Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)

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Resources of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

In this module, we shall learn about the Natural Resources of India, Mineral Resources, Major Minerals in India, Energy Resources in India, Water Resources, Forest Resources, and Marine Resources 

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Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)

Human Resources

  • People with their demands and abilities are considered as Human Resources.
  • Human resources like other resources are not equally distributed over the world.
    • They differ in their educational levels, age, and sex. Their numbers and characteristics also keep changing.

Distribution of Population

  • More than 90% of the world’s population lives on 10% of the land surface.
  • Many more people live in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere.
  • 60% of the world’s population lives in just 10 countries.
  • Out of every 100 people in the world:
    • 61 people live in Asia,
    • 12 people live in Europe,
    • 13 people live in Africa,
    • 8 people live in central and South America,
    • 5 people live in northern America and
    • 1 people live in Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, and Pacific Islands).

Density of Population

  • The number of people living in a unit area is called the density of the population.
  • It is usually expressed as the number of persons per square km.
  • The average population density of the world is 51 persons per square km.
  • South-Central Asia has the highest population density; followed by East and South East Asia.
  • The population density in India is 382 persons per square km.

Natural Resources of India

  • Resources obtained from the environment are known as natural resources.
  • On one hand, natural resources are fast depleting because of overexploitation by humans and on the other hand, the earth is becoming a big dumping ground for waste generated by the activities of the rapidly growing human population.

These resources can be further divided into two:


  1. Abiotic resources
  2. Biotic resources (living natural resources)

Abiotic Resources

  • Abiotic resources are the physical or chemical non-living resources of our nature.
    • For example Land, Water, Energy, Metals and Petroleum, and Natural gas.

Water

  • The natural water bodies include oceans, seas, and surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, waterfalls, and ponds.
  • Almost 80% of the earth’s fresh water remains frozen at a higher latitude and on mountains tops in the form of glaciers and ice sheets.
  • Only 20% is available in liquid form. The primary source of water on land is rainfall. Water is an essential requirement for all living beings.

Energy

  • The prime source of energy is solar radiation.
  • Coal has been formed from vegetation that grew millions of years ago, fell, and got trapped in sediments. Under immense pressure and intense heat for years, tress and vegetation buried in the sediments transformed into coal.
  • Coal is used as a fuel for cooking, running locomotives, furnaces industries, and generating electricity. Coal is also used for the extraction of metals and minerals and in thermal power generation.
  • Energy is also harnessed from the sun (solar energy), wind (wind energy), animal excreta (biogas), sea (tidal energy), and radioactive minerals (nuclear energy).

Petroleum and natural gas

  • Petroleum and natural gas are also fossil fuels.
  • Petroleum probably originated from marine animals that lived during past geological periods, just as coal was formed from vegetation.
  • Petroleum and natural gas are obtained from deep inside the earth and they are non-renewable energy
  • Petroleum products are used for running automobiles, steamers, airplanes and for making plastics and fertilizers.

Metal ores or minerals

  • Metal ores are chemical compounds (salts) of metal such as Aluminium, iron, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, etc. These ores are found as deposits under the earth’s surface.
  • Aluminum is used to make utensils, parts of vehicles, aircraft, and spacecraft.
  • Iron and its alloys are used for making ornaments, heavy machinery, railway engines, railway lines, and a wide variety of articles.
  • Copper is used for making industrial containers, electric wire and also used in electronics and telecommunication industries. Alloys such as brass and bronze contain copper.

Land

  • Many organisms, including humans, live on land. Landforms just approximately 29% of the earth’s surface include mountains, rocks, deserts, swamps, forests and grasslands.
  • Humans use the land for growing crops that provide them with food. They also need land to build shelters, roads, and cattle sheds. The need for land usage is steadily growing.

Biotic resources

These include plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Plants

  • The natural food resources included in the human diet are the various cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits.
  • Humans cultivate plants to obtain good grains, pulses, spices, vegetables, fruits, sugar, and oil from them.
  • Fibre yielding plants are grown by us to obtain cotton, jute, and flex, etc. Industrial raw materials such as rubber, timber, and resins are irreplaceable plant products.

Animals

  • Goats, fish, eggs, poultry, prawns, and crabs are the source of food for human beings.
  • Horses, bullocks, elephants, oxen, camels, donkeys, yaks, etc. are used for transportation and are known as draught animals.
  • Yaks and sheep yield wool for woolens. Silkworms are reared for silk.

Microorganisms

  • They provide antibiotics essential for the medicational purpose.
  • Their use in fermentation and in breweries is an age-old practice.
  • Microbes are responsible for processing waste and dead plants and animals.

Mineral Resources

On the basis of chemical and physical properties, minerals are grouped as –

  • Metallic minerals and
  • Non-metallic

Metallic minerals

  • Major examples of metallic minerals are iron ore, copper, gold, etc.
  • Metallic minerals are further sub-divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metallic minerals.
  • The minerals containing iron are known as ferrous and without iron are known as non-ferrous (copper, bauxite, etc.).
  • Depending upon the origination, non-metallic minerals are either organic (such as fossil fuels also known as mineral fuels, which are derived from the buried animal and plant, e.g. such as coal and petroleum), or inorganic minerals, such as mica, limestone, graphite, etc.

Distribution of Minerals

  • Minerals are unevenly distributed on the earth’s surface.
  • All minerals are exhaustible in nature, i.e., will exhaust after a certain time.
  • However, these minerals take a long time to form, but they cannot be replenished immediately at the time of need.
  • More than 97% of coal reserves occur in the valleys of Damodar, Sone, Mahanadi, and Godavari rivers.
  • Petroleum reserves in India are located in the sedimentary basins of Assam, Gujarat, and Mumbai High (i.e. off-shore region in the Arabian Sea – shown in the map given below).
  • Some new petroleum reserves are also found in the Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basins.

