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European and British Conquest in India

From the time of the first Later Mughal i.e. Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire started disintegrating into a large number of autonomous states. They were ruled by either the governors or the military commanders, and some of them even came to have either new or revived old dynasties.

Each of these states initially had some capable rulers, but in course of time saw a series of weak and incompetent rulers. This gave a lot of scope to European interference in the internal affairs of India of which Europeans took advantage.

Like all the other European traders the English also came to India undoubtedly only for trading purposes. But in course of their trading activities, they saw and realized several weaknesses among the Indian powers. It was a by chance opportunities to which Britishers benefitted.

From 1757-1857 the East India Company conquered several parts of India. They succeeded in defeating all the major Indian powers including the Nawabs of Bengal and Awadh, Sultans of Mysore, Leaders of Marathas, and the Sikh States. By the mid-19th century, the British became unquestioned masters of India, though nobody could have predicted it even in the mid-18th century.

Beginning of Modern Indian History

The Advent of the Europeans in India

First to come to India as traders were the Portuguese, who were followed by the Dutch, the British and the French.

  • India’s trade relations with Europe go back to the ancient days of the Greeks.
  • The Portuguese were the first to discover a direct sea route to India.
  • It was on May 21, 1498, that Portuguese sailor, Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut, which is a landmark in the history of India’s maritime trade.
  • The event was a turning point in the history of India and marked the dawn of the modern era.
  • King Zamorin, the local rule welcomed him and gave him a lot of higher privileges.
  • He stayed in India for around three months.
  • After that, Vasco da Gama returned with a rich cargo.
  • He then sold the same in the European market at an exorbitant price.
  • It was more than 60 times the cost of his voyage.
  • But soon, Vasco da Gama returned to India for the second time in 1501 AD.
  • He set up a trading factory at Cannanore.
  • With the establishment of trade links, Calicut, Cannanore, and Cochin emerged as the significant Portuguese centers in India.

Rise of Portuguese Power in India

  • In 1505 AD, Francisco de Almeida became the first Portuguese governor in India.
  • His policy was the Blue Water Policy. It meant to control the territory of India.
  • But the Portuguese rise in Indian had a short life.
  • They were threatened by the new rival trading communities from Europe. The Europeans posed a major challenge for them.
  • On the mainland, the rising Marathas stood in the way of the Portuguese expansion.
  • The Portuguese failed to win the sympathy of the Indian people due to their over-enthusiasm for the cause of Christianity. As a result, ultimately the Portuguese power declined in India.
  • However, it cannot be denied that the Portuguese exercised tremendous social, economic, and cultural influence, especially on the western coasts.
  • The Portuguese greatly enriched Indian vocabulary and medical science.
  • The first treatise on the medical plants of India was written by a Portuguese scholar Garcia da Orta.
  • Similarly, the introduction of printing and the establishment of seminaries for the training of the Indian priests were other valuable contributions of the Portuguese.
  • The credit for popularizing the ornate Manuelesque architecture on the western coast also goes to the Portuguese.
  • In the economic sphere, the Portuguese ensured a good world market for Indian goods—especially spices and muslin.
  • They brought tobacco cultivation in India.
  • They established the first printing press in India at Goa in AD 1556.
  • ‘The Indian Medicinal Plants’ was the first scientific work that was published at Goa in 1563.
  • They were the first who define ‘How to established maritime trade and supremacy over Sea’ through Cartaze System (i.e. under this system anyone who passes through the Portugal territories must buy permits otherwise they suppose to be captured.)
  • They were the first Europeans who were responsible to spread Christianity in India and Asia.

The arrival of the British

  • Towards the end of Queen Elizabeth, I reign, the merchants of England became interested in voyages to the east because of its wealth and is one of the prospects of their Dutch rivals.
  • The arrival of the British and the establishment of the British East India Company was the outcome of the Portuguese traders.
  • They earned enormous profits by selling their merchandise in India.
  • The English merchants were motivated by the awesome business stories of the Portuguese.
  • They formed the East India Company in 1599 AD to try out their luck in the Indian subcontinent.
  • The Company received a royal charter from Queen Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600 AD.
  • This charter authorized it to continue new trade in the East.
  • The Queen was also a shareholder in the company.
  • William Hawkins presented Jahangir with a letter from James I and stayed at his court from 1608 to 1611.
  • The purpose of this visit was to secure royal patronage.
  • He was successful in receiving the royal permit for the Company.
  • Now, the company had permission to establish its factories at various places along the Western coast of India.
  • Captain Middleton got permission for the first time to trade at Surat (1611).
  • Sir James Thomas Roe managed to obtain rights to trade in Gujarat from Emperor Jahangir.
  • Madras was founded by the English in 1639.

