Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography


Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

This is the 14th topic under the West Bengal Geography Notes for WBCS Module. The links to the previous chapters are listed below:

  1. Introduction to West Bengal Geography
  2. Physiographic divisions of West Bengal
  3. Rivers of West Bengal
  4. Soil and Climate of West Bengal
  5. Mineral Resources of West Bengal
  6. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in West Bengal
  7. Agriculture in West Bengal
  8. Irrigation and Hydropower Projects in West Bengal
  9. Transport System in West Bengal
  10. Districts of West Bengal
  11. Demographic Profile of West Bengal
  12. Schemes of West Bengal Government
  13. One Liner Notes related to West Bengal

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Miscellaneous Topics– WB Geography

Castes and Tribes of West Bengal

Scheduled Castes Population – Census 2011

  • The Rajbanshi and Namasudra having more than 32 lakhs population each constitute 35.8 percent of the total SC population of the state.
  • Bagdi, Pod, Bauri, and Chamar each have more than 10 lakhs population.
  • They along with Rajbanshi and Namasudra together constitute 73.9 percent of the total SCs.
  • The Jalia Kaibartta, Hari, Dhoba, Sunri (excluding Saha), Dom, Lohar, Mal, Kaora, and Tiyar have a sizeable population.
  • North Twenty Four Pargana, South Twenty Four Pargana, and Barddhaman districts account for one-third of the total SC population of the state.
State No_HH Population Males Female Child (0-6) Literacy Sex-Ratio
India 41,694,863 201,378,372 103,535,314 97,843,058 14.50 % 66.07 % 945
West Bengal 4,861,303 21,463,270 11,003,304 10,459,966 11.91 % 69.43 % 951

Scheduled Tribe Population – Census 2011

  • 437 groups of tribals have been scheduled under the Constitution of India.
  • The major tribal groups who have been scheduled in India include Gonds, Santals, Khasis, Nagas, Garos, Mundas, Oraons, Kharias, Hos, Angamis, Bhils, Kols, Chenchu, Kondadoras, Kondakapus, Totos, Paharias, Bhutias, etc.
  • So far as the state of West Bengal there are forty-one (41) schedule tribes and their concentrations are more in southern, western, and northern parts of the state.

Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

State No_HH Population Males Female Child(0-6) Literacy Sex-Ratio
India 21,511,528 104,545,716 52,547,215 51,998,501 16.01 % 58.95 % 990
West Bengal 1,160,069 5,296,953 2,649,974 2,646,979 13.17 % 57.93 % 999

Horticulture of West Bengal

  • With a production of 26.68 m. MT of horticulture produces from an area of 1.78 m. ha, West Bengal is the largest producer of horticultural crops accounting for 9.6% of total horticultural production in the country.
  • West Bengal is the fifth largest producer of guava and accounts for 5.1% of the total production of guava in the country.
  • West Bengal accounts for 3% of the total production of mango in the country. 
  • Commercial mango varieties are grown in the State Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green, Zardalu, Amarpali, Pusa Arunima, Surya.
  • West Bengal is the sixth-largest producer of papaya and accounts for 5.9% of the total production of papaya in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of brinjal and accounts for 23.0 of the total production of brinjal in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of cabbage and accounts for 24.0% of the total production of cabbage in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of cauliflower and accounts for 22.0% of the total production of cauliflower in the country.
Neel Kranti Mission (CSS) is associated with fishing in West Bengal.
Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important component in the dryland farming system.

Industrial Sectors of West Bengal

West Bengal is mainly an agricultural state, although industries have also flourished in this state.

Main industries are: Iron and steel, Jute Industry, Cotton and textile industry, Tea industry, Food processing industry, Tourism Industry, Information technology

Iron and steel industry

  • The first iron and steel industry was established in Kulti in 1870.
  • In this state Durgapur industrial belt was developed due to the availability of Iron ore, coal, water, electricity, and cheap labor.

Jute industry

  • West Bengal is famous for jute production.
  • The first jute industry in this state was established in 1855.
  • Either side of the Hooghly River mainly popular for the various jute manufacturing industries.

Cotton and textile industry

  • Cultivation of cotton does not take place in West Bengal, but the import of cotton is the main source of cotton industries in this state.
  • The first cotton industry was established in Ghusuri at Howrah district.

Tea industry

  • This is an important industry in West Bengal. The first tea industry was established in 1834.
  • All tea estates are located in Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar.

