Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

This is the 14th topic under the West Bengal Geography Notes for WBCS Module. The links to the previous chapters are listed below:

  1. Introduction to West Bengal Geography
  2. Physiographic divisions of West Bengal
  3. Rivers of West Bengal
  4. Soil and Climate of West Bengal
  5. Mineral Resources of West Bengal
  6. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in West Bengal
  7. Agriculture in West Bengal
  8. Irrigation and Hydropower Projects in West Bengal
  9. Transport System in West Bengal
  10. Districts of West Bengal
  11. Demographic Profile of West Bengal
  12. Schemes of West Bengal Government
  13. One Liner Notes related to West Bengal

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Miscellaneous Topics– WB Geography

Castes and Tribes of West Bengal

Scheduled Castes Population – Census 2011

  • The Rajbanshi and Namasudra having more than 32 lakhs population each constitute 35.8 percent of the total SC population of the state.
  • Bagdi, Pod, Bauri, and Chamar each have more than 10 lakhs population.
  • They along with Rajbanshi and Namasudra together constitute 73.9 percent of the total SCs.
  • The Jalia Kaibartta, Hari, Dhoba, Sunri (excluding Saha), Dom, Lohar, Mal, Kaora, and Tiyar have a sizeable population.
  • North Twenty Four Pargana, South Twenty Four Pargana, and Barddhaman districts account for one-third of the total SC population of the state.
StateNo_HHPopulationMalesFemaleChild (0-6)LiteracySex-Ratio
India41,694,863201,378,372103,535,31497,843,05814.50 %66.07 %945
West Bengal4,861,30321,463,27011,003,30410,459,96611.91 %69.43 %951

Scheduled Tribe Population – Census 2011

  • 437 groups of tribals have been scheduled under the Constitution of India.
  • The major tribal groups who have been scheduled in India include Gonds, Santals, Khasis, Nagas, Garos, Mundas, Oraons, Kharias, Hos, Angamis, Bhils, Kols, Chenchu, Kondadoras, Kondakapus, Totos, Paharias, Bhutias, etc.
  • So far as the state of West Bengal there are forty-one (41) schedule tribes and their concentrations are more in southern, western, and northern parts of the state.

Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

StateNo_HHPopulationMalesFemaleChild(0-6)LiteracySex-Ratio
India21,511,528104,545,71652,547,21551,998,50116.01 %58.95 %990
West Bengal1,160,0695,296,9532,649,9742,646,97913.17 %57.93 %999

Horticulture of West Bengal

  • With a production of 26.68 m. MT of horticulture produces from an area of 1.78 m. ha, West Bengal is the largest producer of horticultural crops accounting for 9.6% of total horticultural production in the country.
  • West Bengal is the fifth largest producer of guava and accounts for 5.1% of the total production of guava in the country.
  • West Bengal accounts for 3% of the total production of mango in the country. 
  • Commercial mango varieties are grown in the State Fazli, Gulabkhas, Himsagar, Kishenbhog, Langra and Bombay Green, Zardalu, Amarpali, Pusa Arunima, Surya.
  • West Bengal is the sixth-largest producer of papaya and accounts for 5.9% of the total production of papaya in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of brinjal and accounts for 23.0 of the total production of brinjal in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of cabbage and accounts for 24.0% of the total production of cabbage in the country.
  • West Bengal is the leader in the production of cauliflower and accounts for 22.0% of the total production of cauliflower in the country.
Neel Kranti Mission (CSS) is associated with fishing in West Bengal.
Goat is known as ‘Poor man’s cow’ in India and is a very important component in the dryland farming system.

Industrial Sectors of West Bengal

West Bengal is mainly an agricultural state, although industries have also flourished in this state.

Main industries are: Iron and steel, Jute Industry, Cotton and textile industry, Tea industry, Food processing industry, Tourism Industry, Information technology

Iron and steel industry

  • The first iron and steel industry was established in Kulti in 1870.
  • In this state Durgapur industrial belt was developed due to the availability of Iron ore, coal, water, electricity, and cheap labor.

Jute industry

  • West Bengal is famous for jute production.
  • The first jute industry in this state was established in 1855.
  • Either side of the Hooghly River mainly popular for the various jute manufacturing industries.

Cotton and textile industry

  • Cultivation of cotton does not take place in West Bengal, but the import of cotton is the main source of cotton industries in this state.
  • The first cotton industry was established in Ghusuri at Howrah district.