Mineral Belts in India

Further, there are three major mineral belts in India namely −

  • The North-Eastern Plateau Region,
  • The South-Western Plateau Region, and
  • The North-Western Region.

North-Eastern Plateau Region

  • The major areas of the north-eastern plateau region are Chhotanagpur (Jharkhand), Odisha, West Bengal, and parts of Chhattisgarh.
  • Iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite, and mica are the major minerals of the north-eastern plateau region.

South-Western Plateau Region

  • The south-western plateau region covers major parts of Karnataka, Goa, and contiguous Tamil Nadu uplands and Kerala.
  • Major mineral resources of the south-western plateau region are iron ore, manganese, and limestone.
  • Kerala has deposits of monazite and thorium, and bauxite clay, and Goa has deposits of iron ore.

North-Western Region

  • The north-western region covers the areas of Aravalli in Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat.
  • Major minerals of north-western regions are copper and zinc; other significant minerals include sandstone, granite, and marble, along with Gypsum and Fuller’s earth deposits.
  • In addition, Gujarat and Rajasthan, both have rich sources of salt.
  • The Himalayan belt is also an important mineral belt, as it has rich deposits of copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, and tungsten.

Major Minerals in India

Following are the major minerals found in India −                  

Iron

  • About 95% of total reserves of iron ore is found in the States of Odisha, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Goa, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Sundergarh, Mayurbhanj, and Jhar are the major iron ore regions in Odisha and the important mines are Gurumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar (Mayurbhaj), Kiruburu (Kendujhar), and Bonai (Sundergarh).
  • Noamundi (Poorbi Singhbhum) and Gua (Pashchimi Singhbhum) are important mines in Jharkhand.
  • Dalli and Rajhara in Durg district are the important mines of Chhattisgarh.
  • Sandur-Hospet area of Ballari district, Baba Budan hills, and Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district, and parts of Shivamogga are the important iron ore regions in Karnataka.
  • The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara, and Ratnagiri are the iron regions in Maharashtra.
  • Other iron ore regions in India are Karimnagar and Warangal district of Telangana, Kurnool, Cuddapah, and Anantapur districts of Andhra Pradesh, and Salem and Nilgiris districts of Tamil Nadu.

Manganese

  • Odisha is the leading producer of Manganese.
  • Bonai, Kendujhar, Sundergarh, Gangpur, Koraput, Kalahandi, and Bolangir are the major manganese regions in Odisha.
  • Dharwar, Ballari, Belagavi, North Canara, Shivamogga, Chitradurga, Tumkur, and Chikkmagaluru are major manganese regions in Karnataka.
  • Nagpur, Bhandara, and Ratnagiri districts are the major regions of manganese in Maharashtra.
  • Balaghat-Chhindwara-Nimar-Mandla and Jhabua districts are the important manganese regions of Madhya Pradesh.

Bauxite

  • Odisha is the largest producer of Bauxite in India.
  • Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Bolangir, and Koraput are the leading producers of bauxite in Odisha.
  • Lohardaga (Jharkhand) is rich in bauxite deposits.
  • Amarkantak plateau has rich deposits of bauxite in Chhattisgarh.
  • Katni-Jabalpur area and Balaghat are the major regions of bauxite in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Kolaba, Thane, Ratnagiri, Satara, Pune, and Kolhapur in Maharashtra are important bauxite producers.

Copper

  • Copper deposits are largely concentrated in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh, and Jhunjhunu and Alwar districts of Rajasthan.

Mica

  • Hazaribagh plateau of Jharkhand and Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh has deposits of high-grade mica.
  • Jaipur to Bhilwara and areas around Udaipur are the major mica-bearing regions of Rajasthan.
  • Other mica-bearing regions are Mysore and Hasan districts of Karnataka; Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, and Kanniyakumari of Tamil Nadu; Alleppey of Kerala; Ratnagiri of Maharashtra; Purulia and Bankura of West Bengal.

Energy Resources in India

Conventional resources of Energy
  • The resources which are widely used and constitute the major source of energy
  • Examples: Coal, Oil, Natural gas, Wood, etc.
  • Limited, Non-renewable, Costly, Cause Pollution & Exhaustible
Non-conventional resources
  • Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy, Geothermal Energy, OTEC (Ocean thermal energy conversion), etc.
  • Renewable, Cheap, Pollution free & Inexhaustible
Renewable sources of Energy
  • Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy, Fish, Trees, etc.
Non – Renewable Sources of Energy
  • Fossils (Coal, Gas), Minerals, Nuclear Power, etc.
Biotic resources
  • Which have life: Forests, Crops, Animals, Coal & Mineral oil
Abiotic resources
  • Land, Water, Minerals

Coal

  • About 80% of the coal deposits in India are of the bituminous type and are of non-cooking grade.
  • The most important Gondwanacoal fields of India are located in the Damodar Valley region.
  • Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, and Karanpura are major coalfields of the Jharkhand-Bengal coal belt.
  • Jharia is the largest coalfield followed by Raniganj.
  • Other important coal mines are Singrauli (partially in Madhya Pradesh and partially in Uttar Pradesh); Korba in Chhattisgarh; Talcher and Rampur in Odisha; Chanda–Wardha, Kamptee, and Bander in Maharashtra; Singareni in Telangana; and Pandur in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Tertiary coalfields are largely located in Darangiri, Cherrapunji, Mewlong, and Langrin in Meghalaya; Makum, Jaipur, and Nazira in upper Assam; Namchik – Namphuk in Arunachal Pradesh; and Kalakot in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The brown coal or lignite are found in the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Gujarat, and Jammu and Kashmir.