Food processing industry

  • The processing of fish, eggs, meats vegetables, etc. is done for ready-to-eat products to be consumed by making the people.
  • Due to great demand, the food processing industry has developed in this state.

Tourism industry

  • Any center for entertainment is considered to be a tourism spot. In this state, the tourism industry has developed due to various religious places, sea beaches, historical places, hilly areas.
  • The most popular places are – Victoria Memorial, Alipore Zoo, Sundarbans, Dighs, and Darjeeling.

Information technology

  • This industry has developed in West Bengal and holds an important position in the country.
  • Salt Lake is the main location of this industry.

Highest Peaks, Mountains, Hills & Hillocks of West Bengal

Highest Peaks of West  Bengal

Ranking Peak Height (m)
1 Sandakfu 3636
2 Falut 3600
3 Sabargram 3543
4 Rachela Danda 3170
5 Tonglu 3036
6 Tiger Hill 2600
7 Ghum Hill 2400
8 Sanchuli 1924
9 Sinchula 1795
10 Deolo Hill 1704
11 Durpin Hill 1372
12 Chamtu, West Bengal 688
13 Gorgaburu 677

Highest Mountains of West Bengal

Ranking Mountain Highest peak Height (m) Mountain range District
1 Singalila Ridge Sandakfu 3636 Himalayas Darjeeling
2 Darjeeling-Kurseong range Tiger Hill 2600 Himalayas Darjeeling
3 Sinchula range Sanchuli 1924 Himalayas Alipurduar
4 Chola range Deolo Hill 1704 Himalayas Darjeeling

Highest Hills of West Bengal

Ranking Hill Highest peak Height (m) Mountain range District
1 Ajodhya Hills Gorgaburu 677 Eastern Ghats Purulia
2 Panchet Hill 490 Chota Nagpur Plateau Purulia
3 Biharinath 451 Eastern Ghats Bankura
4 Susunia 448 Eastern Ghats Bankura

Highest Hillocks of West Bengal

Ranking Hillock Height (m) Plateau/Range District
1 Mukutmanipur 200 Dalma Hills Bankura
2 Mama Bhagneglo 105 Chota Nagpur plateau Birbhum

Major Cities along rivers in West Bengal

Sl. River Stretch Identified Towns / Urban Agglomerates Identified
1. Barakar Kulti To Asansol Chittaranjan, Kulti, Burnpur, Asansol
2. Churni Santipur Town To Majhadia Ranaghat
3. Damodar Durgachakm To Dishergarh Vill Udayanarayanpur, Bagnan, Durgapur, Asansol
4. Dwarakeshwar Bankura To Kushtia Bankura
5. Dwarka Tarapith To Sadhak Bamdeb Ghat Chandipur, Tarapith, Bishnupur, Margram
6. Ganga Tribeni To Diamond Harbour Berhampore Kanchrapara, Hooghly, Naihati, Chandannagar, Bhatpara, Barrackpore, Baranagar, Kolkata, Howrah, Palta, Dakshineswar, Uluberia


7. Jalangi Laal Dighi To Krishna Nagar Krishnanagar, Chapra
8. Kaljani Bitala To Alipurdwar Hamiltonganj, Alipurduar
9. Kansi Midnapore To Ramnagar Medinipur
10. Karola Jalpaiguri To Thakurer Kamat Jalpaiguri
11. Mahananda Siliguri To Binaguri Siliguri
12. Mathabhanga Madhupur To Gobindapur Majhdia, Krishnaganj, Durgapur, Swarnakali
13. Mayurkashi Suri To Durgapur Suri, Sainthia
14. Rupnarayan Kolaghat To Benapur Bagnan, Kolaghat, Tamluk
15. Silabati Ghatal To Nischindipur Ghatal, Nischindipur
16. Teesta Siliguri To Paharpur Jalpaiguri, Siliguri
17. Vidhadhari (Tidal) Haroa Bridge To Malancha Burning Ghat Haroa, Minakhan, Malancha

Dams and Reservoirs of West Bengal

Dam/ Reservoir Length (m) River District
Maithon 4,789 Damodar Dhanbad
Panchet Damodar Purulia
Durgapur Dam 692 Damodar Durgapur, Burdwan
Tinpara 309 Mayurakhshi Birbhum
Teesta Dam Teesta Jalpaiguri
Farakka Dam 2,240 Ganga Murshidabad
Messanjore (Canada Dam) 660 Mayurakhshi Birbhum
Tilaiya Dam Barakar Burdwan
Kangshabati Dam Kangshabati Mukutmanipuri, Bankura

