Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)

Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
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Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

In this module, we shall learn about the Soils of India, Soil Profile, Major classification of Indian soils, Soil Erosion, Natural Vegetation of India, Forest Protection by Government officials, Forest cover in India, Wildlife in India, Biosphere Reserve and Multiple Choice Questions on Soils and Natural Vegetation of India.

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Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download is provided at the end of this post.

Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)

Soils of India

Introduction

  • Soil can be simply defined as a mixture of small rock particles/debris and organic materials/ humus which develop on the earth’s surface and support the growth of plants.
  • The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, time, and biodiversity including human activities.
  • Soil is the uppermost layer of Earth’s crust.
  • Soil is the medium in which plants grow and thus it supports the lives on earth.
  • A number of factors contribute to soil formation and fertility viz.
Parent rocks
  • The rock from which the soil is formed
  • Decomposition and disintegration of parent rock under the processes of weathering
  • The characteristics of rocks influence the characteristics of soils
  • Examples: Lava rocks black soils and iron oxide rich rocks red soils
Climate
  • Influence the rate of weathering of rocks
Slope
  • The nature of relief and slope influence the accumulation of soils
  • That is why Mountains have thin soil cover but the plains have thick soil cover
Time
  • Provides maturity to the soil.
  • Various forces of nature such as a change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers contribute to the formation of soil
  • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important

Soil Profile

Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)

Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)

Soil Horizon is classified into three categories − Horizon A, Horizon B, and Horizon C; collectively known as Soil Profile (i.e. the arrangement of soil layers).

  1. Horizon ‘A’ – topmost, where organic materials have got incorporated with minerals, nutrients, and water.
  2. Horizon ‘B’ – transition zone between horizon A & C.
  3. Horizon ‘C’ – loose parent material. It is in the 1st stage of soil formation and eventually forms A, B.

Minerals in Soil

There are two types of minerals present in the soil.

Primary Minerals

  • Mainly silicate minerals with varying proportion of Aluminum, Calcium, Sodium, Iron, and Magnesium)

Secondary Minerals

  • Clay, Mineral Oxides, etc.

Functions of Soil

The soil has four very important functions (apart from other usages)

  • As a base/medium for plant growth (essential for life in our ecosystem)
  • As a means of storage, supply, and purification of water
  • As a modifier of Earth’s atmosphere
  • Providing natural habitat and basis for life.

The major classification of Indian soils

India is an Agrarian country & Soil is its prime resource. It plays a vital role in the economy of India as our industries are mainly Agro-based.

About 65 to 70% of the total population of the country is dependent on agriculture. 

  • In India, the soil had been classified from the ancient period itself even though it was not as detail as the modern classifications.
  • In the ancient period, the classification was based on only two things; whether the soil is fertile or sterile. Thus the classification was:
    • Urvara [fertile]
    • Usara [sterile]
  • In the modern period, when men started to know about the various characteristics of soil they began to classify soil on the basis of texture, color, moisture, etc.
  • When the Soil Survey of India was established in 1956, they studied the soils of India and their characteristics.
  • The National Bureau of Soil Survey and the Land Use Planning, an institute under the control of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research did a lot of studies on Indian soil.

On the basis of color, soil types were identified as red, yellow, black.

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has classified the Indian soils on the basis of their nature and character as per the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Taxonomy, which is as follows-

  • Inceptisols (39.74%)
  • Entisols (28.08%)
  • Alfisols (13.55%)
  • Vertisols (8.52%)
  • Aridisols (4.28%)
  • Ultisols (2.51%)
  • Mollisols (0.40%)
  • Others (2.92%)

On the basis of genesis, color, composition, and location, the soils of India have been classified as

  1. Alluvial soil [43%]
  2. Red soil [18.5%]
  3. Black / regur soil [15%]
  4. Arid/desert soil
  5. Laterite soil
  6. Saline soil
  7. Peaty/marshy soil
  8. Forest soil
  9. Mountain soil

Alluvial Soils

  • The deposition of materials by sea and river is called alluvium and the soil formed due to the deposition of alluvium is called alluvial soil.
  • These soils cover more than 40% of the total land area of the country.
  • The color of the alluvial soils varies from light grey to ash grey.
  • Location: This type of soil mainly found in the Indo-Ganga and Brahmaputra plains. the whole northern plain and in some parts of the river basin in the south and some plateau region.
    • In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast such as Mahanadi, Godavari, and Krishna.
  • Structure: Alluvial soils are rich in potash and organic matter but poor in phosphorus. Alluviums are mainly loams, i.e. mixtures of sand and clay.
  • Major crops: If proper irrigation is done, the alluvial soils yield good crops of sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, rice, wheat, jute, maize, oilseeds, vegetables, and fruits.

There are two types of alluvial soils:

  • Khadar Soils: This type is moisture retentive and sticky when wet. It is new soil and is very fertile. Khadar areas are prone to flooding that become available for agriculture when a river changes its course.
  • Bhangar Soils: It is old soil and it is sandier and less fertile. Bhangar areas are less prone to flooding.