Tea industry

  • This is an important industry in West Bengal. The first tea industry was established in 1834.
  • All tea estates are located in Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar.

Food processing industry

  • The processing of fish, eggs, meats vegetables, etc. is done for ready-to-eat products to be consumed by making the people.
  • Due to great demand, the food processing industry has developed in this state.

Tourism industry

  • Any center for entertainment is considered to be a tourism spot. In this state, the tourism industry has developed due to various religious places, sea beaches, historical places, hilly areas.
  • The most popular places are – Victoria Memorial, Alipore Zoo, Sundarbans, Dighs, and Darjeeling.

Information technology

  • This industry has developed in West Bengal and holds an important position in the country.
  • Salt Lake is the main location of this industry.

Highest Peaks, Mountains, Hills & Hillocks of West Bengal

Highest Peaks of West  Bengal

RankingPeakHeight (m)
1Sandakfu3636
2Falut3600
3Sabargram3543
4Rachela Danda3170
5Tonglu3036
6Tiger Hill2600
7Ghum Hill2400
8Sanchuli1924
9Sinchula1795
10Deolo Hill1704
11Durpin Hill1372
12Chamtu, West Bengal688
13Gorgaburu677

Highest Mountains of West Bengal

RankingMountainHighest peakHeight (m)Mountain rangeDistrict
1Singalila RidgeSandakfu3636HimalayasDarjeeling
2Darjeeling-Kurseong rangeTiger Hill2600HimalayasDarjeeling
3Sinchula rangeSanchuli1924HimalayasAlipurduar
4Chola rangeDeolo Hill1704HimalayasDarjeeling

Highest Hills of West Bengal

RankingHillHighest peakHeight (m)Mountain rangeDistrict
1Ajodhya HillsGorgaburu677Eastern GhatsPurulia
2Panchet Hill490Chota Nagpur PlateauPurulia
3Biharinath451Eastern GhatsBankura
4Susunia448Eastern GhatsBankura

Highest Hillocks of West Bengal

RankingHillockHeight (m)Plateau/RangeDistrict
1Mukutmanipur200Dalma HillsBankura
2Mama Bhagneglo105Chota Nagpur plateauBirbhum

Major Cities along rivers in West Bengal

Sl.RiverStretch IdentifiedTowns / Urban Agglomerates Identified
1.BarakarKulti To AsansolChittaranjan, Kulti, Burnpur, Asansol
2.ChurniSantipur Town To MajhadiaRanaghat
3.DamodarDurgachakm To Dishergarh VillUdayanarayanpur, Bagnan, Durgapur, Asansol
4.DwarakeshwarBankura To KushtiaBankura
5.DwarkaTarapith To Sadhak Bamdeb GhatChandipur, Tarapith, Bishnupur, Margram
6.GangaTribeni To Diamond HarbourBerhampore Kanchrapara, Hooghly, Naihati, Chandannagar, Bhatpara, Barrackpore, Baranagar, Kolkata, Howrah, Palta, Dakshineswar, Uluberia

 

7.JalangiLaal Dighi To Krishna NagarKrishnanagar, Chapra
8.KaljaniBitala To AlipurdwarHamiltonganj, Alipurduar
9.KansiMidnapore To RamnagarMedinipur
10.KarolaJalpaiguri To Thakurer KamatJalpaiguri
11.MahanandaSiliguri To BinaguriSiliguri
12.MathabhangaMadhupur To GobindapurMajhdia, Krishnaganj, Durgapur, Swarnakali
13.MayurkashiSuri To DurgapurSuri, Sainthia
14.RupnarayanKolaghat To BenapurBagnan, Kolaghat, Tamluk
15.SilabatiGhatal To NischindipurGhatal, Nischindipur
16.TeestaSiliguri To PaharpurJalpaiguri, Siliguri
17.Vidhadhari (Tidal)Haroa Bridge To Malancha Burning GhatHaroa, Minakhan, Malancha

Dams and Reservoirs of West Bengal

Dam/ ReservoirLength (m)RiverDistrict
Maithon4,789DamodarDhanbad
PanchetDamodarPurulia
Durgapur Dam692DamodarDurgapur, Burdwan
Tinpara309MayurakhshiBirbhum
Teesta DamTeestaJalpaiguri
Farakka Dam2,240GangaMurshidabad
Messanjore (Canada Dam)660MayurakhshiBirbhum
Tilaiya DamBarakarBurdwan
Kangshabati DamKangshabatiMukutmanipuri, Bankura