Expansion in the East

  • After successfully establishing its factories in the south and western part of India, the East India Company focused on eastern India.
  • It specifically targeted Bengal, which was a significant province in the Mughal Empire.
  • The governor of Bengal was Sujauddaula.
  • In 1651 AD, the governor allowed the English Company to carry out its trade activities in Bengal.

The arrival of the Dutch

  • The people of Holland (present Netherlands) are called the Dutch.
  • The Dutch were the next in the list to set their feet in India.
  • Historically the Dutch have been experts in sea trade.
  • By a Charter of the Government of Holland, the Dutch East India Company was established in 1602.
  • It got permission from the Dutch government to trade in the East Indies including India.
  • As the Dutch were very much interested in the spice trade, they had their focus on the Far East and made India their trading depot.
  • In 1606, they established their factories at Petapalli and Masulipatnam.
  • Realizing that Indian textiles have a large market, they established factories at
    • Pulicat in 1610, Cambay in 1620
    • Surat and Agra in 1621
    • Hariharapur in 1633, Patna in 1638
    • Dacca in 1650, Udaiganj in 1651
    • Chinsura in 1653, Quasim Bazar, Baranagore, Balasure
    • Nagapatnam in 1659-60.
  • They also opened factories in Bengal, at Khanakul in 1669, and at Malda in 1676 but both were closed down soon.
  • By 1795, the British expelled the Dutch from India totally.

Serampore Mission Press
It is worth -mentioning that Serampore Mission Press – a historical landmark-was established at Serampore by the Danish missionaries in 1799 AD.  Between 1801 AD and 1832 AD the Serampore Mission Press printed 212,000 copies of books in 40 different languages.

European and British Conquest in India

The arrival of the French and establishment of French East India Company

  • The French were the last European people to arrive in India.
  • The French East India Company was formed in 1664 AD during the reign of King Louis XIV to trade with India.
  • In 1668 the first French factory was established in Surat.
  • The French established their second factory at Masulipatnam in 1669.
  • In 1673 AD the Mughal Subedar of Bengal allowed the French to set up a township at Chandernagore.
  • The French East India Company with the passage of time developed its trade bastions at Mahe, Karaikal, Balasore, and Qasim Bazar.
  • The French came to India mainly with the purpose of trade and commerce.
  • In 1667 the first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron.
  • The famous site of Chandannagore in Bengal was obtained by the Mughal Governor Shaista Khan in 1690.
  • Francois Martin was the first French Director-General in India.
  • A famous fortress named Fort Louis was erected at Pondicherry.
  • In 1719, the ‘United Compagnie des Indes’ was formed in order to save the French factories from gradual decline.

English- Mughal relations

  • William Hawkins, Thomas Roe, and captain Middleton secured concessions from Emperor Jahangir to trade.
  • In 1688 two pirate ships captured few Mughal ships in the red sea.
  • The Mughal Governor of Surat reacted against Sir John Child.
  • Aurangzeb ordered that the English should be treated as enemies.
  • Many Englishmen were made prisoners and illtrcatcd.
  • Lastly John Child Sue for peace on very humiliating terms.
    (a) All money due to the Mughal subjects from the company should be paid immediately.
    (b) Compensation in lieu of Mughal suffering.
    (c) John Child should leave India within nine months.
  • In 1633, the Mughal Governor of Orissa gave the English permission to establish factories at Hariharpur, Balasore, Pipli.
  • In 1667, the English received a ‘firman‘ to trade in Bengal from emperor Aurangzeb.
  • In 1701, Emperor Aurangzeb ordered the general arrest of all the Europeans in India.
  • The most important event was the English diplomatic mission led by John Surman to the Court of Forrukhsiyar in 1715, which obtained a great of three famous `farmans‘ to the officers in Bengal, Gujarat, and Hyderabad.
  • In 1708 all the rival English companies were amalgamated into one organization named “The United Company of Merchants of England Trading with the East Indies’.
  • It was this company that was to establish the British Empire in India.

English Settlements in India

Before Roe left India in February 1619, the English had estab­lished factories at Surat, Agra, Ahmedabad, and Broach.

All these were placed under the control of the President and counsel of the Surat factory. In 1668, Bombay was transferred to the East India Company by Charles II at an annual rent of £10.

Bombay replaced Surat as the chief settlement of the English on the west coast in 1687 and it became the headquarters of the Company on the west coast.

On the south-eastern coast, the English established a factory at Masulipatam in 1611 and Armagaon near Pulicat in 1626.

The Sultan of Golconda granted the English the “Golden Fireman” in 1632 by which they were allowed to trade freely in their kingdom ports on payment of duties worth 500 pagodas per annum.