Waterfalls of West Bengal

Waterfall River Height (m) Location
Brahmani Waterfalls Brahmani 61 Ayodhya Hills, Purulia
Paglajhora Waterfalls Mahananda Mahal diram, Karsheong

List of Chief Ministers of West Bengal

From To
Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15.08.1947 22.01.1948
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy 23.01.1948 25.01.1950
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy 26.01.1950 30.03.1952
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy 31.03.1952 05.04.1957
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy 06.04.1957 02.04.1962
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy 03.04.1962 01.07.1962
Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen (Acting) 02.07.1962 08.07.1962
Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen 09.07.1962 28.02.1967
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay 01.03.1967 21.11.1967
Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 21.11.1967 19.02.1968
President’s Rule
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay 25.02.1969 30.07.1970
President’s Rule
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay 02.04.1971 25.06.1971
President’s Rule
Shri Siddhartha Sankar Ray 20.03.1972 30.04.1977
President’s Rule
Shri Jyoti Basu 21.06.1977 23.05.1982
Shri Jyoti Basu 24.05.1982 29.03.1987
Shri Jyoti Basu 30.03.1987 18.06.1991
Shri Jyoti Basu 19.06.1991 15.05.1996
Shri Jyoti Basu 16.05.1996 05.11.2000
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee 06.11.2000 14.05.2001
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee 15.05.2001 17.05.2006
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee 18.05.2006 19.05.2011
Mamata Banerjee 20.05.2011 till date

Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

Superlatives of India

Superlative Location
Biggest Cantilever Bridge & Busiest Bridge Rabindra Sethu (also called Howrah Bridge on Hooghly river in Kolkata(457m/1499ft long.)
Biggest Fort Red Fort, Delhi
Biggest stadium  Salt Lake Stadium, in Bengali, called Yuva Bharati (Kolkata, West Bengal); capacity: 120,000
Busiest airport Indira Gandhi International Airport Delhi
Coldest Place Dras, Jammu & Kashmir
Fastest Train Shatabdi Express between New Delhi  and Bhopal (it runs 150 kmph from Delhi to Agra; next Agra to Bhopal runs at 140kmph)
First complete Banking District Palakkad, Kerala
First district with 100% e-literacy Malappuram, Kerala
First District with 100% literacy Ernakulam, Kerala
First I.T district Palakkad, Kerala
First inter-linked rivers Ken-Betwa (UP-MP)
First wireless Internet connectivity city Mysore, Karnataka
Highest  Airport Kushok Bakula Rimpochhe Airport, Leh airport in Ladakh (3256m /16080ft high)
Highest battle field Siachen Glacier
Highest civilian Award Bharat Ratna
Highest dam Tehri Dam on Bhagirathi River, near Tehri, Uttarakhand.

Height: 260.5 m (855 ft); Length: 575 m (1,886 ft)