Major types of Coals

Anthracite 
  • Best quality coal
  • Approx. 90 % carbon content
  • Found at J & K only in India
  • Very little smoke & ash content
  • Burns without flames
Bituminous
  • 70 – 90 % carbon content
  • Most common in India
  • Used in making coke
Lignite
  • 40 – 70 % carbon content
  • Known as brown coal
Peat
  • 1st transformation of wood into coal
  • 40 % carbon content

Coke

  • Formed by destructive distillation of coal.
  • Heating of coal in the absence of oxygen to burn off volatile gases
  • High in carbon content

Petroleum

  • Hydrocarbons of liquid and gaseous states varying in chemical composition, color, and specific gravity are collectively known as petroleum resources.
  • Petroleum industries produce various by-products; for example, fertilizer, synthetic rubber, synthetic fiber, medicines, vaseline, lubricants, wax, soap, and cosmetics.
  • Crude petroleum normally occurs in sedimentary rocks of the tertiary period.
  • For the systematic oil exploration and production, the Oil and Natural Gas Commission was set up in 1956.
  • Digboi, Naharkatiya, and Moran are important oil-producing areas in Assam.
  • Ankleshwar, Kalol, Mehsana, Nawagam, Kosamba, and Lunej are the major petroleum-producing regions in Gujarat.
  • Located 160 km off Mumbai, Mumbai high, an offshore oilfield was discovered in 1973. Production of petroleum in the field was started in 1976.
  • Krishna-Godavari and Kaveri basin on the east coast are significant regions of petroleum production.
  • Oil extracted from the wells remains in crude oil form and contains many impurities; hence, it needs to be extracted in oil refineries.
  • Based on the destination, there are two types of oil refineries — oil-field based (e.g. Digboi) and market-based (Barauni).
  • To transport and develop the market for natural gas, the Gas Authority of India Limited was set up in 1984 (it is a public sector undertaking).
  • Though natural gas reserves have been located along with the petroleum reserves, some exclusive natural gas reserves are found along the eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh; as well as around Tripura, Rajasthan, and off-shore wells in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Bio-Fuels 

  • Fuel derived from Non-fossil plants
  • In Indiamainly centers around the cultivation & processing of Jatropha plant seeds, used in the production of Bio-Diesel
  • Encouraged only on wasteland/government/forest land
  • Not allowed on fertile land
  • To produce ethanol from sugarcane (Bio-ethanol)
  • National Biofuel Policy – Targets minimum 20 % biofuel blending (both biodiesel and bio-ethanol) across the country by 2017

Hydroelectricity

  • 18 % of total energy production
  • Eco-friendly, Clean & Renewable
  • Small hydel power projects < 25 MW
  • Are counted under New renewable energy sources
  • Largest Producer: Andhra Pradesh
  • Central electricity authority (CEC) has estimated Hydel power potential of 84000 MW at 60 % load factor from 39000 MW at present

Thermal Energy

  • 67 % of total energy production
  • Generated by using fossil fuels (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas)
  • No Geological conditions required
  • Limited reserves, Rising demands (cost) & non – eco-friendly
  • Largest Producer Maharashtra
  • To boost Thermal power production gov. has promoted Ultra Mega Power Projects (4000 MW & above)

Nuclear Energy

  • 26 % of total energy production
  • Energy obtained from atomic minerals viz. Uranium, Thorium, zircon, beryllium
  • Provide colossal energy through a small quantity of substance
  • Thorium: Found as monazite sand in lakes & sea beds
  • Thorium: AP > TN > Kerala > Orissa constitutes 30 % of world reserves
  • Largest Producer: Tamil Nadu
  • Very economical; does not produce greenhouse gases that pollute the atmosphere

Wind Energy

  • Non-conventional renewable source of energy
  • 5thlargest installed wind power capacity in the world
  • Largest Producer: Tamil Nadu
  • High cost as compared to the efficiency of power generated
  • Nagercoil (TN) and Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country

Solar Energy

  • Non-conventional renewable source of energy
  • Thermal + Photovoltaics: Sunlight to energy
  • High cost as compared to the efficiency of power generated
  • India plans to add 20000 MW of solar energy by 2022 under Jawahar Nehru National Solar Mission
  • The largest solar plant in India is located at Madhavpur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is used to sterilize milk cans.

Geo-Thermal Energy

  • Refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth
  • Exists because the Earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth
  • Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
  • It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam.
  • This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
  • Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy
  • Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley, Ladakh

Bio Gas

  • The energy produced from organic waste such as farm waste, shrubs, animal and human waste
  • Converted into energy by direct combustion or by conversion of such wastages into alcohol, methane, or other storage fuels
  • Provides pollution-free energy
  • Cheaper than most of the common fuels
  • The residue can be used as manure
  • Has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, cow dung, coal, and charcoal

OTEC

  • Ocean thermal energy conversion
  • Uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow surface ocean waters to run a heat engine

 Other Sources of Energy

  • The Ministry of Non-conventional Sources of Energy is responsible for the development of wind energy in India as the major source of renewable energy.
  • Ocean currents are the store-house of infinite energy. Hence, India has great potential for the development of tidal
  • Natural hot springs and geysers are being used since the medieval period, but in the present world, these could be potential sources of renewable energy.
  • Manikaran, a hot spring in Himachal Pradesh is a major renewable source of energy in India.
  • Bio-energy is the energy derived usually from biological products, such as agricultural residues and other bio-waste.
  • Bio-energy can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy, and gas for cooking.
  • Okhla in Delhi presents a good example by producing bioenergy from municipal waste.