Waterfalls of West Bengal

WaterfallRiverHeight (m)Location
Brahmani WaterfallsBrahmani61Ayodhya Hills, Purulia
Paglajhora WaterfallsMahanandaMahal diram, Karsheong

List of Chief Ministers of West Bengal

NAME OF THE PREMIERSTENURE
FromTo
Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh15.08.194722.01.1948
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy23.01.194825.01.1950
NAME OF THE CHIEF MINISTERS
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy26.01.195030.03.1952
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy31.03.195205.04.1957
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy06.04.195702.04.1962
Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy03.04.196201.07.1962
Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen (Acting)02.07.196208.07.1962
Shri Prafulla Chandra Sen09.07.196228.02.1967
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay01.03.196721.11.1967
Dr. Prafulla Chandra Ghosh21.11.196719.02.1968
President’s Rule
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay25.02.196930.07.1970
President’s Rule
Shri Ajoy Kumar Mukhopadhyay02.04.197125.06.1971
President’s Rule
Shri Siddhartha Sankar Ray20.03.197230.04.1977
President’s Rule
Shri Jyoti Basu21.06.197723.05.1982
Shri Jyoti Basu24.05.198229.03.1987
Shri Jyoti Basu30.03.198718.06.1991
Shri Jyoti Basu19.06.199115.05.1996
Shri Jyoti Basu16.05.199605.11.2000
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee06.11.200014.05.2001
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee15.05.200117.05.2006
Shri Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee18.05.200619.05.2011
Mamata Banerjee20.05.2011till date

Miscellaneous Topics- WB Geography

Superlatives of India

SuperlativeLocation
Biggest Cantilever Bridge & Busiest BridgeRabindra Sethu (also called Howrah Bridge on Hooghly river in Kolkata(457m/1499ft long.)
Biggest FortRed Fort, Delhi
Biggest stadium Salt Lake Stadium, in Bengali, called Yuva Bharati (Kolkata, West Bengal); capacity: 120,000
Busiest airportIndira Gandhi International Airport Delhi
Coldest PlaceDras, Jammu & Kashmir
Fastest TrainShatabdi Express between New Delhi  and Bhopal (it runs 150 kmph from Delhi to Agra; next Agra to Bhopal runs at 140kmph)
First complete Banking DistrictPalakkad, Kerala
First district with 100% e-literacyMalappuram, Kerala
First District with 100% literacyErnakulam, Kerala
First I.T districtPalakkad, Kerala
First inter-linked riversKen-Betwa (UP-MP)
First wireless Internet connectivity cityMysore, Karnataka
Highest  AirportKushok Bakula Rimpochhe Airport, Leh airport in Ladakh (3256m /16080ft high)
Highest battle fieldSiachen Glacier
Highest civilian AwardBharat Ratna
Highest damTehri Dam on Bhagirathi River, near Tehri, Uttarakhand.

Height: 260.5 m (855 ft); Length: 575 m (1,886 ft)