In 1639, Francis Day obtained the lease of Madras from the ruler of Chandragiri and built there a fortified factory that came to be known as Fort St. George, which soon superseded Masulipatam as headquarters of the English settlements on the Coromandel Coast.

In the north-eastern coastal region, factories were set up at Hariharpur and Balasore in Orissa in 1633. A factory was established at Hugli under Mr. Bridgeman in 1651, followed by those at Patna and Kasimbazar. In 1658, all the settlements in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa and on the Coromandel Coast, were made subordinate to Fort St. George.

In 1667, Aurangzeb gave the English a firman for trade in Bengal and in 1672 the Mughal Governor Shaista Khan issued an order confirming all the privileges already acquired by the English.

In 1686, hostilities broke out between the English and the Mughal government in Bengal. In retaliation for the sack of Hugli in 1686, the English captured the imperial fort at Thana and Hijili in Bengal and stormed the Mughal fortifications at Balasore.

After the conclusion of peace between the company and the Mughals in 1690, Job Charnock the English agent established an English factory at Sultanate in 1691 which was fortified in 1696.

Under the orders of the Mughal Emperor, Ibrahim Khan, the successor of Shaista Khan issued a firman in 1691 granting the English exemption from the payment of custom-duties in return for Rs. 3000 a year.

In 1698, Azim-ush Shan (the second son of Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I) granted the Zamindari of the three villages of Sultanate, Kalikat, and Govindpur on payment of Rs. 1200 to the previous proprietors. These villages later grew into the city of Calcutta.

In 1700, the English factories in Bengal were placed under the separate control of President and council, established in the new fortified settlement which was henceforth named Fort William, Sir Charles Eyre being the first President.

A new company, under the title of English Company of Merchants, was formed in 1698, which sent Sir William Norris as an ambassador to the court of Aurangzeb to secure trading privileges, who failed in his mission.

In 1702, the two companies resolved upon amal­gamation under the title of “The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.” In 1715, a diplomatic mission under John Surnam (Governor of Calcutta) and William Hamilton who cured Farukhsiyar of a painful disease gained a firman called the Magna Carat of the Company. This firman was extended to Gujarat, Deccan, and Hyderabad.

What were the factors that led to the advent of Europeans in India?

The landing of Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 with three ships is generally regarded as the beginning of a new era in world history, especially in the relation between Asia and Europe.

British were not the only trading nation to come to India. There were a few other European countries such as Portuguese, Dutch, and French who aspired to establish commercial relations with India. They first came to India in search of trading opportunities, but circumstances made them the masters of this vast country. And the British emerged winner from among all European power.

The factors that lead to the advent of Europeans in India –

Weak rulers and fragmented regional powers

Aurangzeb was the last of the powerful Mughal rulers. He established control over a very large part of the territory that is now known as India. After his death in 1707, many Mughal governors (subadars) and big zamindars began asserting their authority and establishing regional kingdoms. As powerful regional kingdoms emerged in various parts of India, Delhi could no longer function as an effective center.

The vast wealth of India

It was the immense wealth of India that attracted the Europeans to this country which they came to know from the accounts of Marco Polo and some other sources.

Heavy demand for Indian commodities

Heavy demand for Indian commodities like spices, calicoes, silk, various precious stones, porcelain, etc caught the attention of the European traders from the early medieval period.

Advancement in navigational technologies

For a long time, Europeans failed to establish a direct trade relationship with India as all the major land routes to this country were then controlled by the Arabs. In the 15th century, Europe achieved great advancement in the art of shipbuilding and navigation.

Quest of the expansion of the market

Industrialization greatly increased the economic, military, and political strength of European societies, along with government support and the need for market expansion to fulfill their capitalist desire.

During the second half of the 19th Century and the first half of the 20th Century, a powerful national struggle against British imperialism developed in India. This struggle was the result of a clash of interests between those of the Indian people and those of the British rulers.

The very nature of the foreign rule resulted in nationalistic sentiments arising among the Indian people and produced the material, moral, intellectual, and political conditions for the rise and development of a powerful national movement.

