Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography
This is the 14th topic under the West Bengal Geography Notes for WBCS Module. The links to the previous chapters are listed below:
- Introduction to West Bengal Geography
- Physiographic divisions of West Bengal
- Rivers of West Bengal
- Soil and Climate of West Bengal
- Mineral Resources of West Bengal
- National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in West Bengal
- Agriculture in West Bengal
- Irrigation and Hydropower Projects in West Bengal
- Transport System in West Bengal
- Districts of West Bengal
- Demographic Profile of West Bengal
- Schemes of West Bengal Government
- One Liner Notes related to West Bengal
Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography Free PDF Download for all State Public Service Exams like WBCS, UPSC, other government job exams.
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Miscellaneous Topics– WB Geography
Castes and Tribes of West Bengal
Scheduled Castes Population – Census 2011
- The Rajbanshi and Namasudra having more than 32 lakhs population each constitute 35.8 percent of the total SC population of the state.
- Bagdi, Pod, Bauri, and Chamar each have more than 10 lakhs population.
- They along with Rajbanshi and Namasudra together constitute 73.9 percent of the total SCs.
- The Jalia Kaibartta, Hari, Dhoba, Sunri (excluding Saha), Dom, Lohar, Mal, Kaora, and Tiyar have a sizeable population.
- North Twenty Four Pargana, South Twenty Four Pargana, and Barddhaman districts account for one-third of the total SC population of the state.
|India||41,694,863||201,378,372||103,535,314||97,843,058||14.50 %||66.07 %||945|
|West Bengal||4,861,303||21,463,270||11,003,304||10,459,966||11.91 %||69.43 %||951|
Scheduled Tribe Population – Census 2011
- 437 groups of tribals have been scheduled under the Constitution of India.
- The major tribal groups who have been scheduled in India include Gonds, Santals, Khasis, Nagas, Garos, Mundas, Oraons, Kharias, Hos, Angamis, Bhils, Kols, Chenchu, Kondadoras, Kondakapus, Totos, Paharias, Bhutias, etc.
- So far as the state of West Bengal there are forty-one (41) schedule tribes and their concentrations are more in southern, western, and northern parts of the state.
|India||21,511,528||104,545,716||52,547,215||51,998,501||16.01 %||58.95 %||990|
|West Bengal||1,160,069||5,296,953||2,649,974||2,646,979||13.17 %||57.93 %||999|
Horticulture of West Bengal
- With a production of 26.68 m. MT of horticulture produces from an area of 1.78 m. ha, West Bengal is the largest producer of horticultural crops accounting for 9.6% of total horticultural production in the country.
- West Bengal is the fifth largest producer of guava and accounts for 5.1% of the total production of guava in the country.
- West Bengal accounts for 3% of the total production of mango in the country.
- Commercial mango varieties are grown in the State Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green, Zardalu, Amarpali, Pusa Arunima, Surya.
- West Bengal is the sixth-largest producer of papaya and accounts for 5.9% of the total production of papaya in the country.
- West Bengal is the leader in the production of brinjal and accounts for 23.0 of the total production of brinjal in the country.
- West Bengal is the leader in the production of cabbage and accounts for 24.0% of the total production of cabbage in the country.
- West Bengal is the leader in the production of cauliflower and accounts for 22.0% of the total production of cauliflower in the country.
Industrial Sectors of West Bengal
West Bengal is mainly an agricultural state, although industries have also flourished in this state.
Main industries are: Iron and steel, Jute Industry, Cotton and textile industry, Tea industry, Food processing industry, Tourism Industry, Information technology
Iron and steel industry
- The first iron and steel industry was established in Kulti in 1870.
- In this state Durgapur industrial belt was developed due to the availability of Iron ore, coal, water, electricity, and cheap labor.
- West Bengal is famous for jute production.
- The first jute industry in this state was established in 1855.
- Either side of the Hooghly River mainly popular for the various jute manufacturing industries.
Cotton and textile industry
- Cultivation of cotton does not take place in West Bengal, but the import of cotton is the main source of cotton industries in this state.
- The first cotton industry was established in Ghusuri at Howrah district.
- This is an important industry in West Bengal. The first tea industry was established in 1834.
- All tea estates are located in Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar.
Food processing industry
- The processing of fish, eggs, meats vegetables, etc. is done for ready-to-eat products to be consumed by making the people.
- Due to great demand, the food processing industry has developed in this state.