Water Resources

  • Approximately, 71 percent of the earth’s surface is covered with water but freshwater constitutes only about 3 percent of the total water.
  • India accounts for about 45 percent of the world’s surface area, 4 percent of the world’s water resources, and about 16 percent of the world’s population.       
  • The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km.
  • The availability of surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km. Out of this only, 60 percent can be put to beneficial uses.
  • Thus, the total utilizable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km.
  • There are four major sources of surface water. These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks.
  • In the country, there are about 10,360 rivers and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each.
  • The groundwater utilization is very high in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.
  • In fact, India’s water demand at present is dominated by irrigational needs.
  • Agriculture accounts for most of the surface and groundwater utilization, it accounts for 89 percent of the surface water and 92 percent of the groundwater utilization.
  • While the share of the industrial sector is limited to 2 percent of the surface water utilization and 5 percent of the ground-water, the share of the domestic sector is higher (9 percent) in surface water utilization as compared to groundwater.
  • The Yamuna River is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah.
  • Groundwater pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride, and nitrates in different parts of the country.
  • The legislative provisions such as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and Environment Protection Act, 1986 have not been implemented effectively.
  • The Water Cess Act, 1977, meant to reduce pollution has also made marginal impacts.
  • The Central and State Governments have initiated many watershed development and management programs in the country.
  • Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries, and afforestation.
  • Neeru-Meeru (Water and You) program (in Andhra Pradesh) and Avery Pani Sansad (in Alwar, Rajasthan) have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc. through people’s participation.
  • Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting structures in the houses compulsory. No building can be constructed without making structures for water harvesting.

Rainwater Harvesting

  • Rainwater harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses.
  • It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers. It is a low cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water by guiding the rainwater to bore well, pits and wells.
  • Rainwater harvesting increases water availability, checks the declining groundwater table, improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates, prevents soil erosion, and flooding and arrests saltwater intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers.
  • Rainwater harvesting has been practiced through various methods by different communities in the country for a long time.
  • Traditional rainwater harvesting in rural areas is done by using surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks, etc.
  • In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting structures locally known as Kund or Tanka (a covered underground tank) are constructed near or in the house or village to store harvested rainwater.

India’s National Water Policy, 2002

  • The National Water Policy, 2002 stipulates water allocation priorities broadly in the following order: drinking water; irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, industrial and other uses.

Some Important Facts

  • Salinity is the amount of salt in grams present in 1,000 grams of water. The average salinity of the oceans is imparted per thousand.
  • The Dead Sea in Israel has a salinity of 340 grams per liter of water. Swimmers can float in it because the increased salt content makes it dense.
  • March is celebrated as World Water Day when the need to conserve water is reinforced in different ways.
  • Waves are formed when winds scrape across the ocean surface. The stronger the wind blows, the bigger the wave
  • Tsunami is a Japanese word that means “Harbour waves” as the harbors get destroyed whenever there is a tsunami.
    • Tsunami or die harbor wave struck havoc in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004. The wave -was the result of the earthquake that had its epicenter close to the western boundary of Sumatra. The magnitude of the earthquake was 0 on the Richter scale.
  • The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day are called a tide.
    • It is high tide when water covers much of the shore by rising to its highest level.
    • It is low tide when waterfalls to its lowest level and recedes from the shore.
  • The strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the earth’s surface cause the tides.
    • The water of the earth closer to the moon gets pulled under the influence of the moon’s gravitational force and causes high tide.
  • During the full moon and new moon days, the sun, the moon, and the earth are in the same line and the tides are highest. These tides are called spring tides.
  • But when the moon is in its first and last quarter, the ocean waters get drawn in diagonally opposite directions by the gravitational pull of the sun and earth resulting in low tides. These tides are called neap tides.
  • High tides help in navigation. They raise the water level close to the shores. This helps the ships to arrive at the harbor more easily. The high tides also help in fishing.
  • Much more fish come closer to the shore during the high tide. This enables fishermen to get a plentiful catch. The rise and fall of water due to tides is being used to generate electricity in some places.
  • Nearly 70 percent of this freshwater occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, and the mountainous regions of the world, while a little less than 30 percent is stored as groundwater in the world’s aquifers.
  • In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had a sophisticated water harvesting system channeling the flood water of the river Ganga.
  • During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes, and irrigation systems were extensively built.
  • In the 11th Century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
  • In the 14th Century, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to the Siri Fort area.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modern India’; In recent years, multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition for a variety of reasons.
  • Roof tap nun water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong, Meghalaya.
    • It is interesting because Cherrapunji and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55 km from Shillong receive the highest rainfall in the world, yet the state capital Shillong faces an acute shortage of water.
  • In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes is prevalent. About 18-20 liters of water enters the bamboo pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of meters, and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant.

Forest Resources

Forests are among the most diverse and widespread ecosystems on earth, and have many functions:

  • they provide timber and other forest products;
  • have cultural values; deliver recreation benefits and ecosystem services, including regulation of soil, air, and water; are reservoirs for biodiversity;
  • and act as carbon sinks. 
  • Scientists estimate that India should ideally have 33 percent of its land under forests. Today we have only about 23 percent.
  • The forest area differs from state to state in India. Madhya Pradesh stands at the top in the total forest area, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Odisha.
  • One-fourth of the total forest-covered area of the country is in the north-eastern states.
  • The total forest and tree cover of the country is 80.73 million hectares which are 56 percent of the geographical area of the country.
  • Mizoram (85.41%) has the highest forest cover as a percentage of the total geographical area.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest forest cover area-wise in the country.
State Total Forest Cover (sq. Km )
Madhya Pradesh 77, 522
Arunachal Pradesh 67, 321
Chhattisgarh 55,621
Maharashtra 50,632
Odisha 50,347

Among all the Indian states (excluding Union Territories), Haryana has the least forest cover. It is followed by (in increasing order) Punjab, Goa, Sikkim, Bihar, and Tripura.

