bose was identified as the person who threw the bomb.

Kanpur Bolshevik Conspiracy Case (1924 AD)

  • In this case, newly emerged communists of India were execrated by the British Government. M N Roy, Muzaffar Ahamed, S A Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain were caught by the Government and were trailed for conspiring against the Government. They were charged:
  • “to deprive the King-Emperor of his sovereignty of British India, by complete separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution.”
  • This case was not a people movement but the British movement to sack the upcoming communist leaders* of the time.

Kakori Conspiracy Case (1925 AD)

  • It is also called the Kakori train robbery or Kakori Case was a train robbery against the British Indian Government.
  • It was organized by a revolutionary organization i.e., Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil and supported by Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sachindra Bakshi, Keshab Chakravarty, Manmathnath Gupta, Murari Lal Gupta (Murari Lal Khanna), Mukundi Lal (Mukundi Lal Gupta) and Banwari Lal.
  • Objectives of this robbery:
    • To fund the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA)under with funds stolen from the British administration.
    • To garner public attention by creating a positive image of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) under among Indians.

Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929 AD)

  • This was the immense political significance for the Indian working-class movement because it was a conspiracy of the British Government against the rise of Communism in India. During this case, 31 labor leader included three Englishmen were arrested on the charge of conspiracy.
  • Muzaffar Ahamed, S.A Dange, S.V Ghate, Dr. G Adhikari, P.C.Joshi, S.S.Mirajkar, Shaukat Usmani, Philip Stratt were arrested on the charge of conspiracy to overthrow the British Government of India through strikes and other militant methods.
  • It is interesting to note that the accused in the Meerut Case gained the sympathy of the nationalists.

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