- Any center for entertainment is considered to be a tourism spot. In this state, the tourism industry has developed due to various religious places, sea beaches, historical places, hilly areas.
- The most popular places are – Victoria Memorial, Alipore Zoo, Sundarbans, Dighs, and Darjeeling.
- This industry has developed in West Bengal and holds an important position in the country.
- Salt Lake is the main location of this industry.
Highest Peaks, Mountains, Hills & Hillocks of West Bengal
Highest Peaks of West Bengal
|12||Chamtu, West Bengal||688|
Highest Mountains of West Bengal
|Ranking||Mountain||Highest peak||Height (m)||Mountain range||District|
|2||Darjeeling-Kurseong range||Tiger Hill||2600||Himalayas||Darjeeling|
|4||Chola range||Deolo Hill||1704||Himalayas||Darjeeling|
Highest Hills of West Bengal
|Ranking||Hill||Highest peak||Height (m)||Mountain range||District|
|1||Ajodhya Hills||Gorgaburu||677||Eastern Ghats||Purulia|
|2||Panchet Hill||490||Chota Nagpur Plateau||Purulia|
Highest Hillocks of West Bengal
|2||Mama Bhagneglo||105||Chota Nagpur plateau||Birbhum|
Major Cities along rivers in West Bengal
|Sl.||River||Stretch Identified||Towns / Urban Agglomerates Identified|
|1.||Barakar||Kulti To Asansol||Chittaranjan, Kulti, Burnpur, Asansol|
|2.||Churni||Santipur Town To Majhadia||Ranaghat|
|3.||Damodar||Durgachakm To Dishergarh Vill||Udayanarayanpur, Bagnan, Durgapur, Asansol|
|4.||Dwarakeshwar||Bankura To Kushtia||Bankura|
|5.||Dwarka||Tarapith To Sadhak Bamdeb Ghat||Chandipur, Tarapith, Bishnupur, Margram|
|6.||Ganga||Tribeni To Diamond Harbour||Berhampore Kanchrapara, Hooghly, Naihati, Chandannagar, Bhatpara, Barrackpore, Baranagar, Kolkata, Howrah, Palta, Dakshineswar, Uluberia|
|7.||Jalangi||Laal Dighi To Krishna Nagar||Krishnanagar, Chapra|
|8.||Kaljani||Bitala To Alipurdwar||Hamiltonganj, Alipurduar|
|9.||Kansi||Midnapore To Ramnagar||Medinipur|
|10.||Karola||Jalpaiguri To Thakurer Kamat||Jalpaiguri|
|11.||Mahananda||Siliguri To Binaguri||Siliguri|
|12.||Mathabhanga||Madhupur To Gobindapur||Majhdia, Krishnaganj, Durgapur, Swarnakali|
|13.||Mayurkashi||Suri To Durgapur||Suri, Sainthia|
|14.||Rupnarayan||Kolaghat To Benapur||Bagnan, Kolaghat, Tamluk|
|15.||Silabati||Ghatal To Nischindipur||Ghatal, Nischindipur|
|16.||Teesta||Siliguri To Paharpur||Jalpaiguri, Siliguri|
|17.||Vidhadhari (Tidal)||Haroa Bridge To Malancha Burning Ghat||Haroa, Minakhan, Malancha|
Dams and Reservoirs of West Bengal
|Dam/ Reservoir||Length (m)||River||District|
|Durgapur Dam||692||Damodar||Durgapur, Burdwan|
|Messanjore (Canada Dam)||660||Mayurakhshi||Birbhum|
|Kangshabati Dam||Kangshabati||Mukutmanipuri, Bankura|
Waterfalls of West Bengal
|Brahmani Waterfalls||Brahmani||61||Ayodhya Hills, Purulia|
|Paglajhora Waterfalls||Mahananda||–||Mahal diram, Karsheong|
List of Chief Ministers of West Bengal
|NAME OF THE PREMIERS||TENURE|
|Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||15.08.1947||22.01.1948|
|Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy||23.01.1948||25.01.1950|
|NAME OF THE CHIEF MINISTERS|
|Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy||26.01.1950||30.03.1952|
|Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy||31.03.1952||05.04.1957|
|Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy||06.04.1957||02.04.1962|
|Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy||03.04.1962||01.07.1962|
|Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen (Acting)||02.07.1962||08.07.1962|
|Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen||09.07.1962||28.02.1967|
|Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay||01.03.1967||21.11.1967|
|Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh||21.11.1967||19.02.1968|
|Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay||25.02.1969||30.07.1970|
|Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay||02.04.1971||25.06.1971|
|Shri Siddhartha Sankar Ray||20.03.1972||30.04.1977|
|Shri Jyoti Basu||21.06.1977||23.05.1982|
|Shri Jyoti Basu||24.05.1982||29.03.1987|
|Shri Jyoti Basu||30.03.1987||18.06.1991|
|Shri Jyoti Basu||19.06.1991||15.05.1996|
|Shri Jyoti Basu||16.05.1996||05.11.2000|
|Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee||06.11.2000||14.05.2001|
|Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee||15.05.2001||17.05.2006|
|Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee||18.05.2006||19.05.2011|
|Mamata Banerjee||20.05.2011||till date|
Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography
Superlatives of India
|Biggest Cantilever Bridge & Busiest Bridge||Rabindra Sethu (also called Howrah Bridge on Hooghly river in Kolkata(457m/1499ft long.)|
|Biggest Fort||Red Fort, Delhi|
|Biggest stadium||Salt Lake Stadium, in Bengali, called Yuva Bharati (Kolkata, West Bengal); capacity: 120,000|
|Busiest airport||Indira Gandhi International Airport Delhi|
|Coldest Place||Dras, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Fastest Train||Shatabdi Express between New Delhi and Bhopal (it runs 150 kmph from Delhi to Agra; next Agra to Bhopal runs at 140kmph)|
|First complete Banking District||Palakkad, Kerala|
|First district with 100% e-literacy||Malappuram, Kerala|
|First District with 100% literacy||Ernakulam, Kerala|
|First I.T district||Palakkad, Kerala|
|First inter-linked rivers||Ken-Betwa (UP-MP)|
|First wireless Internet connectivity city||Mysore, Karnataka|
|Highest Airport||Kushok Bakula Rimpochhe Airport, Leh airport in Ladakh (3256m /16080ft high)|
|Highest battle field||Siachen Glacier|
|Highest civilian Award||Bharat Ratna|
|Highest dam||Tehri Dam on Bhagirathi River, near Tehri, Uttarakhand.
Height: 260.5 m (855 ft); Length: 575 m (1,886 ft)
|Highest female literacy rate||Jain (90.6%)|
|Highest gallantry award||Param Vir Chakra|
|Highest gateway||Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, Built by Akbar (53.5 m/175ft high)|
|Highest Hydel Power station||Rongton Hydel Project in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh|
|Highest literacy rate religion||Jain 94.1%)|
|Highest Mountain peak||Kanchenjunga(Sikkim)(8598 m)(Initially K2 was the highest mountain peak in India. But now it is in POK)|
|Highest population growth rate Religion||Muslim(29.3%)|
|Highest precipitation||Mawsynram, Meghalaya|
|Highest Road||Road at Khardung in the Leh-Manali Sector|
|Highest Tower(Minaret)||Qutb Minar, Delhi|
|Highest Waterfall||Jog Waterfalls,(on Sharavathi river,292 meters) Karnataka|
|Largest Auditorium||Sri Shanmukhananda hall, Mumbai|
|Largest animal fair||Sonepur Mela, Patna, Bihar.|
|Largest Botanical Garden||National Botanical Garden, Kolkata|
|Largest Cave||Amarnath (about 44 km from Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir)|
|Largest Cave Temple||Ellora Temples, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.|
|Largest Church||Se. Cathedral at old Goa, 10 km from Panaji.|
|Largest Cinema hall||Thangam (Madurai)|
|Largest city (Area Wise)||Kolkata|
|Largest Concentration of Scheduled Tribes||Madhya Pradesh|
|Largest concentration of Scheduled Caste population||Uttar Pradesh has the largest Scheduled Caste population|
|Largest Delta||Sunderbans (75,000 sq. km) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in West Bengal and Bangladesh.|
|Largest Desert||Thar or Great Indian Desert, Rajasthan.|
|Largest district||Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Largest District (Population)||Medinipur(west Bengal)|
|Largest dome||Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur, Karnataka, Diameter: 44.0 m|
|Largest Fresh Water Lake||Kolleru in Andhra Pradesh|
|Largest Gurudwara||Golden temple, Amritsar, Punjab|
|Largest Lake||Wular lake, Jammu & Kashmir|