State Total Forest Cover (sq. Km )
Haryana 1586 (least)
Punjab 1772
Goa 2229
Sikkim 3358
Bihar 7291
Tripura 7866

India’s Forest Resources

  • Madhya Pradesh has the largest area of Teak Forest.
  • The Expansion of Sal forests from Kangra in Himachal Pradesh to the terai areas of Navgaon district in Assam. Besides, these forests are also found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Northern Tamil Nadu, and Odisha. The woods of Sal are hard and durable.
  • The Shisham forests are found in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal. Its woods are used for furniture making due to its hardest quality.
  • The TheSandalwood trees are found mostly in Karnataka followed by Tamil Nadu. Its wood is hard and fragrant.
  • The Deodar trees are found in the Himalayan region. Its woods are used for making railway sleepers.
  • The Pine trees are found at greater heights in the Himalayan region.
  • The Mulberry forests are mostly found in Karnataka, that’s why Karnataka is the largest producer of raw silk (Sericulture is done on the mulberry trees.)
  • Jharkhand is the largest producer of lac. The lac worms are tended on the trees of Palash, Kusum, babul, banyan, etc.
  • The Tendu trees are mostly found in Madhya Pradesh. Its leaves are used for making beedis.
  • The maximum area of Sabai grass in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of bamboo followed by  Assam.
  • Kerala is the largest producer of The Central Coconut Research Institute is in  Kasaragod (Kerala).

Marine Resources

  • Marine Resources ecosystems play role in supporting economic prosperity and social welfare in developing countries.
  • They sustain the livelihoods of millions of poor households; provide multiple ecosystem services that are essential for life, yield vast amounts of food, and play a critical role in driving weather and climate. India is rich in marine resources.
  • It can be divided into two parts:
    • Abiotic and
    • Biotic resources

Abiotic Resources

  • These resources are non-living and fall under the category of natural resources, which occur naturally in the environment but are not created or produced by humans or human activity.
  • For Example- water, air, soil, sunlight, and minerals.

Biotic resources

  • These resources are living things and are obtained from the biosphere and are capable of reproduction.  For
  • Examples – animals, birds, plants, fungi, and other similar organisms.

Fact about Marine resources

  • India is the third-largest salt producing country in the World. Salt producing state in India- Gujarat > Tamil Nadu > Rajasthan
  • Petroleum and natural gas are being extracted from Bombay High, Bassein region, the Gulf of Khambhat (Islands of Aliabet and Khaliabet). All are in the Arabian Sea. The large areas of petroleum and natural gas are Kachchh, the area of Ravva structure in the Krishna-Godavari basin in Andhra Pradesh, Perangulam coastal region in Tamil Nadu, and Kerala- Konkan coastal region.
  • The Gulf of Kachchh, the Gulf Khamabhat, and the Sunderbans are suitable for tidal energy. ‘Durgaduani Creek’ in West Bengal is the tidal energy center.
  • Catfish is done in Tanjore (Tamil Nadu).
  • Conch shells (Shankh) are found in the coastal region of Tamil Nadu and Saurashtra.

Multiple Choice Questions on Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)

  1. Kaveri water dispute is in between:
    (A) India and Pakistan

    (B) Punjab and Haryana
    (C) Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
  2. In respect of the water crisis, there have been conflicts/disputes between two countries, or states of the same country. Which of the following has never been the case of water conflict?
    (A)Cauvery water dispute between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka

    (B) Yamuna-Betwa dispute between U.P. and M.P.
    (C) Sutlej Yamuna Link (SYL) canal dispute between Punjab and Haryana
    (D) Jordan, Tigris-Euphrates, and Nile river basins dispute among Jordan, Syria, and Israel
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Jordan, Tigris-Euphrates, and Nile river basins dispute among Jordan, Syria, and Israel
  3. The method of rainwater harvesting which can be adopted by individual house owners is
    (A) Construction of recharge trenches

    (B) On channel storage of water
    (C) Creation of new water bodies
    (D) Roof-top rainwater harvesting
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Roof-top rainwater harvesting
  4. Which one of the following is not an ideal solution for tackling water shortages?
    (A) Controlling population growth

    (B) Conserving water in irrigation
    (C) Controlling water pollution
    (D) Drilling a large number of deep bore wells
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Drilling a large number of deep bore wells
  5. When fluoride concentration in H2O exceeds about 1.5 mg/1, the disease that may be caused is
    (A) Dental caries in children

    (B) Fluorosis
    (C) Poliomyelitis
    (D) Methemoglobinemia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Fluorosis
  6. Which of the following is not a method for water conservation?
    (A) Rainwater harvesting

    (B) Groundwater extraction
    (C) Improving irrigation efficiency
    (D) Avoiding water wastage
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Groundwater extraction
  7. Given below are some statements:
    About 60% of the human body is water

    B. About 96% of total fluoride in the human body is found in bones and teeth
    C. Most adults consume about 1 to 3 mg of fluoride daily
    D. Soft water usually contains 10 ppm fluoride and hard water contains no fluoride. Of these the correct statements are:
    (A) A, B, and D
    (B) A, B, and C
    (C) B, C, and D
    (D) A, B, C, and D
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) A, B, and C
  8. The teeth are likely to be pitted, more susceptible to cavities, and wear when the fluoride concentration is:
    (A) More than 2 mg/1

    (B) More than 40 mg/1
    (C) More than 20 mg/1
    (D) More than 4 mg/1
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) More than 4 mg/1
  9. Fossil fuel and metallic minerals are:
    (A) Renewable resource

    (B) Inexhaustible resources
    (C) Non-renewable resources
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Non-renewable resources
  10. Khetri (Rajasthan) is famous for:
    (A) Coal mines

    (B) Copper mines
    (C) Granite stone
    (D) Marble stone
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Copper mines
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  11. In our country the percentage of land under forest is about:
    (A) 20%

    (B) 19%
    (C) 25%
    (D) 30%
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 19%
  12. Which of the following statements about the forest is not correct.
    (A) Forest reduces soil erosion

    (B) Provides recreational opportunities
    (C) Provides economic development
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) None of the above
  13. Forest and wildlife are
    (A) Renewable resource

    (B) Non-renewable resources
    (C) Inexhaustible resources
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Renewable resource
  14. Which of the following is not true about deforestation?
    (A) Population explosion is one of the reasons for deforestation.

