Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)

In this module, we shall learn about the Transport system in India, Road Transport, Indian Railways, Railway Zones and their Headquarters, Waterways in India, Air Transport, Communication System in India and Multiple Choice Questions on Transport & Communication System in India

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Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download is provided at the end of this post.

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)

  • Transport generally involves the movement of people or goods forms one place to another via a means of transport.
  • On the other hand, communication is the passing of information or data from one source to another.
  • The transport usually involves means of transport such as roadways, railways, air travel
  • While the examples of means of communication are email, telephones, letters.

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

The Transport System in India

Road Transport

  • India has the second-largest roadways in the world in terms of the length of roads (42.3 lakh km). It is second only to the United States.
  • Sher Shah Suri built the Shahi (Royal) road to strengthen and consolidate his empire from the Indus Valley to the Sonar Valley in Bengal.
  • This road was later renamed the Grand Trunk (GT) Road during the British period, connecting Calcutta and Peshawar.
  • At present, GT Road extends from Amritsar to Kolkata. It is bifurcated into 2 segments: (a) National Highway (NH)-1 from Delhi to Amritsar, and (b) NH- 2 from Delhi to Kolkata.
  • Nagpur plan of 1943 classified the roads into four categories- National Highway, Highway, State Highway, District roads, and Village roads. National Highways comes under the jurisdiction of the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
  • Longest National Highway: NH 44 covers the North-South Corridor of NHDP and it is officially listed as running over 3,745 km (2,327 miles) from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.
  • Shortest national Highway: National Highway 47A has a length of 6 km that links the Junction with NH 47 at Kundanoor to the Town of Willington Island in Cochin.
  • Best Expressway in India: The Ahmedabad Vadodara Expressway is known as one of the best Expressway in India and also referred to as the National Expressway 1.
  • Longest Elevated Freeway: Chennai Port Maduravoyal Elevated Expressway will be the longest Elevated Expressway in India.
  • Golden Quadrilateral is a 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high-density traffic corridor that connects India’s four big metro cities — Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata.
  • National Highways are specified by Yellow and White color milestonesState Highways are specified by Green and White color milestonesCity roads are specified by black and white color milestones.
  • 100 % FDI.
  • The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), which is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Surface Transport was operationalized in 1995.
  • The Border Road Organization (BRO) was established in May 1960 for the acceleration of economic development and strengthening defense preparedness through the rapid and coordinated improvement of strategically important roads along the northern and north-eastern boundary of the country.
  • BRO has constructed roads in high altitude mountainous terrain joining Chandigarh with Manali (Himachal Pradesh) and Leh (Ladakh), which runs at an average altitude of 4,270 meters above the mean sea level.

National Highways

  • Responsibility of National highway authority of India (NHAI)
  • Constitutes 2 % of all roads & carry 40 % of total road traffic
  • Funded by cess on petrol & high-speed diesel (From central road fund in Public accounts of India)
  • UP: Highest length of National Highways
NH7Varanasi – Cape – Comorin (Kanyakumari)
NH6Surat – Kolkata
NH5Jharkhand – Chennai
NH2Delhi – Kolkata
NH8Delhi – Mumbai
NH4Mumbai – Chennai
NH3Agra – Mumbai

International Border Highways

  • Connects Indian borders with neighboring countries.
  • The responsibility lies with the Border road organization (BRO).
  • Financed by the World Bank.
NH1Indo – Pak Border (Delhi, Haryana, Punjab)
NH22Indo – China Border ( Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh)
NH35Indo – Bangladesh Border (WB)
NH39Indo – Bhutan Border (Assam, Nagaland, Manipur)
NH28AIndo – Nepal Border (Bihar)

Famous Highway Projects

  • Golden Quadrilateral →6 lane highway project connecting Delhi – Mumbai – Kolkata – Chennai
  • North-South Corridor →Linking Srinagar – Kanyakumari
  • East-West Corridor →Linking Silchar (Assam) – Porbandar
  • Mumbai – Pune expressway (1st expressway of the country) is not under NHAI as it was built by the state government.

State Highways

  • Connects state capitals with district centers & are constructed by state governments
  • Union from Central road fund (CRF) provides grants & financial assistance to states if required
  • Maharashtra has the largest length of state highways

District Highways

  • District centers to other important places of districts like business centers, industrial centers, etc.
  • Zila Parishad constructs & maintains these roads (Constitutes 1/3rdof total Indian roads)
  • Maharashtra has the largest length of District highways

Village Roads

  • Connects villages with neighboring towns & cities
  • Responsibility for village roads lies with Gram Panchayat
  • Central gov. has launched Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) in 2000 as a 100 % centrally sponsored scheme to provide the rural connectivity to unconnected rural areas with a population of 500 persons or more (250 persons in case of Hilly, Tribal & Desert areas)

Project Bharatmala

  • A road built along India’s vast west-to east land border, approx. 5300km, from Gujarat to Mizoram
  • Linking it to a road network in coastal states, from Maharashtra to Bengal
  • This is a road network that will, as it were, garland the territory of India
  • The Bharat Mala plan has a strong strategic component
  • It’s India’s attempted answer to improve reach and connectivity in border areas, right across a large part of which lies China’s impressive road infrastructure

Rashtriya Rajmarg Zila Sanjoyokta Pariyojna: Roads will be developed to connect 100 district HQs across the country

Setubharatam: Govt to build 210 rails over bridges in the next two years and about 400-500 bridges would be built as standalone projects.