Points to remember from European and British Conquest in India

  • Vasco da Gama started his voyage from Lisbon in 1497.
  • The Portuguese allied them-selves with the rulers of Honnavar, Bankipur, and Bhatkal against Bijapur.
  • Cochin was the best of all ports on the Malabar Coast.
  • The trade was carried on to with China, Arabia, and other countries from the port of Quilon (Kollam, Kerala)
  • Portugal’s initial objective was to capture the spice trade of the east.
  • The Dutch expelled the Portuguese from Sri Lanka (1638 to 1658).
  • The Dutch occupied Cape of Good Hope in 1652.
  • Goa was made the seat of Bishop in 1538.
  • The fanatic religious policy of the Portuguese was responsible for their rapid downfall.
  • The Portuguese were responsible for crippling the Indian Navy for their benefits.
  • Bartolomeo Diaz accompanied Cabral to India.
  • Christopher Columbus started his voyage in 1494 to explore the route to India.
  • Dutch occupied Malacca in 1641.
  • The chief of the factory at Golconda was also the company’s agent in the Court of Qu tub Shahi ruler.
  • The chief articles of import to the Coromandel coast were spices, sandalwood, and pepper.
  • Alfonso de Albuquerque can be called the real founder of the Portuguese empire in India.
  • The Dutch conquered Java Island in 1619 AD.
  • The Englishmen were brutally massacred by the Dutch in the Battle of Amboyna (1623)
  • Thomas Roe obtained the right to trade in Gujarat for East India Company.
  • In 1599, John Mildenhall came to India.
  • English East India Company was started in 1600 in England by a Charter given by Queen Elizabeth I. It was a private organization, started by issuing shares.
  • The highest decision-making authority was called as Court of Directors (COD). The company got a privilege to have a monopoly of trade with the East.
  • In 1608, Company sent its representatives Captain William Hawkins to the court of Jahangir to set up a settlement at Surat, but Jahangir initially refused. Later, in 1609, Jahangir gave a Farman (royal order) to build a factory at Surat.
  • EIC set up its 1st factory at Surat in 1613 and 2nd at Masulipatnam in 1616.
  • In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe visited the Mughal emperor’s court and received a Farman to carry free trade and exemption from the Inland toll.
  • In 1632, they received the Right to trade in the Golconda Kingdom.
  • In 1651, Nawab of Bengal Shuja-ud-din granted the company the right to trade after paying duties.
  • In 1663, the 1st factory to be built in Eastern India was at Orissa.
  • In 1664, Company built its 1st fort St. George in Chennai ( then Madras).
  • In 1668, the company got Bombay from Charles II for a lease of 10 pounds/ yr.
  • In 1691, royal Farman was issued by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb which exempted EIC to pay custom duties in Bengal.
  • In 1698, the company bought 3 Villages from a local zamindar (Sutanidhi, Govindpur, Kalikata). These were also called presidential towns.
  • In 1700, the company built a fort called ‘Fort Williams’ in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
  • In 1717, they received a royal Farman from Farrukh Siyar giving rights for minting their own coins and provided trade concessions.
Europeans Came to India 1st factory Year 
Portuguese 1498 Cochin 1500
Dutch 1602 Masulipatnam 1605
English 1600 Surat 1613
French 1664 Surat 1668

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) on European and British Conquest in India 