    (B) Cleaning of forests for agriculture causes deforestation.
    (C) Deforestation is taking place only in developing countries.
    (D) Cash crop economy of the third world is a cause of deforestation.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Deforestation is taking place only in developing countries.
  15. Deforestation generally decreases
    (A) Rainfall

    (B) Soil erosion
    (C) Draught
    (D) Global warming
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rainfall
  16. Which of the following is not viable protection against deforestation?
    (A) Reduce the consumption of forest and related products

    (B) Boycott products of companies involved in deforestation
    (C) Privatisation of forest land
    (D) Environmental education
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Privatisation of forest land
  17. Extensive planting of trees to increase cover is called
    (A) Afforestation

    (B) Agro-forestation
    (C) Deforestation
    (D) Social forestry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Afforestation
  18. Which of the following is responsible for desertification?
    (A) Deforestation

    (B) Mining
    (C) Overgrazing
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  19. Forests prevent soil erosion by binding soil particles in their
    (A) Leaves

    (B) Roots
    (C) Buds
    (D) Stems
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Roots
  20. The major cause of land degradation in our country is
    (A) Soil erosion

    (B) Pollution of soil
    (C) Water-logging
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Soil erosion
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Nitrogen constitutes about 78% of the atmosphere
    (A) By weight

    (B) By mass
    (C) By volume
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) By volume
  22. Carbon dioxide constitutes about 0.03% of the atmosphere
    (A) By volume

    (B) By weight
    (C) By mass
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) By volume
  23. Which among the following is a sedimentary type of cycle?
    (A) Sulphur cycle

    (B) Nitrogen cycle
    (C) Oxygen cycle
    (D) Carbon cycle
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Sulphur cycle
  24. The percentage of the total world’s precipitation, which is lost to the atmosphere through evaporation, approximates to:
    (A) 57%

    (B) 7%
    (C) 37%
    (D) 43%
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 57%
  25. The micro-organisms which help in the formation of soil is
    (A) Bacteria

    (B) Moss
    (C) Lichen
    (D) (B) and (C)
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Lichen
  26. Burning of fossil fuels add
    (A) CO2, SO2, NO2, gases in the air

    (B) C, SO2, N2, gases in the air
    (C) CO, SO3, NO3, gases in the air
    (D) CH4, CO2, NO2, gases in the air
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) CO2, SO2, NO2, gases in the air
  27. Greenhouse gases are
    (A) Industries

    (B) Rhizobium
    (C) Lightening
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  28. Nitrogen fixation can be done by
    (A) Industries

    (B) Rhizobium
    (C) Lightening
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  29. Atmosphere maintain the temperature of the earth because
    (A) It contains water vapor

    (B) It holds air, which is a bad conductor of heat
    (C) It reflects the heat rays
    (D) It absorbs the heat rays
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) It hold air, which is a bad conductor of heat
  30. Molecules of proteins contain
    (A) Carbon

    (B) Nitrogen
    (C) Oxygen
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  31. Life cannot sustain on Mars and Venus because the major component in the atmosphere is
    (A) Oxygen

    (B) Carbon dioxide
    (C) Nitrogen
    (D) Ozone
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Carbon dioxide
  32. On the moon, the temperature ranges from -190° C to 110° C. This is due to
    (A) No water bodies present

    (B) Water bodies present
    (C) No bio geochemical cycle
    (D) No atmosphere
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) No atmosphere
  33. Depletion of ozone molecules in the stratosphere is due to
    (A) Chlorine compound

    (B) Fluorine compound
    (C) Halogen compound
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Halogen compound
  34. The life-supporting zone of the earth is
    (A) Lithosphere

    (B) Hydrosphere
    (C) Atmosphere
    (D) Biosphere
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Biosphere
  35. Which of the following is a non-renewable resource?
    (A) water

    (B) coal
    (C) soil
    (D) wildlife
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) coal
  36. Conventional energy refers to
    (A) Exhaustible energy sources in limited quantity

    (B) Inexhaustible energy sources in unlimited quantity
    (C) renewable energy resources
    (D) none of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Exhaustible energy sources in limited quantity
  37. Which of the following is an inorganic natural resource?
    (A) water

    (B) fossil fuels
    (C) plants
    (D) animals
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) water
  38. The energy that is trapped in the form of organic matter is called
    (A) Conventional energy

    (B) Renewable energy
    (C) Biomass energy
    (D) Bioenergy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Biomass energy
  39. Which of the following is a renewable source of energy?
    (A) petroleum

    (B) nuclear fuel
    (C)  trees
    (D) coal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C)  trees
  40. Which of the following is considered a conventional, inexhaustible source of energy?
    (A) thermal energy

    (B) hydropower
    (C) solar energy
    (D) wind energy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) hydropower
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  41. All are renewable resources except
    (A) soil fertility

    (B) rainfall
    (C) biological species
    (D) wildlife 
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) biological species
  42. Fossil fuels include
    (A) coal and metals

    (B) coal, natural gas, and oil
    (C) oil and minerals
    (D) oil, minerals, and metals
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: B) coal, natural gas, and oil
  43. Which of the following is not a conventional energy resource?
    (A) petrol

    (B) LPG
    (C) tidal energy
    (D) coal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) tidal energy
  44. Which of the following is an exhaustible renewable resource?
    (A) petroleum

    (B) tidal energy
    (C) coal
    (D) freshwater
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) freshwater
  45. Name the mineral which is used to reduce the cavity.
    (A) Silicon

    (B) Fluorite
    (C) Aluminium oxide
    (D) Limestone
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Silicon
  46. Which out of the following metallic minerals is obtained from veins and lodes?
    (A) Zinc

    (B) Limestone
    (C) Rutile
    (D) Mica
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Zinc
  47. In which kind of rocks are the minerals deposited and accumulated in the strata?
    (A) Igneous rocks

    (B) Metamorphic rocks
    (C) Sedimentary rocks
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sedimentary rocks
  48. Which out of the following minerals is formed as a result of evaporation in the arid regions?
    (A) Gypsum