Pipelines

  • Pipelines provide easy transport of oil, natural gas, and mineral ores in their slurry form.
  • This has overcome delays due to trans-shipment and losses during transport.
  • All the major oil-fields in India are connected to refineries through pipelines.
  • Although the initial cost of laying the pipelines is high, its operating costs and losses en-route are minimal. There are three major pipeline networks in India.
    • From Upper Assam to Kanpur—Mainly for transporting mineral oil.
    • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab.
    • From Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, mainly to transport natural gas.

Indian Railways

  • Indian Railway is the 3rd largest rail network in the world after the US and China. 
  • The first train in India was started by Lord Dalhousie on April 16, 1853, from Bombay to thane (34 Kms). 
  • The first railway engine designed by George Stephenson was put on the rail in England in 1814.
  • Lord Dalhousie, who became Governor-General of India in 1849, was an ardent advocate of rapid railway construction.
  • Indian Railways was nationalized in 1950 and presently, it is the largest Railway Network in Asia.
  • It is a multi-gauge, multi-traction system covering 
    • Broad Gauge(1676 mm), 
    • Meter Gauge (1000 mm), 
    • Narrow Gauge(762/610 mm) with around 68312 km route (As of October 2018).
  • Indian Railway has 17 zones including the newly formed Kolkata metro zone with production units are Chittaranjan Locomotive works at Chitranjan, Diesel Locomotive Works at Varanasi, Diesel Loco modernization works at Patiala, Integral Coach Factory at Chennai, Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala, Railwheel factory at Bengaluru.
  • North Zone is the largest Railway Zone of Indian Railways
  • Asia’s largest tunnel which is about 6.5 km long, is constructed on the Konkan railway route near Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
  • IRCTC’s Tejas Express is India’s first private
  • The New Delhi-Bhopal Shatabdi is currently India’s fastest train, reaching a maximum speed of 150 km/hr. However, railway minister Piyush Goyal announced that the newly launched Train 18 (Vande BharatExpress), manufactured by the Integral Coach Factory in Chennai can reach speeds as high as 200 km/hr.
  • The Vivek Express, running between Dibrugarh and Kanyakumari, covers 4,286 km in around 82 hours and 30 minutes. This journey is not just the longest in India, but in the entire subcontinent.
  • ​​​​​​​The platform at Gorakhpur Railway Station in Uttar Pradesh is the world’s longest station, measuring a whopping 1,366 m. The second-longest in India is Kollam Railway Station in Kerala (1,180 m).
  • The record was previously held by the platform at Kharagpur station in West Bengal at 1,072 m.
  • The first electric train in India ran on 3 February 1925, between Bombay Victoria Terminal and Kurla Harbour. Later, the electric line was extended to Nashik’s Igatpuri district and then to Pune.
  • ​​​​​​​India’s first passenger train started its service 166 years ago on 16 April 1853, covering a stretch of 33 km from Mumbai to Thane. The train carried 400 passengers. Interestingly, this day was also declared a public holiday.
  • ​​​​​​​The first bullet train in India will be launched in 2022 by the National High-Speed Rail Corporation Limited (NHSRCL). The train will run from Mumbai to Ahmedabad, connecting various cities of Gujarat to Mumbai.
  • ​​​​​​​Mathura junction is the largest railway junction in India, with as many as 7 routes emerging from this station. Mathura junction also has 10 platforms, with connectivity to all major cities of India.
  • ​​​​​​​Bori Bunder, located in Mumbai was the first railway station in India. India’s first passenger train ran from Bori Bunder to Thane in 1853. It was built by the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. This station was rebuilt as Victoria Terminus later in 1888, named after Queen Victoria.
  • ​​​​​​​The Maharaja’s Express is the most expensive luxury train in India and is also among the most expensive in Asia.
  • ​​​​​​​Bholu the guard elephant is the mascot of the Indian Railways.
  • ​​​​​​​India is home to 8 Railway Museums – in Delhi, Pune, Kanpur, Mysore, Kolkata, Chennai, Ghum, and Tiruchirappalli.
  • The National Railway Museum in Delhi is the most visited museum in India
  • ​​​​​​​Mettupalayam Ooty Nilgiri Passenger train is the slowest train in India, running at a speed of 10 km/hr, which is roughly 16 times slower than the fastest train in India.