Highest female literacy rateJain (90.6%)
Highest gallantry award Param Vir Chakra
Highest gatewayBuland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, Built by Akbar (53.5 m/175ft high)
Highest Hydel Power stationRongton Hydel Project in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh
Highest literacy rate religionJain 94.1%)
Highest Mountain peakKanchenjunga(Sikkim)(8598 m)(Initially K2 was the highest mountain peak in India. But now it is in POK)
Highest population growth rate ReligionMuslim(29.3%)
Highest precipitation Mawsynram, Meghalaya
Highest RoadRoad at Khardung in the Leh-Manali Sector
Highest Tower(Minaret)Qutb Minar, Delhi
Highest WaterfallJog Waterfalls,(on Sharavathi river,292 meters) Karnataka
Largest  AuditoriumSri Shanmukhananda hall, Mumbai
Largest animal fairSonepur Mela, Patna, Bihar.
Largest Botanical GardenNational Botanical Garden, Kolkata                                            
Largest CaveAmarnath (about 44 km from Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir)
Largest Cave TempleEllora Temples, Aurangabad, Maharashtra.
Largest ChurchSe. Cathedral at old Goa, 10 km from Panaji.
Largest Cinema hallThangam (Madurai)
Largest city (Area Wise)Kolkata
Largest Concentration  of Scheduled TribesMadhya Pradesh
Largest concentration of  Scheduled Caste populationUttar Pradesh has the largest Scheduled Caste population
Largest DeltaSunderbans (75,000 sq. km) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Largest DesertThar or  Great Indian Desert, Rajasthan.
Largest districtLadakh, Jammu & Kashmir
Largest District (Population)Medinipur(west Bengal)
Largest dome Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur, Karnataka, Diameter: 44.0 m
Largest Fresh Water LakeKolleru in Andhra Pradesh
Largest GurudwaraGolden temple, Amritsar, Punjab
Largest LakeWular lake, Jammu & Kashmir
Largest Library National Library, Kolkata
Largest manmade lakeGovind Sagar, Bhakra, Haryana
Largest MosqueJama Masjid , Delhi(built by shah jahan in 1644-58)
Largest MuseumIndian Museum, Kolkata
Largest Ocean islandMiddle Andaman
Largest PlanetariumBirla Planetarium, Kolkata
Largest PlateauDeccan Plateau
Largest prisonTihar Jail, Delhi
Largest Public Sector BankState Bank of India
Largest Public Sector employerIndian Railways
Largest ResidenceRashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi
Largest River BridgeFarakka Barrage, Kolkata(7,363.6ft)
Largest river IslandMajuli, Brahmaputra river, Asom
Largest scheduled caste communityChamar
The largest state in areaRajasthan (3,42,239 sq.km)
Largest Tribe (ST)Gond
Largest Union  Territory in AreaAndaman and Nicobar islands(8,249 sq.km)
Largest ZooZoological Gardens, Alipore, Kolkata
Least densely populated StateArunachal Pradesh
Least populated stateSikkim (607,688: 2011 census)
Least Populated Union TerritoryLakshadweep(64,429)
Longest beachMarina beach, Chennai(13km)
Longest CanalIndira Gandhi Canal or Rajasthan Canal(959 km long)
Longest Corridor Corridor in Ramanathaswamy Temple at Rameswaram Tamilnadu (1220M/4002 FT)
Longest DamHirakud Dam on Sutlej river in Orissa(24.4km long and 2.8 km wide)
Longest DeltaSunderbans (75000 sq.  km ) formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra in  West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Longest GlacierSiachen Glacier on the Indo – Pak border(75.6kmlong and 2.8km wide)
Longest national Highway NH-7 (Varanasi to Kanyakumari)
Longest Passenger Train Route Jammu Tawi-Kanyakumari(3730km)
Longest railway bridgeDehri-on-Sone Railway bridge over the Sone river near Sasaram on Kolkata -Delhi main line 
Longest railway platformKharagpur in West Bengal (833m/2733ft) also the world’s longest
Longest RiverThe Ganga 2640km long(it runs 2525km long in India)
Longest River bridge Bandra–Worli Sea Link(5,600m/18,400 ft.), Mahim bay, Mumbai.        

Previously it was Mahatma Gandhi Setu over the Ganga at Patna (5575m/18286ft)

Longest Road Grand Trunk Road from Kolkata to Amritsar
Longest Road BridgeNehru Sethu on Son river, Bihar (10,044ft)
Longest Sea bridgeAnna-Indira Gandhi Bridge, connecting the island of Rameswaram with Mandapam in Tamil Nadu(2.34km long)
Lowest female literacy rate Muslim
Lowest literacy rate religionMuslim
Lowest population growth rate religionSikh 
Maximum forest areaMadhya Pradesh
Maximum forest area in %Mizoram
Most Densely populated stateWest Bengal(904sq.km)
Most populated StateUttar Pradesh (199,281,477: 2011 census) 
Most populated union TerritoryDelhi (16,753,235)
Most Populous CityMumbai (nearly  183 lakhs )
Oldest  RefineryDigboi(Asom) it discovered in 1835
Oldest ChurchSt. Thomas Church at Palayar in Trichur district in Kerala built in 52 AD.
Oldest MonasteryBuddhist Monastery situated at an altitude of 3048m/10000 ft at Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.
Oldest observatoryJantar Mantar, Delhi
Oldest UniversityUniversity of Calcutta 1857
Oldest Zoo Trivandrum Zoological  gardens, Kerala(1859)
Smallest DistrictMahe, Puducherry
Smallest districtYanam in population, Puducherry
The smallest state in areaGoa (3,702sq.km)
Smallest Union Territory  in  AreaLakshadweep(32 sq. km)
The state has the highest literacy rateKerala
State with highest Cattle  PopulationUttar Pradesh
Tallest Statue Statue of Gomateswara at  Sravanabelagola, Karnataka
The largest Hindu temple  area Akshardham, Delhi
Union Territory having the highest literacy rateLakshadweep 

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