|Largest Library||National Library, Kolkata|
|Largest manmade lake||Govind Sagar, Bhakra, Haryana|
|Largest Mosque||Jama Masjid , Delhi(built by shah jahan in 1644-58)|
|Largest Museum||Indian Museum, Kolkata|
|Largest Ocean island||Middle Andaman|
|Largest Planetarium||Birla Planetarium, Kolkata|
|Largest Plateau||Deccan Plateau|
|Largest prison||Tihar Jail, Delhi|
|Largest Public Sector Bank||State Bank of India|
|Largest Public Sector employer||Indian Railways|
|Largest Residence||Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi|
|Largest River Bridge||Farakka Barrage, Kolkata(7,363.6ft)|
|Largest river Island||Majuli, Brahmaputra river, Asom|
|Largest scheduled caste community||Chamar|
|The largest state in area||Rajasthan (3,42,239 sq.km)|
|Largest Tribe (ST)||Gond|
|Largest Union Territory in Area||Andaman and Nicobar islands(8,249 sq.km)|
|Largest Zoo||Zoological Gardens, Alipore, Kolkata|
|Least densely populated State||Arunachal Pradesh|
|Least populated state||Sikkim (607,688: 2011 census)|
|Least Populated Union Territory||Lakshadweep(64,429)|
|Longest beach||Marina beach, Chennai(13km)|
|Longest Canal||Indira Gandhi Canal or Rajasthan Canal(959 km long)|
|Longest Corridor||Corridor in Ramanathaswamy Temple at Rameswaram Tamilnadu (1220M/4002 FT)|
|Longest Dam||Hirakud Dam on Sutlej river in Orissa(24.4km long and 2.8 km wide)|
|Longest Delta||Sunderbans (75000 sq. km ) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra in West Bengal and Bangladesh.|
|Longest Glacier||Siachen Glacier on the Indo – Pak border(75.6kmlong and 2.8km wide)|
|Longest national Highway||NH-7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)|
|Longest Passenger Train Route||Jammu Tawi-Kanyakumari(3730km)|
|Longest railway bridge||Dehri-on-Sone Railway bridge over the Sone river near Sasaram on Kolkata -Delhi main line|
|Longest railway platform||Kharagpur in West Bengal (833m/2733ft) also the world’s longest|
|Longest River||The Ganga 2640km long(it runs 2525km long in India)|
|Longest River bridge||Bandra–Worli Sea Link(5,600m/18,400 ft.), Mahim bay, Mumbai.
Previously it was Mahatma Gandhi Setu over the Ganga at Patna (5575m/18286ft)
|Longest Road||Grand Trunk Road from Kolkata to Amritsar|
|Longest Road Bridge||Nehru Sethu on Son river, Bihar (10,044ft)|
|Longest Sea bridge||Anna-Indira Gandhi Bridge, connecting the island of Rameswaram with Mandapam in Tamil Nadu(2.34km long)|
|Lowest female literacy rate||Muslim|
|Lowest literacy rate religion||Muslim|
|Lowest population growth rate religion||Sikh|
|Maximum forest area||Madhya Pradesh|
|Maximum forest area in %||Mizoram|
|Most Densely populated state||West Bengal(904sq.km)|
|Most populated State||Uttar Pradesh (199,281,477: 2011 census)|
|Most populated union Territory||Delhi (16,753,235)|
|Most Populous City||Mumbai (nearly 183 lakhs )|
|Oldest Refinery||Digboi(Asom) it discovered in 1835|
|Oldest Church||St. Thomas Church at Palayar in Trichur district in Kerala built in 52 AD.|
|Oldest Monastery||Buddhist Monastery situated at an altitude of 3048m/10000 ft at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.|
|Oldest observatory||Jantar Mantar, Delhi|
|Oldest University||University of Calcutta 1857|
|Oldest Zoo||Trivandrum Zoological gardens, Kerala(1859)|
|Smallest District||Mahe, Puducherry|
|Smallest district||Yanam in population, Puducherry|
|The smallest state in area||Goa (3,702sq.km)|
|Smallest Union Territory in Area||Lakshadweep(32 sq. km)|
|The state has the highest literacy rate||Kerala|
|State with highest Cattle Population||Uttar Pradesh|
|Tallest Statue||Statue of Gomateswara at Sravanabelagola, Karnataka|
|The largest Hindu temple area||Akshardham, Delhi|
|Union Territory having the highest literacy rate||Lakshadweep|
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