Railway Zones and their Headquarters

ZoneHeadquartersDivisions
1. CentralMumbaiMumbai(CST), Bhusawal, Nagpur, Pune
2. WesternMumbaiMumbai(Central), Vadodara, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar
3. NorthernDelhiAmbala, Delhi, Lucknow, Moradabad, Ferozpur
4. EasternKolkataAsansol, Howrah, Malda, Sealdah
5. SouthernChennaiChennai, Madurai, Palghat, Trichy, Trivandrum, Salem
6. East CentralHajipurDanapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur
7. East CoastBhubaneshwarKhurda Road, Sambalpur, Waltair
8. North CentralAllahabadAllahabad, Agra, Jhansi
9. North EasternGorakhpurLucknow, Izzatnager, Varanasi
10. North East FrontierGuwahatiKatihar, Alipurduar, Rangiya, Lumding, Tinsukia
11. North WesternJaipurAjmer, Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur
12. South CentralSecunderabadHyderabad, Nanded, Secunderabad
13. South East CentralBilaspurBilaspur, Nagpur, Raipur
14. South EasternKolkataAdra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi
15. South WesternHubliBangalore, Hubli, Mysore
16. South CoastalVisakhapatnamGuntakal, Guntur, Vijayawada
17. West CentralJabalpurBhopal, Jabalpur, Kota
18. Kolkata MetroKolkataNot applicable
  • Duronto Express: Fastest Train in India (Called Restless in Bengali)
  • Diamond Quadrilateral: High-speed rails project connecting Delhi – Mumbai – Kolkata – Chennai
  • The first rail railway line in India was operated for public traffic in 1853, between Bombay (now Mumbai) to Thane over a distance of 34 km and it was nationalized in 1950.
  • The railways recognized by UNESCO are Darjeeling, Himalayan Railways, Nilgiri Mountain Railways, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, and Kalka-Shimla Railways.
  • The Vivek Express— from Dibrugarh to Kanyakumari — travels 4,273 km, making it the longest run in terms of total time & distance.
  • The Konkan Railwayspasses through 3 states of India – Goa, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. It runs along the Indian west coast parallel to the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. It is an extremely beautiful and scenic route running from Maharashtra to Karnataka.
  • The Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL) is a corporation run by the Ministry of Railways (India) to undertake planning & development, mobilization of financial resources, and construction, maintenance, and operation of the Dedicated Freight Corridors. It is both an enabler and beneficiary of other key Government of India schemes, such as Industrial corridor, Make in India, Start-up India, Stand-up India, Sagarmala, Bharatmala, UDAN-RCS, Digital India, BharatNet, and UMANG.

Metro Rails (Functioning) 

  • Kolkata (First mass rapid transit system in India)
  • Delhi
  • Bangalore (Wifi Enabled)
  • Mumbai (Public-Private Partnership)
  • Jaipur
  • Chennai
  • Gurgaon (India’s first fully privately financed metro + India’s first fully privately financed metro stations)
Dedicated Freight Corridor Projects
Amritsar-KolkataPunjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand & WBWholly by GOI, funded by WB
Mumbai BengaluruMH, KarnatakaBritain
Chennai-BengaluruKarnataka, TN, Andhra (Rayalaseema region)JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency)
Delhi Mumbai (launched & Biggest)UP, Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra.

Waterways Transport System in India

  • Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  • Ennore – 1stcorporate port (To release pressure on Chennai port)
  • Indian Ports –95 % by volume & 70 % by value – India’s international trade
  • In monsoon, all western ports except Mumbai, Cochin & Kandila are closed (12 Major & 1 Minor Port)
  • Maritime transport is to be administered by both the Central and the State governments.
  • While the central government’s shipping ministry administers the major ports, the minor and intermediate ports are administered by the relevant state gov. of coastal states.
  • All major ports, except one Ennore Port, are government-administered. It is the first port in India which is a public company.
  • Central Government has jurisdiction over both the National Highways and the National Waterways
  • The States’ Governments have NO jurisdiction over the National Waterways.
  • Indian Waterways à 1 % of total transport
  • Inland waterways – 14500 km
  • Indian coastline – Approx. 7500 km

Major Inland Waterways by Inland waterways authority of India (IWAI)

Inland Waterway 1Allahabad-Haldia stretch of Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system
Inland Waterway 2The Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra River (Assam)
Inland Waterway 3The Kottapuram-Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal, and Udyogmandal Canal (Kerala)
Inland Waterway 4Kakinada-Pondicherry along Godavari and Krishna River system
Inland Waterway 5Talcher – Paradip (Odisha)
Inland Waterway 6Lakhipur to Bhanga on the River Barak (Assam – Proposed)

12 Major Sea Ports in India

MumbaiNatural harbor & biggest port of India (Gateway of India)Handles approx. 1/5th of India’s foreign trade
Nava Seva     Jawahar Lal Port (Highly Mechanized Port),  Mumbai
ChennaiOldest artificial harbor on east coast  & 2nd largest port in terms of volume of traffic
Ennore1st corporate port (To release pressure on Chennai port)
Tuticorin (TN)On the Eastern coast of India
KandlaTidal Port (To release pressure on Mumbai port, developed after the partition of India), Gujrat
KochiA natural harbor
VishakhapatnamDeepest artificial harbor on the east coast
KolkataRiverine Port (Handles goods coming from SE Asian countries Australia & New Zealand)
HaldiaDeveloped on river Hooghly to relieve pressure on Kolkata port
ParadipLocated on Orissa coast
MormugaoIn Goa ( 5th in total traffic handled)
New MangaloreOn New Mangalore

Air Transport System in India

  • Air transport is the fastest and costlier mode of transport.
  • It was started in 1911 in India between Allahabad and
  • JRD Tata was the first person to take a solo flight from Mumbai to Karachi in 1931.
  • In 1995, the International Airport Authority of India and the National Airports Authority were merged to form the Airports Authority of India.
  • The authority manages the Civil Aviation Training College at Allahabad and the National Institute of Aviation Management and Research at Delhi.
  • Pawan Hans Helicopter Limited has provided helicopter support services to the petroleum sector like ONGC, ODL, etc., and also provides services to certain state Governments, PSU, and in the North-Eastern States.
  • Nationalized in 1953 – Indian Airlines
  • Managed by Airport Authority of India (AAI)
  • Hartsfield Jackson International Airport, Atlanta (USA) is the busiest airport in the world.
  • Indira Gandhi International Airport is the busiest airport in India. It has the longest runway of 4km.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Mumbai) is the 2nd busiest airport in India.