  1. Which of the following is regarded as the real founder of Portuguese power in India?
    (A) Pedro Cabral
    (B) Almeida
    (C) Vasco da Gama
    (D) Alfonso de Albuquerque
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Alfonso de Albuquerque
  2. Of the various Europeans who came to India, whose missionary activities were more important than commerce
    (A) Dutch
    (B) Portuguese
    (C) Danes
    (D) English
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Danes
  3. The battle of ‘Swali Hole’ was fought between which of the following countries?
    I. Portugal
    II. Netherland
    III. France
    IV. Britain
    Choose the correct option
    (A) I and II
    (B) II and III
    (C) I and IV
    (D) III and IV
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) III and IV
  4. Who was the founder of the French East India Company?
    (A) Colbert
    (B) De La Haye
    (C) Duplex
    (D) Dumas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Colbert
  5. The Danes sold all their settlements in India to —
    (A) The Portuguese
    (B) The Dutch
    (C) The English
    (D) The French
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) The English
  6. ‘Calicoes’ stood for Indian —
    (A) Indigo
    (B) Textiles
    (C) Cotton
    (D) Spices
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Textiles
  7. The Portuguese established a number of factories in India. Which of the following was not one of them?
    (A) Bombay
    (B) Masulipatam
    (C) Bassein
    (D) Salsette
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Masulipatam
  8. On which occasion did the Portuguese handed over Bombay to English?
    (A) Marriage of Charles II with the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza
    (B) By the treaty of Ax la Chapelle
    (C) As a result of Portugal’s independence from the control of Spain
    (D) The defeat of Spanish Armada by the British
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Marriage of Charles II with the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza
  9. The term ‘Interpolers’ was used by the —
    (A) Danish
    (B) French
    (C) English
    (D) Dutch
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) English
    Explanation: The term ‘interpolar’ was used by East India Company for the Free merchants’ who traded independently in Asia in spite of the monopoly of the company.
  10. From whom was Goa acquired by Albuquerque?
    (A) Bijapur
    (B) Golconda
    (C) Berar
    (D) Bidar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bijapur
  11. Arrange the following in proper chronological order —
    Formation of Dutch East India Company
    II. Formation of French East India Company
    III. Formation of the Swedish East India Company
    IV. Formation of the English East India Company
    Choose the correct chronological order
    (A) I, II, IV, III
    (B) IV, I, II, III
    (C) II, I, IV, Ill
    (D) III, II, I, IV
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) IV, I, II, III
  12. The Dutch who discovered commercial possibilities in India and whose book caused a sensation in the western world are —
    (A) Jan Pietyoovan Coen
    (B) Huyghe van Linschoten
    (C) William Barents
    (D) Housman
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Huyghen van Linschoten
  13. Where did the English open their first factory in the South in 1611?
    (A) Madras
    (B) Trichonapally
    (C) Masulipatam
    (D) Pulicat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Masulipatam
  14. Who said about the English company in Bengal that it is “A company of base, quarreling people and foul dealers ?”
    (A) Mir Jumla
    (B) Shaista Khan
    (C) Murshid Quli Khan
    (D) Aliwardi Khan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Shaista Khan
  15. The nickname of English East India Company was —
    (A) Bob Company
    (B) Sam Company
    (C) Tom Company
    (D) John Company
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) John Company
    European and British Conquest in India
  16. Which of the following statement is false with regard to the Dutch interest and activities in India?
    They treated the local inhabitants cruelly and exploited them
    II. They did not get involved in the politics
    III. They became the carrier of trade between India and the Islands of the Far East
    IV. Many attempts were made by them to monopolize the channels of trade between India and the west.
    Choose the correct option
    (A) I, II, III
    (B) I, II, III, IV
    (C) I, III, IV
    (D) I, II, IV
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) I,II,III
  17. Which of the following statement is false?
    (A) The lease of Madras in 1639 was obtained by the English from the ruler of Chandragiri
    (B) Colbert founded the French East India Company
    (C) The ‘Blue Water Policy’ associated with Albuquerque.
    (D) The Portuguese power was not organized on commercial lines.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) The ‘Blue Water Policy’ associated with Albuquerque.
    Explanation: The policy was followed by Almeida. Under this policy, the idea of establishing an empire in India was discarded.
  18. Who founded Calcutta in 1690?
    (A) Almeida
    (B) Albuquerque
    (C) Job Charnock
    (D) Lins Choten
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Job Charnock
  19. The Dutch fort called Geldria was to seated at —
    (A) Golconda
    (B) Goa
    (C) Pune
    (D) Pulicat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Pulicat
  20. Name of the state which granted the ‘Golden Farman to the Dutch to trade freely on payment of only 500 ‘Pagodas’ per annum as duty was —
    (A) Gingee
    (B) Ikkeri
    (C) Chandragiri
    (D) Golconda
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Golconda
  21. Bombay emerged as a leading port on the western coast on account of its—
    (A) Immunity from invasions
    (B) Natural harbor
    (C) Improved administration
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  22. What was the reason for Mughal wrath towards the English company?