Black Soil

  • Most of the Deccan plateau, including Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and some parts of Tamil Nadu has black soils.
  • In the upper reaches of the Godavari and the Krishna, and the northwestern part of the Deccan Plateau, such as parts of Gujarat, the black soil is very deep.
  • These soils are also known as the ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’.  
  • This soil is of volcanic
  • The black soils are generally clayey, deep, and impermeable.
  • They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
  • So, during the dry season, these soil develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of ‘self plowing’.
  • Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially, the rain-fed crops, to sustain even during the dry season.
  • Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia, and alumina. They also contain potash. But they lack in phosphorous, nitrogen, and organic matter.
  • The color of the soil ranges from deep black to grey.
  • Crops Grown: Cotton, Jowar, Wheat, Linseed, Gram, Fruit, and Vegetable.

Red and Yellow Soil

  • On the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Western Ghats, etc.
  • These soils are abundant along the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain.
  • Red soils develop on granite and geneses rocks under low rainfall conditions i.e. due to weathering of the metamorphic rocks.
  • These soils are red in color due to the high concentration of Iron Oxide.
  • It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form (Iron Hydroxides).
  • The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility due to leaching of the nutrients.
  • They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous, and humus but respond well to fertilizers.
  • Crops Grown: Wheat, Rice, Millet’s, Pulses.

Laterite Soil

  • These soils are formed in areas with high temperatures and high rainfall.
  • Laterite soils do not retain moisture.
  • Location: Found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, etc.
  • Structure: Poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate, and calcium. These are generally acidic in nature.
  • Major Crops: This soil (not very fertile) is used in the cultivation of cotton, rice, wheat, pulses, tea, coffee, etc.
  • This is also used in cashew-nut cultivation.

There are types of Laterite Soils based on their particles:

  • Deep Red Laterite: Have an excess of iron oxide and potash but short of Kaolin (clay). Not fertile.
  • White Laterite: The color is due to the excess of Kaolin. These soils lose fertility very quickly.
  • Underground Laterite: The upperparts are dissolved especially in iron which settles down below the upper layer. This makes the soils fertile.
  • Other uses: It is useful for making bricks because of the presence of a huge amount of iron.

Desert/ Arid Soil

  • These soils are sandy and have low clay content.
  • The color of this soil ranges from red to brown and light brown.
  • Location: The region west of the Aravalli has arid soils.
  • Structure: Saline in nature due to the high salt content. Poor in nitrogen but rich in plant food. Lack of moisture and humus.
  • Major Crops: Mainly drought-resistant and salt-tolerant crops such as barley, rape, cotton, wheat, millets, maize, and pulses are grown.

Forest and Mountain Soils

  • This soil occupies about 9% of the total land area of India. These soils are formed by the deposition of organic matter derived from forest growth.
  • Location: These soils are found mainly in the Himalayan region, Western and Eastern Ghats as well as in some parts of the peninsular plateau.
  • Structure: These soils are rich in humus but are deficient in potash, phosphorus, and lime. Therefore, they need fertilizers for good yields.
  • Major Crops: Good for plantations of tea, spices, coffee, and tropical fruits in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala and wheat, maize, barley, and temperate fruits in Himachal Pradesh, J&K, and Uttaranchal.

Saline and Alkaline Soils

  • These soils are known by different names such as Reh, Kallar, Usar, Thur, Rakar, Karl, and Chopan.
  • Structure: Some rock and mineral fragments liberate sodium, magnesium, calcium salts, and sulfurous acid on weathering.
  • Location: These soils are mainly found in AP and Karnataka. These are also found in drier parts of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra.
  • Major Crops: Accumulation of the salts makes the soil infertile and renders it unfit for agriculture.

Peaty and Marshy Soils

  • Peaty and Marshy soils are formed in humid regions as a result of the deposition of huge amounts of organic matter in the soils under waterlogged conditions.
  • The peaty soils are black and heavy.
  • Top crops: These soils are generally covered with water during the monsoon and they are used for rice cultivation as soon as the monsoon passes.

Peaty Soils

  • Highly salty and rich in organic matters.
  • But, they are deficient in potash and phosphate.
  • Mainly found in Kottayam and Alappuzha districts of Kerala where it is called Kari.

Marshy Soils

  • Result of water-logging and the presence of iron and a varying amount of organic matter.
  • These are found in the coastal areas of Orissa and Tamil Nadu, Sundarbans of West Bengal, in Bihar and Almora district of Uttaranchal.

Soil Erosion

  • Washing or blowing away the top layer of the soil is called soil erosion.
  • The top layer of soil is the most fertile because it contains the most organic, nutrient-rich materials.
  • Soil erosion is caused by natural factors like rain, water, ice, etc., or manual factors such as plowing of the field. But it is also caused by man-made factors.

Common Man-Made Reasons for Soil Erosion

  • Shifting cultivation
  • Deforestation
  • Overgrazing
  • Jhum cultivation etc.

Impact of Soil Erosion

  • Reduces the capacity of soil to hold water.
  • Lower layers generally contain fewer nutrients than the top layer, hence, soil erosion contributes to the loss of nutrients.
  • Water infiltration is reduced, which makes it harder for the seedlings to break through the soil crust.
  • Erosion does not remove topsoil uniformly over the surface of a field, which makes it impossible for a farmer to apply fertilizers and chemicals uniformly and obtain uniform results.