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)

Communication System in India

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

Postal System

  • Postal System in India was introduced by Lord Clive in the year 1766
  • It was further developed by Warren Hastings by establishing the Calcutta General Post Office (GPO) under the Post Master General in the year 1774.
  • In Bombay and Madras, the General Post Office came into existence in 1786 and 1793
  • The Act of 1873 first regulated the Post Office on a uniform basis to unite the post office organization throughout the three presidencies into one All India Service.
  • Post Office of India was placed on the present administrative footing about one hundred and fifty years ago on October 1, 1854.
  • The statute presently governing the postal services in the country is the Indian Post Office Act, 1898.
  • Besides providing postal communication facilities, the post office network has also provided facilities for remittance of funds, banking, and insurance services from the latter half of the 19th century.
  • At the time of Independence, there were 23,300 post offices throughout the country.
  • In March 2017, the country has 1, 54,965 post offices, of which 1, 39,067 are in the rural areas and 16,400 in the urban areas.
  • As a result of this seven-fold growth, today India has the largest postal network in the world.

Radio

  • Radio broadcasting was started in India in 1923 by the Radio Club of Bombay.
  • The government took control over radio broadcasting in 1930 and established the Indian Broadcasting System.
  • All India Radio was constituted in 1936 and it came to be known as Akashwani from 1957.
  • Over a period of time, All India Radio started broadcasting a variety of programs related to information, education, and entertainment.
  • Among all programs, news bulletins were also broadcasted on specific occasions like the session of parliament and state legislatures.

Telegraph and Telephone Service in India

  • The growing use of mobile phones and the Internet has led to a steep decline in the usage of the telegraphic service.
  • In India, the first telegraph message was transmitted live through electrical signals between Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Diamond Harbour, a distance of about 50 km, on November 5, 1850; and the service was opened for the general public in February 1855.
  • The telegram services have been stopped in India on July 15, 2013, as BSNL was suffering a huge monetary loss.

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

Television

  • Television first went on air in 1959.
  • Television broadcasting has emerged as an effective audio-visual medium for disseminating information as well as educating the masses.
  • By 1972, many Television broadcasting centers became operational throughout the country.
  • In 1976, TV was separated from All India Radio (AIR) and got a separate identity as Doordarshan (DD).
  • The total number of newspapers and periodicals being published was over 42,000 on December 31, 2006.
  • Hindi publication has the largest share of over 40 percent of the total.
  • Books are an equally important means of communication for preserving and propagating knowledge, information, and entertainment to posterity.

Indian Satellites

  • With the advent of satellites, the Indian Communication System has revolutionized the mode of communication.
  • After INSAT-IA (National Television-DD1) became operational, Common National Programs (CNP) was started for the entire network. Services were also extended to the backward and rural areas of the country.
  • On the basis of configuration and purposes, satellite system in India can be grouped as –
    • Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) and
    • Indian Remote Sensing satellite system (IRS).
  • The INSAT, which was established in 1983, is a multipurpose satellite system specialized for telecommunication, meteorological observation, and for many other data and programs.
  • The IRS satellite system became operational only after the launch of IRS-IA in March 1988 from Vaikanour, Russia.
  • However, India has also developed its own Launch Vehicle PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle).
  • The National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) at Hyderabad is responsible for the acquisition, processing, the supply of aerial and satellite remote sensing data and continuously exploring the practical uses of remote sensing technology.

Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)

Multiple Choice Questions on Transport & Communication System in India

  1. What is the world ranking of the Indian Railway network?
    (A) 1st

    (B) 2nd
    (C) 3rd
    (D) 4th
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 3rd
    Explanation: Indian Railway is the 3rd largest rail network in the world after the US and China. It is a multi-gauge, multi-traction system. Hence, C is the correct option.
  2. Indian Railways are divided into how many zones?
    (A) 17

    (B) 18
    (C) 19
    (D) 20
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 17
    Explanation:
    Indian Railways divides its operations into 17 zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. Hence, A is the correct option.
  3. Which of the following recently made 17th zone of Indian Railway?
    (A) Metro Rail in Kolkata

    (B) South Central Railway (SCR)
    (C) North Central Railway
    (D) North Frontier
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Metro Rail in Kolkata
    Explanation:
    There are 17 zones on Indian Railway. Kolkata metro is the only metro to be considered as a separate zone. Hence, A is the correct option.
  4. When was the first railway in India operated for public traffic?
    (A) 1857

    (B) 1858
    (C) 1855
    (D) 1853
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1853
    Explanation:
    The first rail railway line in India was operated for public traffic in 1853 between Bombay (now Mumbai) to Thane. Hence, D is the correct option.
  5. Which of the following railway is not recognized by UNESCO World Heritage Site?
    (A) Darjeeling Himalayan Railway