    (A) Unreasonable demands of the Mughal official
    (B) The French pirates
    (C) Interlopers
    (D) The arrogant attitude of the company’s officials
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Interlopers
  23. Tick the greatest failure of Aurangzeb in contributing to the rise of the European powers in India —
    I. He failed to understand the political and military implications of the fortified factories
    II. He could not stop the exercise of administrative authority by the Europeans in their settlements
    III. He permitted the Dutch and English to use their military power against Portuguese
    IV. He thought that the European companies were only commercial in nature
    (A) I, II
    (B) II, III, IV
    (C) I, III, IV
    (D) I, IV
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) I, II
  24. Which European power called the port of Chittagong as the ‘Porto Grande’ or the grand port?
    (A) French
    (B) Portuguese
    (C) English
    (D) Danes
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Portuguese
  25. The English Governor who was expelled by Aurangzeb was —
    (A) De la Haye
    (B) Sir John Child
    (C) Dumas
    (D) Aungier
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sir John Child
    European and British Conquest in India
  26. Name the state which granted the ‘Golden Farman’ to Holland to trade freely on payment of 500 ‘PAGODAS’ a year as duty was —
    (A) Golconda
    (B) Bijapur
    (C) Berar
    (D) Ahmadnagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer:(A) Golcunda
  27. Which of the following was not the Dutch factory on the Coromandel coast?
    (A) Porto Novo
    (B) Sadraspatam
    (C) Nagalwanche
    (D) Masulipatam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Porto Novo
    Explanation:
    Porto Novo- Centre of Cotton weaving
    Sadrapatam- Centre of Textiles
    Nagalwanche- Indigo
    Palakollu- Dyeing
  28. Which Portuguese Governor decisively defeated the Bijapur forces which advanced against Goa?
    (A) Albuquerque
    (B) Almeida
    (C) Cabral
    (D) Joa de Castro
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Joa de Castro
  29. Name the son of the great Portuguese Governor, who supplemented the letters of his father —
    (A) Bras de Albuquerque
    (B) Bras de Almeida
    (C) Bras de Cabral
    (D) Bras de Lapo Soares
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bras de Albuquerque
  30. Which Mughal emperor conquered Golconda to mark the decline of the Dutch Coromandel Government?
    (A) Jahangir
    (B) Shahjahan
    (C) Aurangzeb
    (D) Farrukhsiyar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Aurangzeb
  31. The Dutch Christened the factory at Pulicat as St. Geldria, in honor of —
    (A) Van Berchem, the director-general of the Coromandel factories
    (B) Daniel Mayan, the author of the account of Dutch factories on the Coromandel coast
    (C) Van Reede. the in charge of the Coromandel Government
    (D) Van Coen, the Governor-General of Batavia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Van Berchem, the director-general of the Coromandel factories
  32. The immediate aim of the English East India Company established in 1600 was —
    (A) To exploit the Indian coasts
    (B) The acquisition of the spices and pepper of the Eastern archipelago
    (C)To trade in textiles
    (D)None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) The acquisition of the spices and pepper of the Eastern archipelago
  33. Name of Governor of Bombay who is regarded as the true founder of Bombay’s greatness —
    (A) Ropt
    (B) Sir John Child
    (C) Gerald Aungier
    (D) Job Charnock
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gerald Aungier
  34. The Bengal Presidency was constituted in 1700; who became its first President —
    (A) Job Charnock
    (B) Sir Charles Eyre
    (C) Captain William Heath
    (D) Major Hector Munroe
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sir Charles Eyre
  35. Who among the following Englishmen tried to obtain from Akbar a ‘Firman’ for trade-in Gujarat?
    (A) Ralph Fitch
    (B) John Mildenhall
    (C) Sir Thomas Roe
    (D) Thomas Stephens
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) John Mildenhall
    European and British Conquest in India
  36. Which one of the following Mughal emperors gave per-mission to East India Company to build a factory at Surat?
    (A) Jahangir
    (B) Shahjahan
    (C) Farrukhshiyar
    (D) Bahadur Shah II
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jahangir
  37. Who among the following issued the founding charter of the English East India Company? (A) Henry VIII
    (B) Elizabeth I
    (C) James I
    (D) Charles I
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Elizabeth I
  38. The first Danish Trade pact was signed at Tranquebar in the year –
    (A) 1620
    (B) 1630
    (C) 1660
    (D) 1616
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1620
  39. Which of the following statements is not correct about William Hawkins?
    (A) He could not speak the Turkish Language
    (B) He reached Agra in the Court of Jahangir with a letter written by King James I to emperor Akbar
    (C) The name of his vessel was Hector
    (D) He had considerable experience in the Levant
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) He could not speak Turkish Language
  40. Initially, the name of British East India Company was-
    (A) A British company to trade with India
    (B) A company of Merchants of London
    (C) A company of Private Merchants of London
    (D) The Governor and company of merchants of London Trading into the East Indies
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) The Governor and company of merchants of London Trading into the East Indies
  41. Who was the first Indian ruler to welcome Vasco da Gama?
    (A) Daulat Rao Scindia
    (B) Chanda Saheb
    (C) Zamorin
    (D) Muzaffar Jung
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chanda Saheb