Soil Conservation

Soil Conservation is an effort to protect soil from erosion. The Government of India has set up the Central Soil Conservation Board to take care of this issue and make some plans to control soil erosion. Some measures that have been in practice to protect the soil erosion are:

  • Afforestation
  • Checking to overgraze
  • Changing agriculture practices

Natural Vegetation of India

Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long period of time.

Classification of Vegetation

The following are the principal types of natural vegetation in India:

  1. Tropical Evergreen Rain Forests
  2. Deciduous or Monsoon Type of Forests
  3. Dry Deciduous Forests and Scrubs
  4. Semi Desert and Desert Vegetation
  5. Tidal or Mangrove Forests

Tropical Evergreen Rain Forests

  • The tropical evergreen forests usually occur in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall having a temperature of 15 to 30 degrees Celsius.
  • They occupy about seven percent of the earth’s land surface and harbors more than half of the world’s plants and animals.
  • They are found mostly near the equator. The region is warm and wet throughout the year.
  • Trees reach great heights up to 60 meters or even above.
  • It has luxuriant vegetation of all kinds –trees, shrubs, and creepers giving it a multi-layered structure.
  • In India, evergreen forests are found in the western slopes of the Western Ghats in States such as Kerala and Karnataka.
  • They are also found in the hills of Jaintia and Khasi.
  • Some of the trees found in Indian Tropical Forests are rosewood, mahogany, and ebony. Bamboos and reeds are also common.
  • Common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkeys, lemur, and deer. The one-horned rhinoceros are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal.

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • Tropical Deciduous Forests are the most widespread forests of India and are popular as Monsoon Forests.
  • Tropical deciduous forests are found in the regions, which receive rainfall between 70 and 200 cm.
  • These forests are different from tropical rain forests in that the trees are not as tall and have rather thick bark.
  • Tropical deciduous forests are further categorized as moist deciduous forests and dry deciduous forest.

Moist Deciduous Forest

  • The moist deciduous forests are found in the regions, which record rainfall between 100 and 200 cm.
  • The moist deciduous forests are found along the foothills of the Himalayas, eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, and Odisha.
  • Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, Kusum, and sandalwood are the main species of the moist deciduous forests.

Dry Deciduous Forest

  • Dry deciduous forests are found in the regions that receive precipitation between 70 and 100 cm.
  • These forests are found in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  • As the dry season begins, the trees of deciduous forests shed their leaves completely.
  • Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, Khair, axlewood, etc. are the major trees of dry deciduous forests.
  • There are open stretches in which Teak, Sal, Peepal, and Neem grow.
  • Common animals found are lions, tigers, pigs, deer, and elephants. A variety of birds, lizards, snakes, and tortoises are also found here.

Difference between Evergreen forest and Deciduous Forest

BASIS FOR COMPARISON EVERGREEN FORESTS DECIDUOUS FORESTS
Meaning

 

·         Evergreen forests are also known as a Rain forest and grow in the area receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall annually.

·         These forests are so dense that sunlight does not reach the ground.

·         Deciduous forests are also known as Monsoon forests and grow in the area receiving 200 – 70 cm of rainfall annually.

·         These forests are not so dense.

Found in ·         These forests are found in areas where there are abundant sunshine and rainfall. ·         These forests are found in the area with a cold climate and moderate rainfall.
Leaves ·         Trees of the evergreen forests do not shed their leaves at any time of the year. ·         Trees of the deciduous forests shed their leaves in some specific season, to save the loss of water and moisture through transpiration.
Survival ·         As these are sensitive to temperature, evergreen forests can survive in warm weather. ·         As these are sensitive to rainfall, deciduous forest shed off their leaves in cold as well as dry conditions.
Examples ·         The evergreen forest consists of the species like Sandalwood, Rubber, Bamboos, Rosewood, Mahogany, Ebony, etc. ·         Deciduous forest has a collection of the Cedar, Teak, Oak, Sandal, Ash, Fir, etc.

Thorn Forests and Scrubs

  • In regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes.
  • Found in the north-western part of the country including semi­arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.
  • Acacias, palms, euphorbias, and cacti are the main plant species.
  • Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture.
  • The stems are succulent to conserve water.
  • Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation
  • The common animals found here are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses, and camels.

Mountain Forests

  • Mountain forests in India are normally classified into two types, i.e. the northern mountain forests and the southern mountain forests.
  • Deciduous forests are found in the foothills of the Himalayas.
  • Temperate forests found between an altitude of 1,000 and 2,000 m.
  • In the higher hill ranges of northeastern India; for example, in hilly areas of West Bengal and Uttaranchal, evergreen broadleaf trees such as oak and chestnut are predominant.
  • Chir, deodar, pine, etc. are the important species of temperate forests.
  • Between 3,000 and 4,000 m, Silver firs, junipers, pines, birch, and rhododendrons, etc. are found.
  • However, at higher altitudes, the tundra vegetation is found and major species are mosses and lichens.
  • At a higher altitude, the southern mountain forests largely belong to the temperate type, which is locally known as ‘Sholas’in the Nilgiris, Anaimalai, and Palani Some of the trees of economic significance include magnolia, laurel, cinchona, and wattle.