    (B) Nilgiri Mountain Railway
    (C) Kalka-Shimla Railway
    (D) North-Eastern Railway
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) North-Eastern Railway
    Explanation:
    There are two UNESCO World Heritage Sites on IR viz. the Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and the Mountain railways of India. Mountain railways of India are not contiguous but consists of three separate railway lines located in different parts of the country viz. the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway; the Nilgiri Mountain Railway; and the Kalka-Shimla Railway. Hence, D is the correct option.
  6. Which railway line runs along the Indian west coast parallel to the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats?
    (A) South Central Railway

    (B) Konkan Railways
    (C) Southern Railway
    (D) South Eastern Railway
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Konkan Railways
    Explanation:
    The Konkan Railways passes through 3 states of India – Goa, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. It runs along the Indian west coast parallel to the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats. It is an extremely beautiful and scenic route running from Maharashtra to Karnataka. Hence, B is the correct option.
  7. Which of the following express trains run on the Indian Railways network has the longest-run in terms of total time & distance?
    (A) Vivek Express

    (B) Himsagar Express
    (C) Navyug Express
    (D) Guwahati Express
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Vivek Express
    Explanation
    : An Indian rail network is one of the world’s largest railway networks. Vivek Express is the longest route on the Indian Railways network, in terms of distance and time, and is the 9th longest in the world. It travels 4,273 km, making it the longest run in terms of total time and distance. Hence, A is the correct option.
  8. Which of the following National Highway connects the four metro cities of India (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai)?
    (A) National Highway 44

    (B) National Highway 47A
    (C) Golden Quadrilateral (GQ)
    (D) North-South Corridor of NHDP
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Golden Quadrilateral (GQ)
    Explanation:
    Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) stretch which connects the four metro cities of India (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai). Hence, C is the correct option.
  9. India’s first Post Office set up in which place?
    (A) Madras (Now Chennai)

    (B) Calcutta (now Kolkata)
    (C) Bombay (Now Mumbai)
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Bombay (Now Mumbai)
    Explanation:
    The first post office in India was established by the British East India Company in Bombay in 1764. Postage stamps were first used in India in 1852 at the district of scinde (also known as scinde dawk).
  10. Which one of the following national highways is the longest in India?
    (A) NH. 2 Wellu to Kolkata

    (B) NH. 6 Jlajira to Kolkata
    (C) NH No. 7 Varanasi to Kanyakumari
    (D) NH No. 8 Delhi to Mumbai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) NH No. 7 Varanasi to Kanyakumari
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  11. The National highways system is the responsibility of?
    (A) State Governments

    (B) Central Government
    (C) A Special Roads Authority
    (D) State and Central Governments
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Central Government
  12. The first Indian railway train in 1853, journeyed between :
    (A) Bombay and Pune

    (B) Pune and Ahmedabad
    (C) Bombay and Thane
    (D) Howrah and Kharagpur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Bombay and Thane
  13. Which of the following is the first major port opened on the East Coast in independent India?
    (A) Vishakhapatnam

    (B) Ennore
    (C) Paradeep
    (D) Tuticorin
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Paradeep
  14. The commodity which accounts for the maximum volume of goods transported by the Railways in India is :
    (A) iron and steel

    (B) coal
    (C) mineral oil
    (D) non-ferrous metallic ores
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) coal
  15. Wheels and axles for railways are produced at?
    (A) Bengaluru

    (B) Madras
    (C) Varanasi
    (D) Nowhere in India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bengaluru
  16. Which of the following ports account for almost 50% of India’s iron ore exports?
    (A) Mangalore

    (B) Marmagao
    (C) Mumbai
    (D) Paradeep
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Marmagao
  17. Which one among the following has the largest shipyard in India?
    (A) Kolkata

    (B) Kochi
    (C) Mumbai
    (D) Vishakhapatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kochi
  18. Which one of the following towns is not situated along the Grand Trunk Road
    (A) Allahabad

    (B) Lucknow
    (C) Agra
    (D) Kanpur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Lucknow
  19. Which one of the following rail zones has the maximum route kilometers?
    (A) Northern

    (B) Southern
    (C) Central
    (D) Western
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Northern
  20. Which one of the following shipyards makes warships for the Indian Navy?
    (A) Cochin Shipyard, Kochi

    (B) Hindustan Shipyard, Vishakhapatnam
    (C) Mazhagaon Dock, Mumbai
    (D) Garden Reach Workshop, Kolkata
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mazhagaon Dock, Mumbai
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Which state possesses three major ports in India?
    (A) Orissa

    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Gujarat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil Nadu
  22. Headquarters of South Central Railway is at
    (A) Cuttack