    (B) Zinc
    (C) Coal
    (D) Copper
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gypsum
  49. Which out of the following minerals is formed by the decomposition of surface rocks, and leaves a residual mass of weathered material?
    (A) Gold

    (B) Bauxite
    (C) Zinc
    (D) Coal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bauxite
  50. Which out of the following minerals occurs in the sands of valley floors and the base of hills?
    (A) Gold

    (B) Copper
    (C) Sulphur
    (D) Marble
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gold
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  51. What is ‘Rat-hole’ mining?
    (A) Mining in places where there are lots of rats

    (B) Mining done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel
    (C) Mining that kills rats
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mining done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel
  52. Name the mines in Karnataka which is a 100 percent export unit?
    (A) Balaghat mines

    (B) Khetri mines
    (C) Kudermukh mines
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kudermukh mines
  53. Which state in India is the largest producer of manganese ores?
    (A) Jharkhand

    (B) Madhya Pradesh
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Odisha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Maharashtra
  54. India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of:
    (A) copper

    (B) bauxite
    (C) zinc
    (D) platinum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) copper
  55. Which state in India is the largest producer of bauxite?
    (A) Odisha

    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Odisha
  56. The Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is a leading producer of:
    (A) copper

    (B) manganese
    (C) iron ore
    (D) mica
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) mica
  57. Which out of the following is a non-conventional source of energy?
    (A) Atomic energy

    (B) Firewood
    (C) Coal
    (D) Natural gas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Atomic energy
  58. What is low-grade brown coal called?
    (A) Bituminous

    (B) Anthracite
    (C) Lignite
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Lignite
  59. About 63 percent of India’s petroleum production is from:
    (A) Assam

    (B) Mumbai High
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mumbai High
  60. Which is India’s oldest oil-producing state?
    (A) Jharkhand

    (B) Arunachal Pradesh
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Assam
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Assam
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  61. What has raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in the future?
    (A) Rising prices of oil and gas

    (B) Lack of water resources
    (C) Limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels
    (D) Increasing the use of renewable energy resources
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rising prices of oil and gas
  62. Which mineral is used for generating atomic or nuclear power?
    (A) Coal

    (B) Bauxite
    (C) Uranium
    (D) Copper
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Uranium
  63. The Monazite sands of Kerala are rich in:
    (A) coal

    (B) uranium
    (C) thorium
    (D) platinum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) thorium
  64. Where is the largest solar plant of India located?
    (A) Gujarat

    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Odisha
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gujarat
  65. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well-known for the effective use of
    (A) tidal energy

    (B) geothermal energy
    (C) wind energy
    (D) biogas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) wind energy
  66. Biogas plants using cattle dung are called:
    (A) hydel plants

    (B) gobar gas plants
    (C) thermal power station
    (D) gas station
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) gobar gas plants
  67. Which place in India is ideal for utilizing tidal energy?
    (A) Gulf of Kachchh

    (B) Gulf of Khambhat
    (C) Gulf of Mannar
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gulf of Kachchh
  68. What are the Khetri mines famous for?
    (A) Coal

    (B) Cooper
    (C) Iron
    (D) Gold
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cooper
  69. Which out of the following is derived from the ocean waters?
    (A) Limestone

    (B) Sandstone
    (C) Cobalt
    (D) Bromine
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Bromine
  70. The position of India in terms of production of coal is:
    (A) First
    (B) Second
    (C) Fourth
    (D) Fifth
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Fifth
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  71. The world’s largest reserve of Barytes is found in:
    (A) Chauka hills
    (B) Jaisalmer
    (C) Ratnagiri
    (D) Cuddapah
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Cuddapah
  72. India’s most important potential water vapor region is:
    (A) the Himalayas
    (B) the Western Ghats
    (C) the Eastern Ghats
    (D) Satpura and Vindhyas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Himalayas
  73. The largest producer of salt in India is:
    (A) Rajasthan
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gujarat
  74. India is the largest world producer of:
    (A) Bauxite
    (B) Iron ore
    (C) Manganese
    (D) Mica
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Mica
  75. The state leading in manganese production is:
    (A) Orissa
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) M.P
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Orissa
  76. Kudremukh hills known for iron ore deposits are situated in:
    (A) Chikmagalur