Mangrove Forests

  • Found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
  • Mud and silt get accumulated on such coasts.
  • Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots of the plants submerged underwater.
  • The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, the Godavari, and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation.
  • Sunderban is the largest mangrove in the world. It is famous for the Sundari trees, which provide durable hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta.
  • Royal Bengal Tiger is a famous animal in these forests.
  • Turtles, crocodiles, gharials, and snakes are also found in these forests.

Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)

Forest Protection by Government officials

Reserved Forests
  • Under direct supervision of the government
  • Area notified under the provisions of FRA
  • No public entry is allowed for the collection of timber or grazing
  • About 54 % of the total forest area
  • Has a full degree of protection
  • All activities are prohibited unless permitted
Protected Forests
  • Area notified under the provisions of FRA
  • All activities are permitted unless prohibited
  • Looked after by the gov.
  • Has a limited degree of protection
  • Local people are allowed to collect fuelwood, timber & to graze their animals without causing serious damage to the forests
  • About 29 % of the total forest area.
Unprotected Forests
  • No restriction on cutting trees or cattle grazing
  • About 18 % of the total forest area

Forest cover in India

  • According to the India State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2017, the forest area covers 24.4 percent of the total land area of the country.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest forest cover of 77,414 sq km in the country in terms of area, followed by Arunachal Pradesh with 66,964 sq km and Chhattisgarh (55,547 sq km).
  • In terms of percentage of forest cover with respect to the total geographical area, Lakshadweep with (90.33 percent) has the highest forest cover, followed by Mizoram (86.27 percent) and Andaman & Nicobar Island (81.73 percent)
  • As per the ISFR 2017, the total mangrove cover stands at 4,921 sq km

Wildlife in India

  • India is one of the 12th mega bio-diversity countries of the world.
  • With approximately 47,000 plant species, India ranks 4thin Asia and 10th in the world (in terms of plant diversity).
  • India has about 15,000 species of flowering plants and contributes 6 percent to the world’s total flowering plants.
  • India has about 90,000 species of animals.
  • In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted, which instructed the main legal framework for conservation and protection of the wildlife in India.
  • Besides, some other special schemes such as Project Tiger (1973) and Project Elephant (1992) have been launched to conserve these species and their habitats.

Biosphere Reserve

  • Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas, which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Program.
  • There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, out of which 9 Biosphere Reserves have been recognized by the UNESCO on World Network of Biosphere Reserves.
  • Established in September 1986, the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is the first biosphere reserve of India.
  • There are about 2,000 species of birds in India that account for 13 percent of the world’s total.
  • There are about 2,546 species of fish in India that account for 12 percent of the world’s total.
  • India has about 5 to 8 percent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
  • India is the only country in the whole world where both tigers and lions are found.
  • Gir forest in Gujarat is the natural habitat of lions in India.
  • Tigers are found in the Sundarbans of West Bengal, and the forests of Madhya Pradesh, and the Himalayan region.
  • About 1,300 plant species have been listed as endangered species in India; however, 20 species are already extinct.
  • To protect wildlife, the Government of India has established 18 biosphere reserves; (list with details is given below − the data is prepared by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India) –
S.No. Name of the Biosphere Reserve & total geographical area (Km2Km2) Date of Designation Location
1 Nilgiri (5520) 01.08.1986 Part of Wynad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley, and Siruvani hills in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka.
2 Nanda Devi(5860.69) 18.01.1988 Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Almora districts in Uttarakhand.
3 Nokrek (820) 01.09.1988 Part of East, West, and South Garo Hill districts in Meghalaya.
4 Manas (2837) 14.03.1989 Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup, and Darang districts in Assam
5 Sunderban (9630) 29.03.1989 Part of the delta of Ganges & Brahmaputra river system in West Bengal.
6 Gulf of Mannar(10500) 18.02.1989 The Indian part of Gulf of Mannar extending from Rameswaram island in the North to Kanyakumari in the South of Tamil Nadu.
7 Great Nicobar (885) 06.01.1989 The southernmost island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
8 Similipal (4374) 21.06.1994 Part of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha.
9 Dibru-Saikhova (765) 28.07.1997 Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts in Assam.
10 Dehang-Dibang (5111.5) 02.09.1998 Part of Upper Siang, West Siang, and Dibang Valley districts in Arunachal Pradesh.
11 Pachmarhi(4981.72) 03.03.1999 Part of Betul, Hoshangabad, and Chhindwara districts in Madhya Pradesh.
12 Khangchendzonga (2931.12) 07.02.2000 Part of North and West districts in Sikkim.
13 Agasthyamalai (3500.36) 12.11.2001 Part of Thirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts in Tamil Nadu and Thiruvanthapuram, Kollam, and Pathanamthitta districts in Kerala.
14 Achanakmar – Amarkantak (3,835. 51) 30.03.2005 Part of Anuppur and Dindori districts of Madhya Pradesh and Bilaspur district of Chattisgarh.
15 Kachchh (12,454) 29.01.2008 Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendranagar, and Patan districts in Gujarat.
16 Cold Desert (7,770) 28.08.2009 Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal & Sarchu; and Kibber Wildlife sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh.
17 Seshachalam (4755.997) 20.09.2010 Seshachalam hill ranges in the Eastern Ghats encompassing part of Chittoor and Kadapa districts in Andhra Pradesh.
18 Panna (2998.98) 25.08.2011 Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The above-highlighted reserves have been included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO.
  • Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, Sunderbans in the West Bengal, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, the Nilgiris between the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, etc. have been included in the world network of Biosphere reserves.
  • The plant species grown naturally without any human aid and remains undisturbed is known as virgin vegetation.