    (B) Secunderabad
    (C) Chennai
    (D) Bangalore
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Secunderabad
  23. Consider the following statements: The 760km long Konkan railway passes through the following states:
    Kerala
    II. Karnataka
    III. Goa
    IV. Maharashtra
    (A) I, II, III, and IV
    (B) I and II
    (C) I and III
    (D) I, II, and III are correct
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) I, II, III, and IV
  24. The world’s longest railway platform is in
    (A) Singapore
    (B) London
    (C) America
    (D) India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) India
  25. The new railway coach factory has been set up in Punjab at
    (A) Amritsar
    (B) Ludhiana
    (C) Kapurthala
    (D) Jalandhar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kapurthala
  26. Indira Gandhi International Airport is at
    (A) Kolkata
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Delhi
    (D) Chennai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Delhi
  27. NH 47 Connects
    (A) Kanyakumari with Delhi
    (B) Kanyakumari with Salem
    (C) Chennai with Dindigul
    (D) Mumbai with Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kanyakumari with Salem
  28. Kolkata and Delhi are connected by which National Highway?
    (A) NH 1
    (B) NH 2
    (C) NH 3
    (D) NH 4
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) NH 2
  29. Sieges are the mode of transport in
    (A) Desert region
    (B) Polar region
    (C) Glaciated region
    (D) Tundra region
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Glaciated region
  30. The cheapest means of transport among the following is
    (A) Airways
    (B) Railways
    (C) Roadways
    (D) Shipping
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Shipping
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  31. Find the order of the following towns that lie in the National Highway No.7 from Kanyakumari
    (A) Salem, Hyderabad, Jabalpur, Nagpur

    (B) Salem, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Jabalpur
    (C) Salem, Hyderabad, Nagpur, Jabalpur
    (D) Salem, Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Salem, Hyderabad, Nagpur, Jabalpur
  32. How many major ports are there at present in India?
    (A) 5

    (B) 11
    (C) 13
    (D) 12
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 13
  33. Headquarters of North-Eastern Railway is at
    (A) Assam

    (B) Kolkata
    (C) Gorakhpur
    (D) Danapur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gorakhpur
  34. Bulk materials are transported by
    (A) Roadway

    (B) Railway and Shipping
    (C) RailWay
    (D) Airway
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Railway and Shipping
  35. The first underground railway in India was built at
    (A) Kolkata

    (B) Chennai
    (C) Mumbai
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kolkata
  36. The longest electrified railway line is between
    (A) Mumbai-Delhi

    (B) Kolkata-Delhi
    (C) Kolkata-Mumbai
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kolkata-Delhi
  37. The Konkan railway, inaugurated in 1998, connects Mumbai with which of the following stations?
    (A) Madurai

    (B) Mangalore
    (C) Panaji
    (D) Cochin
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mangalore
  38. The port that is located at Dolphin’s nose is
    (A) Paradip

    (B) Kandla
    (C) Tuticorin
    (D) Vishakapatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Vishakapatnam
  39. National ship design and research center, a premier national institution is located at
    (A) Vishakapatnam

    (B) Mangalore
    (C) Cochin
    (D) Kandla
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Vishakapatnam
  40. The biggest port of India which also has a natural harbor is
    (A) Cochin

    (B) Kolkata-Haldia
    (C) Mumbai
    (D) Vishakapatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mumbai
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  41. The Hindustan Shipyard is found at
    (A) Goa

    (B) Cochin
    (C) Kolkata
    (D) Vishakapatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Vishakapatnam
  42. Which of the following is NOT a port?
    (A) Kochi

    (B) Paradip
    (C) Rameswaram
    (D) Vishakapatnam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Rameswaram
  43. The largest share of total seaborne cargo carried by the Indian ship is
    (A) food grains

    (B) petroleum
    (C) metal ores
    (D) capital goods
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) metal ores
  44. When did Indian Railways provide internet service on trains?
    (A) January 26, 1998
    (B) October 1, 2002
    (C) April 1, 2003
    (D) May 1, 2003
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) May 1, 2003
    Explanation:
    The most important achievement of Indian Railways is that it became the first railways in the world to provide internet service on trains from May 1, 2003.
  45. Who is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the National Highways?
    (A) State Government
    (B) Central Government
    (C) Federal Government
    (D) National Government
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Central Government
    Explanation:
    The National Highway System is the primary road grid of the country. The construction and maintenance of the National Highways are the direct responsibility of the Central Government.
  46. Who is responsible for the State highways and major district roads?
    (A) State Government
    (B) Central Government
    (C) Federal Government
    (D) National Government
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) State Government
    Explanation
    : The State highways and major district roads form the secondary road system and take care of collector and distributor functions. They are maintained through various agencies in the State and UTs.
  47. When was the Border Roads Development Organisation (BRO) set up?
    (A) April 1951
    (B) April 1952
    (C) April 1955
    (D) May 1960
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) May 1960
    Explanation:
    The Border Roads Development Organisation (BRO) was set up in May 1960 in order to intensify economic development and fortify defense preparedness through rapid and integrated expansion and betterment of road networks in the North and north-eastern border areas.
  48. Which was the first Indian private airline to launch flights to China?
    (A) Jet Airways
    (B) Sahara Airlines
    (C) Kingfisher Airlines
    (D) IndiGO
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jet Airways
    Explanation:
    On June 15, 2008, Jet Airways became the first Indian private airline to launch flights to China opening a new service connecting Mumbai to Shanghai to San Francisco.
  49. When was Pawan Hans Ltd. introduced?
    (A) May 1960
    (B) October 1985
    (C) October 1986
    (D) April 1995
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) October 1985
    Explanation:
    Since October 1985 a helicopter service run by the Pawan Hans Ltd. has been introduced, with the objective of meeting the requirements of the petroleum sector, including ONGC.
  50. When was the International Airport Authority of India (IAAI) set up?
    (A) 1960
    (B) 1972
    (C) 1985
    (D) 1986
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1972
    Explanation:
    The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI) was set up in 1972 which operates, manages, maintains, plans, and develops international airports.
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  51. When was the Airports Authority of India proposed?
    (A) September 18, 1992
    (B) April 1, 1995
    (C) June 1, 2004
    (D) March 31, 2005
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) April 1, 1995
  52. When was Shipping Corporation of India Ltd. established?
    (A) October 2, 1961
    (B) October 27, 1986
    (C) September 18, 1992
    (D) January 26, 1998
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) October 2, 1961
    Explanation:
    The Shipping Corporation of India was established on October 2, 1961, by the integration of Eastern Shipping Corporation and Western Shipping Corporation.
  53. When was the status of SCI change from a private limited company to a public limited?
    (A) October 2, 1961