  42. Name the Mughal emperor who issued Firman, permitting East India Company to trade with India?
    (A) Babar
    (B) Humayun
    (C) Akbar
    (D) Jahangir
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Jahangir
  43. The first English factory was established in India at –
    (A) Surat
    (B) Hooghly
    (C) Bombay
    (D) Madras
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Surat
  44. Among European traders, the Portuguese remained unsuccessful in India because –
    (A) They had no seaport
    (B) Their Naval power was weak
    (C) Ruler of Cochin strongly resisted them
    (D) Due to their religious fanatism, the Indian rulers became their enemies
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Due to their religious fanatism the Indian rulers became their enemies
  45. The East India Company secured the ‘Golden Firman’ from which ruler?
    (A) Jahangir
    (B) Sultan of Golconda
    (C) Ruler of Chandragiri
    (D) Mughal emperor Farukh-siyar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sultan of Golcunda
    European and British Conquest in India
  46. Who was the first representative of the English Company to reach the court of Jahangir?
    (A) Sir Thomas Roe
    (B) Sir Henry Middleton
    (C) Captain Hawkins
    (D) Captain Best
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Captain Hawkins
  47. Where was the first-ever fort erected by any European power in India?
    (A) Cochin
    (B) Calicut
    (C) Maosaulipattam
    (D) Goa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cochin
  48. The commercial objective of the Portuguese in India was to –
    (A) Capture territories on the western coast
    (B) Capture trade of textiles and spices
    (C) Oust Arabs and the Persians from India’s maritime trade
    (D) Capture trade of pepper and other superior spices
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Capture trade of pepper and other superior spices
  49. Who among the following was the first European to come to India?
    (A) Portuguese
    (B) British
    (C) French
    (D) Dutch
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Portuguese
    Explanation:
    Portuguese was the first European to come to India. They established trading stations at Calicut, Cochin, and Cannanore. Hence, A is the correct option.
  50. Who among the following discovered the Cape Route from Europe to India?
    (A) Christopher Columbus
    (B) Vasco-da-Gama
    (C) Ferdinand Magellan
    (D) Amerigo Vespucci
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Vasco-da-Gama
    Explanation:
    The Cape Route was discovered from Europe to India by Vasco-da-Gama. He reached the port of Calicut on 20th May 1498 AD Hence, B is the correct option.
  51. Who among the following navigator helped Vasco da Gama to find his way from Africa to India?
    (A) Monte Verde
    (B) Churamal
    (C) Ahmad ibn Majid
    (D) Davis quadrants
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Ahmad ibn Majid
    Explanation:
    Ahmad ibn Majid was an Arabian navigator and cartographer born in 1421 in Oman. He was raised with a family famous for seafaring; at the age of 17 he was able to navigate ships. He was so famous that he was known as the first Arab seaman. The exact date is not known, but ibn Majid probably died in 1500. He became famous in the West as the navigator who helped Vasco da Gama to find his way from Africa to India Hence, C is the correct option.
  52. Which of the following Portuguese Governor in India who introduced the ‘Policy of imperialism’?
    (A)  Francisco de Almeida
    (B) John Mildenhall
    (C) Gerald Angier
    (D) Alfonso de Albuquerque
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Alfanso de Albuquerque
    Explanation:
    Alfanso de Albuquerque was the second Portuguese Governor in India who introduced the ‘Policy of Imperialism’. Hence, D is the correct option.
  53. Which of the following Portuguese Governor in India who captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur?
    (A)  Francisco de Almeida
    (B) John Mildenhall
    (C) Gerald Angier
    (D) Alfonso de Albuquerque
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  Francisco de Almeida
    Explanation:
    Francisco de Almeida was the first Portuguese Governor in India who captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510 AD. Hence, A is the correct option.
  54. The English East India Company was formed by a group of merchants known as the ______ in 1600 A(D)
    (A)  Merchant Adventurers
    (B) English Trader
    (C) Duke Trading Community
    (D) Cox & King
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  Merchant Adventures
    Explanation:
    The English East India Company was formed by a group of merchants known as the Merchant Adventures in 1600 AD. Hence, A is the correct option.
  55. Who among the following British explorer and adventurer and one of the first to make an overland journey to India?
    (A) Francis Dey
    (B) John Mildenhall
    (C) Gerald Angier
    (D) Captain Hawkins
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) John Mildenhall
    Explanation:
    John Mildenhall or John Midnall was a British explorer and adventurer and one of the first to make an overland journey to India He was the self-styled ambassador of the British East India Company in India. Hence, B is the correct option.
    European and British Conquest in India
  56. In which place the first factory of East India Company was built?
    (A) Masulipatnam
    (B) Nagapatnam
    (C) Surat
    (D) Bombay
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Surat
    Explanation:
    The first factory of East India Company was built at Surat in 1613 AD. Hence, C is the correct option.
  57. Who among the following European forced to sell all their settlements in India to the British?
    (A) Dutch
    (B) Portuguese
    (C) Danes
    (D) French
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Danes
    Explanation:
    The Danes formed an East India Company and arrived in India in 1616 A(D) They established settlements at Tranquerbar (in Tamil Nadu) in 1620 AD and at Serampore (Bengal) in 1676 AD. However, they failed to strengthen themselves in India and were forced to sell all their settlements in India to the British. Hence, C is the correct option.
  58. Who among the following obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri?
    (A) Francis Day
    (B) John Mildenhall
    (C) Gerald Angier
    (D) Captain Hawkins
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Francis Day
    Explanation:
    In 1639, Francis Day obtained the site of Madras from the Raja of Chandragiri with permission to build a fortified factory, which was named Fort St. George. Hence, A is the correct option.
  59. When did Vasco-da-Gama reach Calicut in the Western coast of India?
    (A) 1489
    (B) 1498
    (C) 1398
    (D) 1589
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1498
  60. Vasco-Da-Gama was welcomed in Calicut by which Indian ruler?
    (A) Zamorin
    (B) Chandragupta
    (C) Kanishka
    (D) Alauddin Khalji
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Zamorin
  61. The first Portuguese Governor of India was
    (A) Robert Clive
    (B) Munro
    (C) F.D Alameda
    (D) Minto
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) F.D Alameda
  62. Which Portuguese Governor defeated Arabs and Egyptians at Daman and Due island of India?
    (A) F.D Alameda
    (B) Clive
    (C) Lord Hastings
    (D) Sir Adam Francois
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) F.D Alameda
  63. Name of the person who laid foundation for Portuguese in India?
    (A) Albuquerque
    (B) F.D Almaida
    (C) Lord Minto
    (D) R.s Ridique
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Albuquerque
  64. Portuguese captured Goa in
    (A) 1560
    (B) 1510
    (C) 1540
    (D) 1522
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1510
  65. The H.Q of Portuguese in India for trade was
    (A) Mumbai
    (B) Delhi
    (C) Goa
    (D) Daman & Due
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Goa
    European and British Conquest in India
  66. In which year the Dutch East India Company established in India?
    (A) 1600
    (B) 1602
    (C) 1603
    (D) 1608
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1602
  67. The first trading center of Dutch East India Company in India was established in –
    (A) Due
    (B) Goo
    (C) Machilipatnam
    (D) Surat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Machilipatnam
  68. The H.Q of Dutch in India was in –
    (A) Pulicat
    (B) Andaman
    (C) Gandhinagar
    (D) Kochin
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pulicat
  69. Dutch shifted their head quarter to Nagapatnam from-
    (A) Cochin
    (B) Daman
    (C) Pulicat
    (D) Machilipatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pulicat
  70. The trading center of Danes was at –
    (A) Surat
    (B) Haldia
    (C) Barakpur
    (D) Srirampur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Srirampur
  71. Danish makes headquarter in India in which city?
    (A) Due
    (B) Lakshadweep
    (C) Nagapatnam
    (D) Srirampur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Srirampur
  72. When English East India Company was established in India?
    (A) 1672
    (B) 1600
    (C) 1620
    (D) 1625
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1600
  73. Captain Hawkins was sent to which court to get permission for trading?
    (A) Shanahan
    (B) Aurangzeb
    (C) Jahangir
    (D) Akbar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jahangir
  74. Sir Thomas Roe was sent to Jahangir court in which year?
    (A) 1600
    (B) 1623
    (C) 1602
    (D) 1615
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1615
  75. British East India Company established their settlement in which year?
    (A) 1613
    (B) 1616
    (C) 1622
    (D) 1632
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1616
    European and British Conquest in India
  76. Which Indian sultan gave permission to English to build a factory?
    (A) Bijapur Sultan
    (B) Golkonda Sultan
    (C) Bhagalpur Sultan
    (D) Bajirao Sultan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Golkonda Sultan
  77. George Fort built in which city of India in 1641?
    (A) Hugly
    (B) Patna
    (C) Goa
    (D) Madras
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Madras
  78. Who was the founder of French East India Company in India (1669)?
    (A) Colbert
    (B) Robert Hook
    (C) Suzy
    (D) Smith
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Colbert
  79. The French head quarter in India was situated in which city?
    (A) Chandigarh
    (B) Bombay
    (C) Pondicherry
    (D) Due
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pondicherry
  80. Which country started first trade with India?
    (A) Portuguese
    (B) France
    (C) England
    (D) Dutch
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Portuguese
  81. Vasco-Da-Gama died in India. What is the name of this city?
    (A) Due
    (B) Daman
    (C) Surat
    (D) Cochin
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Cochin
  82. Who was the first ambassador of East India Company visited to India?
    (A) Captain Michelson
    (B) Captain Hawkins
    (C) Captain James
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Captain Hawkins
  83. Which European was last to India for trading purposes?
    (A) French
    (B) Portuguese
    (C) Dutch
    (D) Danish
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) French
  84. Which one of the following was the first English ship that came to India?
    (A) Elizabeth
    (B) Titanic
    (C) Red Dragon
    (D) Mayflower
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Red Dragon
  85. Which one of the following was the first fort constructed by the British in India?
    (A) Fort St. Angelo
    (B) Fort St. George
    (C) Fort St. David
    (D) Fort William
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Fort St. George

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