Flora simply refers to plant species and Fauna refers to animal species.

Multiple Choice Questions on Soil and Natural Vegetation of India

  1. The most fertile region of India is:
    (A) The Himalayas

    (B) The central highlands
    (C) The Indo- Gangetic plain
    (D) Peninsular plateau
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) The Indo- Gangetic plain
  2. Which of the following is the most important factor in soil formation?
    (A) Relief

    (B) Climate
    (C) Natural vegetation
    (D) Rock cover
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Climate
  3. The Indian agricultural research Institute has divided Indian soils into :
    (A) 4 types

    (B) 6 types
    (C) 8 type
    (D) 10 types
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 8 type
  4. The state having the largest area under black soil is :
    (A) Gujarat

    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Andhra Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Maharashtra
  5. Which is the richest soil among the following?
    (A) Black Soil

    (B) Red Soil
    (C) Laterite Soil
    (D) Alluvial Soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Alluvial Soil
  6. Which of the following types of soils have a marked capacity to retain water?
    (A) Desert soil
    (B) Laterite soil
    (C) Red soil
    (D) Regur soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Regur soil
  7. The soil formed by the deposition of silt brought by rivers is:
    (A) alluvial soil

    (B) red soil
    (C) black soil
    (D) pod soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) alluvial soil
  8. Which of the following soils is very hard to cultivate?
    (A) Alluvial

    (B) Black
    (C) Red
    (D) Sandy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sandy
  9. Which of the following types of soil are mostly confined to river basins and coastal plains of India?
    (A) Alluvial soils
    (B) Black soils
    (C) Laterite soils
    (D) Red soils
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Alluvial soils
  10. The major crops grown on red soil in India are the :
    (A) Wheat and rice

    (B) Tea and Jute
    (C) Jowar and ragi
    (D) Wheat and cotton
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jowar and ragi
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  11. Which among the following soils is rather infertile?
    (A) Regur

    (B) Alluvial
    (C) Bangar
    (D) Laterite
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Laterite
  12. The soil which is a mixture of sand, clay, and silt is known as :
    (A) loamy soil

    (B) Sandy soil
    (C) clayey soil
    (D) desert soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) loamy soil
  13. When you travel to certain parts of India, you will notice red soil. What is the main reason for this color?
    (A) Abundance of magnesium
    (B) Accumulated humus
    (C) Presence of ferric oxides
    (D) Abundance of Phosphates
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Presence of ferric oxides
  14. Which of the following is NOT a correct statement about Alluvial soil?
    (A) Alluvial soil is the most abundant type of soil found in India
    (B) Alluvial soil is generally fertile
    (C) Alluvial soil lacks nitrogen and tends to be phosphoric
    (D) Alluvial soil generally comprise a high percentage of clay and retain moisture for a long time
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Alluvial soil generally comprise a high percentage of clay and retain moisture for a long time
  15. Which among the following is considered to be the best soil for plant growth?
    (A) Sand
    (B) Clay
    (C) Loam
    (D) Silt
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Loam
  16. Which among the following soil is predominantly found in the Rarh Region of West Bengal?
    (A) Alluvial Soil
    (B) Red Soil
    (C) Black Soil
    (D) Acid Sulphate soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Red Soil
  17. For cotton cultivation which among the following soils is considered most suitable?
    (A) Alluvial Soil
    (B) Red Soil
    (C) Black Soil
    (D) Laterite Soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Black Soil
  18. Which among the following type of soil has the largest area covered in India?
    (A) Alluvial Soil
    (B) Red Soil
    (C) Black Soil
    (D) Laterite Soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Alluvial Soil
  19. The composition of laterite soil in higher areas is
    (A) Alkaline
    (B) Saline
    (C) Acidic
    (D) Balanced
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Acidic
  20. The Laterite soil is found in which of the following state?
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Uttar Pradesh
    (C) Rajasthan
    (D) Uttarakhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kerala
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  21. How can soil erosion be controlled on hill slopes?
    (A) Forestation
    (B) Step farming
    (C) Strip cropping
    (D) Linear contour plowing
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Linear contour plowing
  22. The soil of the northern plain of India is formed by
    (A) Degradation