    (B) October 27, 1986
    (C) September 18, 1992
    (D) January 26, 1995
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) September 18, 1992
    Explanation: From September 18, 1992, the status of SCI was changed from a private limited company to public limited with Govt. holding 80.12% of the share capital
  54. When did the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) come into existence?
    (A) October 2, 1961

    (B) October 27, 1986
    (C) September 18, 1992
    (D) January 26, 1998
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) October 27, 1986
    Explanation: The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) came into existence on October 27, 1986, for the development and ordinance of inland waterways for shipping and navigation.
  55. Which is the biggest port in the country?
    (A) Mumbai

    (B) Tuticorin
    (C) Kochi
    (D) Kandla
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mumbai
    Explanation: The Mumbai Port is located in the mainland of west Mumbai on the West coast of India with a natural deep-water harbor. Mumbai Port is the largest port in India and deals mass cargo traffic with its four jetties for handling Liquid chemicals, Crude, and petroleum products.
  56. When did the Haldia dock-system start its operation?
    (A) October 1961

    (B) February 1977
    (C) October 1986
    (D) September 1992
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) February 1977
    Explanation: The history of Kolkata Port has been a continuous story of struggle and success – it’s a saga of uninterrupted development, improvement, and achievements. There was wide agreement among experts that port facilities require improvement. Hence the construction of a new dock system at Haldia, midway between the sea and Calcutta Port, was formed. It chiefly manages coal, petroleum products, and dry cargo.
  57. Which is the highest airport in India?
    (A) Leh airport

    (B) Bareli airport
    (C) Bhopal airport
    (D) Daman airport
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Leh airport
    Explanation: Leh airport is the highest airport in India. It is the highest commercial airport in the world. Leh airport is situated at an altitude of about 3000 meters. The airport has been renamed after Koshak Bakola.
  58. Which is the busiest international airport in India?
    (A) Amritsar International airport

    (B) Indira Gandhi International airport
    (C) Sardar Vallabhai Patel International airport
    (D) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International airport
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Indira Gandhi International airport
    Explanation: The airport is the busiest airport in India and is located in Palam, 16km from New Delhi city center.
  59. Which is the busiest domestic airport in India?
    (A) Santa Cruz

    (B) Palam
    (C) Sahar
    (D) NT Rama Rao
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Santa Cruz
  60. Which was the first railway terminus in India?
    (A) Bandra Terminus

    (B) Bori Bunder
    (C) Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus
    (D) Thane Railway Station
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bori Bunder
    Explanation: It was from here that the first train journey of the subcontinent chugged off to Thane in 1853.
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  61. Which was the first superfast train in India?
    (A) Rajdhani Express

    (B) Shatabdi Express
    (C) Duronto Express
    (D) Sampark Kranti Express
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rajdhani Express
    Explanation: The first Rajdhani Express left New Delhi station for Howrah station to cover a distance of 1,445 km in 17 hours 20 mins.
  62. Which was the first double-decker train in India?
    (A) Deccan Queen

    (B) Pragati Express
    (C) Sinhgad Express
    (D) Indrayani Express
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sinhgad Express
    Explanation: The Sinhgad Express was the first double-decker train that plies daily between Mumbai and Pune.
  63. Which is the fastest train in India as of 2014?
    (A) Rajdhani Express

    (B) Shatabdi Express
    (C) Duronto Express
    (D) Rajya Rani Express
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Shatabdi Express
    Explanation: In 1988 Madhav Rao Scindia, minister of railways started the first Shatabdi train to commemorate the centenary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s Birthday.
  64. Which is the fastest train in India as of 2019?
    (A) Vande Bharat Express/ Train 18
    (B) Gatimaan Express
    (C) Sealdah Delhi Duronto Express
    (D) Howrah Rajdhani Express
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Vande Bharat Express/ Train 18
    Explanation: Vande Bharat Express is currently the fastest train in India with maximum reached speeds of 180 km/h which is the highest speed of any train in India so far but IR restricted the speed of Train 18 to 130 km/h officially. The semi-high speed intercity Train 18 is also planned for the replacement of intercity trains like Rajdhani Express.
  65. Which is the longest railway platform in India as of 2019?
    (A) Gorakhpur