Highest female literacy rate Jain (90.6%)
Highest gallantry award  Param Vir Chakra
Highest gateway Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, Built by Akbar (53.5 m/175ft high)
Highest Hydel Power station Rongton Hydel Project in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh
Highest literacy rate religion Jain 94.1%)
Highest Mountain peak Kanchenjunga(Sikkim)(8598 m)(Initially K2 was the highest mountain peak in India. But now it is in POK)
Highest population growth rate Religion Muslim(29.3%)
Highest precipitation  Mawsynram, Meghalaya
Highest Road Road at Khardung in the Leh-Manali Sector
Highest Tower(Minaret) Qutb Minar, Delhi
Highest Waterfall Jog Waterfalls,(on Sharavathi river,292 meters) Karnataka
Largest  Auditorium Sri Shanmukhananda hall, Mumbai
Largest animal fair Sonepur Mela, Patna, Bihar.
Largest Botanical Garden National Botanical Garden, Kolkata                                            
Largest Cave Amarnath (about 44 km from Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir)
Largest Cave Temple Ellora Temples, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
Largest Church Se. Cathedral at old Goa, 10 km from Panaji.
Largest Cinema hall Thangam (Madurai)
Largest city (Area Wise) Kolkata
Largest Concentration  of Scheduled Tribes Madhya Pradesh
Largest concentration of  Scheduled Caste population Uttar Pradesh has the largest Scheduled Caste population
Largest Delta Sunderbans (75,000 sq. km) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Largest Desert Thar or  Great Indian Desert, Rajasthan.
Largest district Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir
Largest District (Population) Medinipur(west Bengal)
Largest dome  Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur, Karnataka, Diameter: 44.0 m
Largest Fresh Water Lake Kolleru in Andhra Pradesh
Largest Gurudwara Golden temple, Amritsar, Punjab
Largest Lake Wular lake, Jammu & Kashmir
Largest Library  National Library, Kolkata
Largest manmade lake Govind Sagar, Bhakra, Haryana
Largest Mosque Jama Masjid , Delhi(built by shah jahan in 1644-58)
Largest Museum Indian Museum, Kolkata
Largest Ocean island Middle Andaman
Largest Planetarium Birla Planetarium, Kolkata
Largest Plateau Deccan Plateau
Largest prison Tihar Jail, Delhi
Largest Public Sector Bank State Bank of India
Largest Public Sector employer Indian Railways
Largest Residence Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi
Largest River Bridge Farakka Barrage, Kolkata(7,363.6ft)
Largest river Island Majuli, Brahmaputra river, Asom
Largest scheduled caste community Chamar
The largest state in area Rajasthan (3,42,239 sq.km)
Largest Tribe (ST) Gond
Largest Union  Territory in Area Andaman and Nicobar islands(8,249 sq.km)
Largest Zoo Zoological Gardens, Alipore, Kolkata
Least densely populated State Arunachal Pradesh
Least populated state Sikkim (607,688: 2011 census)
Least Populated Union Territory Lakshadweep(64,429)
Longest beach Marina beach, Chennai(13km)
Longest Canal Indira Gandhi Canal or Rajasthan Canal(959 km long)
Longest Corridor  Corridor in Ramanathaswamy Temple at Rameswaram Tamilnadu (1220M/4002 FT)
Longest Dam Hirakud Dam on Sutlej river in Orissa(24.4km long and 2.8 km wide)
Longest Delta Sunderbans (75000 sq.  km ) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra in  West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Longest Glacier Siachen Glacier on the Indo – Pak border(75.6kmlong and 2.8km wide)
Longest national Highway  NH-7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)
Longest Passenger Train Route  Jammu Tawi-Kanyakumari(3730km)
Longest railway bridge Dehri-on-Sone Railway bridge over the Sone river near Sasaram on Kolkata -Delhi main line 
Longest railway platform Kharagpur in West Bengal (833m/2733ft) also the world’s longest
Longest River The Ganga 2640km long(it runs 2525km long in India)
Longest River bridge  Bandra–Worli Sea Link(5,600m/18,400 ft.), Mahim bay, Mumbai.        

Previously it was Mahatma Gandhi Setu over the Ganga at Patna (5575m/18286ft)

Longest Road  Grand Trunk Road from Kolkata to Amritsar
Longest Road Bridge Nehru Sethu on Son river, Bihar (10,044ft)
Longest Sea bridge Anna-Indira Gandhi Bridge, connecting the island of Rameswaram with Mandapam in Tamil Nadu(2.34km long)
Lowest female literacy rate  Muslim
Lowest literacy rate religion Muslim
Lowest population growth rate religion Sikh 
Maximum forest area Madhya Pradesh
Maximum forest area in % Mizoram
Most Densely populated state West Bengal(904sq.km)
Most populated State Uttar Pradesh (199,281,477: 2011 census) 
Most populated union Territory Delhi (16,753,235)
Most Populous City Mumbai (nearly  183 lakhs )
Oldest  Refinery Digboi(Asom) it discovered in 1835
Oldest Church St. Thomas Church at Palayar in Trichur district in Kerala built in 52 AD.
Oldest Monastery Buddhist Monastery situated at an altitude of 3048m/10000 ft at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.
Oldest observatory Jantar Mantar, Delhi
Oldest University University of Calcutta 1857
Oldest Zoo  Trivandrum Zoological  gardens, Kerala(1859)
Smallest District Mahe, Puducherry
Smallest district Yanam in population, Puducherry
The smallest state in area Goa (3,702sq.km)
Smallest Union Territory  in  Area Lakshadweep(32 sq. km)
The state has the highest literacy rate Kerala
State with highest Cattle  Population Uttar Pradesh
Tallest Statue  Statue of Gomateswara at  Sravanabelagola, Karnataka
The largest Hindu temple  area  Akshardham, Delhi
Union Territory having the highest literacy rate Lakshadweep 

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