    (B) Aggradation
    (C) Weathering in situ
    (D) Erosion
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Aggradation
  23. The salinity of soil is measured by
    (A) Electrical Conductivity Meter
    (B) Hygrometer
    (C) Psychrometer
    (D) Scaler
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Electrical Conductivity Meter
  24. Edible crops include
    (A) Cotton, Tobacco, Sugarcane
    (B) Linseed, Castor, Turmeric
    (C) Food grains, Pulses, Oilseeds
    (D) Jute, Cotton, Chilli
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Foodgrains, Pulses, Oilseeds
  25. The combination of agriculture and pastoral farming is called ________.
    (A) Extensive Farming
    (B) Mixed Farming
    (C) Intensive Farming
    (D) Plantation Agriculture
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mixed Farming
  26. According to the estimate, India receives an average of ____ cm of rainfall annually.
    (A) 109
    (B) 100
    (C) 125
    (D) 98
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 109
  27. Which soil is rich in Phosphate and Calcium but deficient in Nitrogen and Humus?
    (A) Black Soil
    (B) Red Soil
    (C) Desert Soil
    (D) Alluvial Soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Desert Soil
  28. Watermelons grow best in 
    (A) Alluvial soil
    (B) Sandy soil
    (C) Black soil
    (D) Laterite soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sandy soil
  29. The most extensive soil cover of India comprises. 
    (A) laterite soils
    (B) black soils
    (C) alluvial soils
    (D) marshy soils
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) alluvial soils
  30. When was the first National Forest Policy issued by the Government of India?
    (A) 1952
    (B) 1940
    (C) 1942
    (D) 1999
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1952
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  31. The first biosphere reserve that was set up in India in 1986 is
    (A) Nanda Devi
    (B) Nilgiris
    (C) Nokrek
    (D) Manas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Nilgiris
  32. Where is India’s most priced tea grows in-
    (A) Jorhat
    (B) Darjeeling
    (C) Nilgiris
    (D) Munnar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Darjeeling
  33. With which crop has Green Revolution been associated? 
    (A) Rice
    (B) Wheat
    (C) Pulses
    (D) Sugarcane
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Wheat
  34. Which one of the following is not a plantation crop? 
    (A) Tea
    (B) Coffee
    (C) Rubber
    (D) Sugarcane
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sugarcane
  35. Operation Flood is related to 
    (A) Flood control
    (B) Arrangement of drinking water
    (C) Milk production
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Milk production
  36. The largest freshwater lake in India is
    (A) Dal Laka
    (B) Bhimtal Laka
    (C) Wular Laka
    (D) Nainital Laka
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Wular Laka
  37. Green Revolution was started in 
    (A) 1960
    (B) 1970
    (C) 1980
    (D) 1990
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1960
  38. India is the largest producer and consumer of 
    (A) Paddy
    (B) Tea
    (C) Coffee
    (D) Sugar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tea
  39. ‘Yellow Revolution’ is associated with the production of: 
    (A) Poultry
    (B) Gold
    (C) Sunflower
    (D) Oilseeds
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Oilseeds
  40. Agricultural Commodities are graded with: 
    (A) ISI
    (B) Eco-products
    (C) AGMARK
    (D) Green Product
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) AGMARK
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  41. Which Indian state is not known to produce the tea? 
    (A) Assam
    (B) Kerala
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Chhattisgarh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Chhattisgarh
  42. Dry farming in India is extensively practiced in 
    (A) Kanara Plains
    (B) Deccan Plateau
    (C) Coromandal Plains
    (D) Ganga Plains
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Deccan Plateau
  43. Which of the following factors affect the formation of soil?
    (A) Time

    (B) Climate
    (C) Organism
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  44. Any soil which is made of layers is called ____.
    (A) Horizon

    (B) Colloid
    (C) Solum
    (D) Hume
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Horizon
  45. Alluvial soil covers more than ____% of the total land area of India.
    (A) 50

    (B) 40
    (C) 60
    (D) 39
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 40
  46. Red soil is rich in which mineral?
    (A) Phosphorus
    (B) Iron
    (C) Magnesium
    (D) Potassium
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Iron
  47. Arid soil is used to cultivate which crop?
    (A) Cotton

    (B) Fruits
    (C) Ground Nuts
    (D) Potato
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cotton
  48. In which year was the Central Soil Conservation Board established?
    (A) 1950

    (B) 1951
    (C) 1952
    (D) 1953
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1953
  49. Laterite soil is divided into how many types?
    (A) 5

    (B) 4
    (C) 3
    (D) 2
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 3
  50. Khadar and Bangar come under which category of soils?
    (A) Laterite

    (B) Red
    (C) Black
    (D) Alluvial
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Alluvial
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  51. Find the odd man out, from the list given below which of the following is not a part of the primary minerals found in soils.
    (A) Clay
    (B) Iron
    (C) Sodium
    (D)Magnesium
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Clay
  52. The scientific study of soil is –
    (A) Pedology

    (B) Earth Study
    (C) Soil Science           
    (D) Soil Chemistry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pedology
  53. HD 2967 is the new high yielding variety of –
    (A) Rice
    (B) Maize
    (C) Wheat     
    (D) Mustered
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Wheat
  54. The Minimum Support Price for Foodgrains was introduced in the year –
    (A) 1961

    (B) 1962
    (C) 1963        
    (D) 1964
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1964
  55. Which part of the Himalayas covered with the dense forest?
    (A) Northern

    (B) Eastern
    (C) Western
    (D) Southern
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Southern
  56. How many types of plant species are found in India?
    (A) About 45,000

    (B) About 40,000
    (C) About 47,000
    (D) About 20,000
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) About 47,000
  57. Which one of the following states does not have Tropical deciduous forests?
    (A) Jharkhand

    (B) Western Orissa
    (C) Chhattisgarh
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rajasthan
  58. Which one of the following trees are found in tropical rainforests?
    (A) Mahogany

    (B) Teak
    (C) Sal
    (D) Peepal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mahogany
  59. Plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time is termed as:
    (A) Tundra vegetation