    (B) Kollam
    (C) Kharagpur
    (D) Bilaspur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gorakhpur
    Explanation: Gorakhpur Railway Station in Uttar Pradesh became the world’s Longest Railway platform with a length of 1,366. m.
  66. Which is the railway station at the highest altitude in India as of 2019?
    (A) Ghum

    (B) Ooty
    (C) Shimla
    (D) Ahju
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ghum
    Explanation: Ghum is situated in the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway that runs between the Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in West Bengal. Ghum station is known as India’s highest railway station at an altitude of 2,257 m (7,405 ft). It is also a World Heritage site. The Bilaspur Mandi Leh railway line is a proposed high-elevation railway track connect Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh to Leh in Ladakh. The track will become the highest railway track in the world and Taglangla station will become the highest railway station in the world.
  67. When did the first electric train run in India?
    (A) 1909
    (B) 1910
    (C) 1917
    (D) 1925
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1925
    Explanation: The first electric train ran in India with the inauguration of services between Bombay VT and Kurla Harbour on 3rd Feb 1925.
  68. Which is not the national highway?
    (A) Grand Trunk Road
    (B) Agra-Mumbai Road
    (C) Mathura Road
    (D) Greater Noida Express Highways
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Greater Noida Express Highways
  69. National Highway connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata is termed as :
    (A) Locomotives
    (B) Guage
    (C) Golden quadrilateral
    (D) Dock
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Golden quadrilateral
  70. Gauge is the term stating
    (A) The place where there is a provision of loading and unloading of ships
    (B) The place on the sea coast
    (C) The high pedestal built along the coastline
    (D) The width before the two rails of the railway line
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) The width before the two rails of the railway line
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  71. Gateway is the name given to
    (A) Harbour
    (B) Port
    (C) Dock
    (D) Tidal port
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Port
  72. Which of the following locations are joined by the east-west corridor?
    (A) Mumbai and Nagpur
    (B) Mumbai and Kolkata
    (C) Silcher and Porbandar
    (D) Nagpur and Siliguri
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Silcher and Porbandar
  73. The name of the National Highway No. 2 is:
    (A) Grand Trunk Road
    (B) Agra-Mumbai Road
    (C) Mathura Road
    (D) Delhi- Mumbai Road
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mathura Road
  74. The rail gauge with a track width of 1.676m is
    (A) Broad gauge
    (B) Metre gauge
    (C) Narrow gauge
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Broad gauge
  75. What does BOT stand for?
    (A) Bureau of Transport
    (B) Bureau of Trans-communication
    (C) Build, Operate and Transfer
    (D) Bureaucracy Official against Terrorists
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Build, Operate and Transfer
  76. Which of the following is the navigation river of India?
    (A) Yamuna
    (B) Krishna
    (C) Brahmaputra
    (D) Son
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Brahmaputra
  77. Which of the following ports is not developed recently?
    (A) New Mangalore
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Haldia
    (D) Nhava Sheva
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mumbai
  78. Kochi in Kerala is the example of which port of the following
    (A) Tidal Port
    (B) Natural Harbour
    (C) Artificial Harbour
    (D) Recently developed
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Natural Harbour
  79. Tuticorin is located in the state of
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Tamil Nadu
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tamil Nadu
  80. Which is not the name of an international airport?
    (A) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Airport
    (B) Indira Gandhi International Airport
    (C) Palam Airport
    (D) Meenam Bakkam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Palam Airport
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)
  81. What does QMS stand for?
    (A) Quickly Medical Service
    (B) Quick Mail Service
    (C) Quickly Mother Dairy Service
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Quick Mail Service
  82. Which of the following is not the factor, which influences the distribution of railways in the country?
    (A) Physiographic factors
    (B) Economic factors
    (C) Administrative factors
    (D) Political factors
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Political factors
  83. Which of the following is an advantage of unigauge system?
    (A) Larger capacity
    (B) Higher speed
    (C) No loss in trans-shipment
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
  84. Air travel is transport in north-eastern parts of India due to
    (A) The prosperity of the people of this region
    (B) The less expensive mode of transport
    (C) Heavy rains are liable to damage roads and railways
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) The less expensive mode of transport
  85. Which is not the development in the field of communication?
    (A) Cellular phone
    (B) Laptop
    (C) Internet-e-commerce
    (D) Radio
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Radio
  86. Television transmission is an example of which of the following?
    (A) Simplex Communication

    (B) Half-duplex
    (C) Full-duplex
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Simplex Communication
  87. Weibo is a social media popularly used in:
    (A) South Korea

    (B) China
    (C) Thailand
    (D) Japan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) China
  88. “The Hitavad” is the largest selling broadsheet English daily newspaper of Central India. It was founded in 1911 by social reformer:
    (A) Baba Amte

    (B) V D Savarkar
    (C) B. G Tilak
    (D) Gopal K Gokhale
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Gopal K Gokhale
  89. Jawahar Tunnel on Jammu-Srinagar highway passes through-
    (A) Pir Panjal range

    (B) Karakoram Range
    (C) Zaskar range
    (D) Dhauladhar range
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pir Panjal range
  90. The first CNG based train of India started on 13 January 2015, run between-
    (A) Rewari to Rohtak

    (B) Delhi to Mumbai
    (C) Rohtak to Nizamuddin
    (D) Howrah to Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rewari to Rohtak
    Transport & Communication System in India (Notes+MCQ)

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