    (B) Virgin vegetation
    (C) Taiga plants
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Virgin vegetation
  60. Ebony, Mahogany, and Rosewood trees are grown in which of the following forests?
    (A) Coniferous forests

    (B) Tropical rain forest
    (C) Tropical Thorn forests
    (D) Deciduous forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tropical rain forest
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  61. Silver fir is found in the following type of vegetation zone:
    (A) Mangrove forests

    (B) Thorn forests
    (C) Montane forests
    (D) Deciduous forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Montane forests
  62. A very large ecosystem on land having a distinct type of vegetation and wildlife is called:
    (A) Ecology

    (B) Biome
    (C) Biodiversity
    (D) Biosphere reserve
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Biome
  63. Which medicinal plant has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties?
    (A) Sarpagandha

    (B) Neem
    (C) Kachnar
    (D) Babool
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Neem
  64. Which one of the following animals lives in the swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal?
    (A) Tiger

    (B) Lion
    (C) One-horned Rhino
    (D) Elephants
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) One-horned Rhino
  65. Which of the following is not an important tree of the tropical rain forest?
    (A) Ebony

    (B) Rosewood
    (C) Mahogany
    (D) Sandalwood
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sandalwood
  66. Trees in thorn forest are:
    (A) Tall
    (B) Dense
    (C) Scattered
    (D) Dwarf
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Scattered
  67. Which of the following type of natural vegetation has originally come to India from abroad?
    (A) Rare species

    (B) Endemic species
    (C) Endangered species
    (D) Exotic Species
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Exotic Species
  68. Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber, and Cinchona are the important trees of?
    (A) Tropical Deciduous Forests

    (B) Mangrove Forests
    (C) Tropical Evergreen Forests
    (D) Montane Forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tropical Evergreen Forests
  69. The most widespread vegetation in India is:
    (A) Coniferous forests

    (B) Tropical Rain forests
    (C) Tropical Deciduous forests
    (D) Mangrove forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tropical Deciduous forests
  70. Tropical Rain forests grow well in the area receiving rainfall:
    (A) 200 cm

    (B) 150 cm
    (C) 100 cm
    (D) 70 cm
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 200 cm
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  71. Which of the following part of India’s evergreen forests are found?
    (A) Assam

    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Odisha
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Assam
  72. This of the following forest is found in heavy rainfall areas of the Western Ghats, island groups, and upper parts of Assam
    (A) Tropical evergreen

    (B) Tropical deciduous
    (C) Mountain forests
    (D) Tidal forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tropical evergreen
  73. Ebony and Rosewood trees are found in the areas of rainfall:
    (A) More than 200 cm

    (B) More than 100 cm
    (C) More than 70 cm
    (D) Less than 50 cm
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) More than 200 cm
  74. Which of the following trees is used for treating blood pressure?
    (A) Jamun

    (B) Kachnar
    (C) Neem
    (D) Sarpagandha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sarpagandha
  75. Which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
    (A) Tundra

    (B) Tidal
    (C) Himalayan
    (D) Tropical evergreen
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Tropical evergreen
  76. Which one of the following types of vegetation has commercially important trees like ebony, mahogany, rosewood, and rubber?
    (A) Montane Forest

    (B) Tropical Rain Forests
    (C) Tropical Deciduous Forests
    (D) Tropical Thorn Forest
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tropical Rain Forests
  77. Why are there great variations in the bioforms of India?
    (A) Because of the vast size
    (B) Because of the small size
    (C) Because of the landmass
    (D) Because of water bodies
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Because of the vast size
  78. What is the rank of India in the world in respect of plant diversity?
    (A) 10th
    (B) 12th
    (C) 5th
    (D) 6th
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 10th (4th in Asia)
  79. Flora is referred to as
    (A) species of animals
    (B) species of plants
    (C) both (A) and (B)
    (D) none of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) species of animals
  80. Why is there a difference in the duration of sunlight at different places?
    (A) Due to the difference in altitudes
    (B) Due to the difference in water bodies
    (C) Due to the difference in longitudes
    (D) Due to the difference in latitudes
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Due to the difference in latitudes
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  81. What is the duration of the south-west monsoon in India?
    (A) October to November
    (B) December to March
    (C) June to September
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) June to September
  82. ‘All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated to each other in their physical environment.’ What is the name given to this interrelationship and interdependence?
    (A) Physical environment,
    (B) Ecosystem
    (C) Biomes
    (D) Food chain
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ecosystem
  83. What is the basis of identifying biomes on the earth?
    (A) Animals
    (B) Plants
    (C) Fish
    (D) Buffalo
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Plants
  84. What restricts the Tropical Evergreen Forests?
    (A) Temperature
    (B) Rainfall
    (C) Air pressure
    (D) Air current
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rainfall
  85. Name the forests in which teak is the most dominant species.
    (A) Tropical evergreen forests
    (B) Tropical thorn forests and scrubs
    (C) Tropical deciduous forests
    (D) Mangrove forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tropical deciduous forests
  86. In thorn forests and scrubs, why are the leaves of trees mostly thick and small?
    (A) To maximize evaporation
    (B) To minimize evaporation
    (C) To reduce moisture
    (D) To do nothing
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) To minimize evaporation
  87. In which type of forests does the Sundari tree belong?
    (A) Tropical evergreen forests
    (B) Tropical thorn forests and scrubs
    (C) Tropical deciduous forests
    (D) Mangrove forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Mangrove forests
  88. Name the animal which lives in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal.
    (A) Elephants
    (B) One-horned Rhinoceros
    (C) Nilgai
    (D) Lion
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) One-horned Rhinoceros
  89. Give an example of the biosphere reserve of India.
    (A) Corbett Park
    (B) Kawal
    (C) Pachmarhi
    (D) Guindy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pachmarhi
  90. What has been set up to take care of natural heritage?
    (A) Setting up of National Parks
    (B) Setting up of Wildlife Sanctuaries
    (C) Setting up of Zoological Gardens
    (D) Setting up of all of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Setting up of all of these
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  91. Which of the following Indian States/UT has the maximum percentage of mangrove cover in the country?
    (a) Gujarat

    (b) West Bengal
    (c) Andaman & Nicobar
    (d) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (b) West Bengal
  92. How many states in India have a forest cover of more than 75% of their geographical land area?
    (A) 1

    (B) 3
    (C) 5
    (D) 7
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 7
    Explanation: Mizoram, Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, and Manipur have more than 75% forest cover.
  93. Which type of forest occupies the highest percentage of area in India?
    (A) Tropical Deciduous
    (B) Savanna and desert vegetation
    (C) Equatorial Evergreen
    (D) Tropical Rainforests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Tropical Deciduous
  94. Trees that do not shed their leaves are mostly found in
    (A) hot desert vegetation

    (B) tropical monsoon forests
    (C) coniferous forests
    (D) temperate deciduous forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) coniferous forests
  95. Forests made of trees that shed leaves as temperature decreases are classified as
    (A) hot desert vegetation

    (B) tropical monsoon forests
    (C) coniferous forests
    (D) temperate deciduous forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) temperate deciduous forests
  96. Regions such as southeastern Brazil, southwestern Africa, Myanmar, and Bangladesh consists of
    (A) tropical monsoon forests

    (B) tropical rainforests
    (C) coniferous rainforests
    (D) temperate deciduous forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) tropical monsoon forests
  97. The range of rainfall in temperate grasslands is
    (A) 200 to 1,000 millimeters

    (B) 750 to 1,000 millimeters
    (C) 650 to 900 millimeters
    (D) 600 to 800 millimeters
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 200 to 1,000 millimeters
  98. Variety of trees is only one type in
    (A) coniferous forests

    (B) temperate deciduous forests
    (C) hot desert vegetation
    (D) tropical monsoon forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) coniferous forests
  99. The proportion of forest to the total national geographical area of India as envisaged by the National Forest Policy is
    (A) 30.3 percent

    (B) 33.3 percent
    (C) 38.3 percent
    (D) 42.3 percent
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 33.3 percent
  100. The diverse flora and fauna of the planet are under great threat mainly due to:
    (A) Global Warming

    (B) Lack of water availability
    (C) Insensitivity to our environment
    (D) Increasing pollution
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Insensitivity to our environment
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  101. The Kaziranga wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Assam
    (B) Odisha
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Madhya Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Assam
  102. The Gir National Park and wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Madhya Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Rajasthan
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gujarat
  103. The Manas wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) West Bengal
    (B) Odisha
    (C) Assam
    (D) Jharkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Assam
  104. The Sunderbans National Park is located at
    (A) Odisha
    (B) West Bengal
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Assam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) West Bengal
  105. The Periyar National Park and wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Tamil Nadu
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Kerala
  106. The Kanha National Park is located at
    (A) Uttar Pradesh
    (B) Madhya Pradesh
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Chhattisgarh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Madhya Pradesh
  107. The Ranthambore National Park and wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Odisha
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rajasthan
  108. The Bandhavgarh National Park is located at
    (A) Uttar Pradesh
    (B) Odisha
    (C) Assam
    (D) Madhya Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Madhya Pradesh
  109. The Sariska wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Odisha
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Assam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rajasthan
  110. The Chilka Bird Sanctuary is located at
    (A) Assam
    (B) Odisha
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Bihar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Odisha
    Soils and Natural Vegetation of India (Notes+MCQ)
  111. The Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary is located at
    (A) Madhya Pradesh
    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Uttar Pradesh
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rajasthan
  112. The Aralam wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Kerala
  113. The Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary is located at
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) Karnataka
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gujarat
  114. The Mudumalai National Park and wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Tamil Nadu
  115. The Corbett National Park is located at
    (A) Odisha
    (B) Karanataka
    (C) Uttarkhand
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Uttarkhand
  116. The Bandipur National Park is located at
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Karnataka
  117. The Nandankanan Zoo is located at
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Odisha
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Odisha
  118. The Govind wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Karnataka
    (B) Andhra Pradesh
    (C) Uttarkhand
    (D) Gujarat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Uttarkhand
  119. The Tal Chappar wildlife sanctuary is located at
    (A) Rajasthan
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Odisha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rajasthan
  120. Which of the following is not in Rajasthan?
    (A) Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary
    (B) Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary
    (C) Ranthambore National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
    (D) Govind Wildlife Sanctuary
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Govind Wildlife Sanctuary. It is in Uttarakhand.

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