    (B) Mangalore
    (C) Satura
    (D) Belgaum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chikmagalur
  77. The ore of aluminum is:
    (A) Bauxite
    (B) Chromium
    (C) Mica
    (D) Manganese
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bauxite
  78. The chief petroleum state in India:
    (A) Rajasthan and Gujarat
    (B) Assam and Gujarat
    (C) Gujarat and Maharashtra
    (D) Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gujarat and Maharashtra
  79. The main center of the copper industry is in:
    (A) Varanasi
    (B) Ranchi
    (C) Lucknow
    (D) Khetri
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Varanasi
  80. Which of the following is exported in large quantity?
    (A) Manganese
    (B) Copper
    (C) Gold
    (D) Gypsum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Manganese
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  81. The major source of iron ore for Visakhapatnam is:
    (A) Kakinder
    (B) Raigarh
    (C) Bailadila
    (D) Keonjhar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Bailadila
  82. Which of the following is the largest producer of gypsum:
    (A) U.P.
    (B) Bihar
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Rajasthan
  83. The mineral oil was first discovered in India in:
    (A) Naharkatiya
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Ankleshwar
    (D) Digboi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Digboi
  84. The most important coalfield in India is:
    (A) Bokaro
    (B) Raniganj
    (C) Jharia
    (D) Giridih
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Raniganj
  85. Jharia coal filed is in:
    (A) Jharkhand
    (B) Orissa
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) West Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jharkhand
  86. Korba coalfield is in:
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) M.P.
    (D) Bihar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Andhra Pradesh
  87. 90 percent coal of India is found in:
    (A) Jharkhand and West Bengal
    (B) Orissa and M.P.
    (C) (A) P. and Tamil Nadu
    (D) Maharashtra and Gujarat
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jharkhand and West Bengal
  88. Among the following sources of power, India has the largest reserves of:
    (A) Coal
    (B) Oil
    (C) Natural gas
    (D) Atomic power
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Coal
  89. Haldia refinery is located in:
    (A) W. Bengal
    (B) Bihar
    (C) (A) P.
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) W. Bengal
  90. Shimsa hydroelectric station is located in:
    (A) Karnataka
    (B) Andhra Pradesh
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Karnataka
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  91. Chittora is one of the hydroelectric stations in:
    (A) U.P.
    (B) M.P.
    (C) A. P.
    (D) Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) U.P.
  92. Raniganj coalfield is in:
    (A) Bihar
    (B) Orissa
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) M.P.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) West Bengal
  93. Bokaro coalfields are in:
    (A) West Bengal
    (B) Jharkhand
    (C) Orissa
    (D) U.P.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jharkhand
  94. The first hydroelectric power was constructed in 1902 at:
    (A) Mettur
    (B) Pykara
    (C) Kundah
    (D) Sivasamudram
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sivasamudram
  95. Which one of the following is known as “Pearl City”?
    (A) Kandla
    (B) Tuticorin
    (C) Hyderabad
    (D) Kochi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tuticorin
  96. Madhya Pradesh is the largest producer of:
    (A) Cotton
    (B) Oil-seeds
    (C) Pulses
    (D) Maize
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pulses
  97. New oil fields in upper Assam are in:
    (A) Naharkatiya and Moran
    (B) Ankleshwar and Navagram
    (C) Kalol and Sobhasan
    (D) Dibrugarh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Naharkatiya and Moran
  98. Which of the following places is associated with gold mining?
    (A) Kolar
    (B) Khetri
    (C) Mayurbhanj
    (D) Gaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kolar
  99. What is Khetri in Rajasthan famous for:
    (A) Copper mines
    (B) Mica mines
    (C) Bauxite mines
    (D) Limestone mines
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Copper mines
  100. The source of energy largely used in India is :
    (A) Coal energy
    (B)  Solar energy
    (C)  Hydropower
    (D)  Thermal power
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  Coal energy
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  101. Which one among the following is not a source of renewable energy?
    (A) Hydroelectricity

    (B)  Solar energy
    (C)  Fuel cell
    (D)  Wind energy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C)  Fuel cell
  102. What is the full form of IREDA?
    (A) Indian Restorable Energy Development Agency Limited
    (B)  Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited
    (C)  Indian Renewable Efficiency Development Agency Limited
    (D)  Indian Renewable Energy Deployment Agency Limited
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B)  Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited
  103. About 70% of the commercial energy used by India is :
    (A) Thermal power

    (B)  Solar energy
    (C)  Hydro-electric power
    (D)  Tidal energy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  Thermal power
  104. Tarapur atomic power plant uses :
    (A) Enriched and Heavy Water

    (B)  Natural Uranium and Light Water
    (C)  Natural Uranium and Heavy Water
    (D)  Enriched Uranium and Light Water
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D)  Enriched Uranium and Light Water
  105. Geo-Thermal Energy plant is developed at :
    (A) Chandigarh

    (B)  Mangalore
    (C)  Manikaran
    (D)  Jaisalmer
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C)  Manikaran
  106. The first hydroelectric project was constructed on :
    (A) Cauvery

    (B)  Ganga
    (C)  Sutlej
    (D)  Krishna
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A)  Cauvery
  107. Renewable sources of energy are important because :
    (A) they are comparatively cheaper

    (B)  they are not likely to get exhausted
    (C)  they are likely to get exhausted
    (D)  they are useless for modern production technology
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B)  they are not likely to get exhausted
  108. Which among the following was the first deepwater block in India to start production?
    (A) Krishna Godavari D-6

    (B) Mahanadi deepwater block NEC-DWN-2002/1
    (C) SB-11
    (D) KG-DWN- 2005/2
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Krishna Godavari D-6
  109. Which among the following has been identified for the maximum potential of Tidal Power in India?
    (A) Gulf of Cambay

    (B) Gulf of Kutch
    (C) Sundarbans
    (D) Palk Strait
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gulf of Cambay
  110. Which among the following is NOT an oil-producing field?
    (A) Bombay high

    (B) Digboi
    (C) Ankaleshwar
    (D) Jamnagar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Jamnagar
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  111. In which among the following Petroleum in India is found chiefly?
    (A) Basalt

    (B) Metamorphic Rocks
    (C) Sedimentary Rocks
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sedimentary Rocks
  112. The Gulf of Kutch is one of the two regions on the west coast of India, identified suitable for Tidal power stations. Which among the following is the other one?
    (A) Gulf of Khambhat
    (B) the Laccadive Sea
    (C) Gulf of Mannar
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gulf of Khambhat
  113. In which among the following states, the Jharia, Raniganj, Talchar, Korba coal fields are located respectively?
    (A) Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal
    (B) Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh
    (C) West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh
    (D) West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh
  114. Namchik-Namphuk in Arunanchal Pradesh are famous fields for?
    (A) Coal
    (B) Oil & Natural Gas
    (C) Bauxite
    (D) Zinc
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Coal
  115. The following two states are the largest producers of Coal in India?
    (A) Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh
    (B) Madhya Pradesh & Orissa
    (C) Bihar & West Bengal
    (D) Andhra Pradesh & Chhattisgarh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh
  116. As per some etymologists, the name Rourkela is derived from Ruhr valley which is also rich in minerals, particularly iron. Ruhr Valley is located in which country?
    (A) USA
    (B) China
    (C) France
    (D) Germany
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Germany
  117. Which among the following regions in India is the largest installed capacity of electricity generation?
    (A) Northern India
    (B) Western India
    (C) Eastern India
    (D) Southern India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Western India
  118. Indira Gandhi’s super thermal power project, is located in which of the following state?
    (A) Uttarakhand

    (B) Haryana
    (C) Punjab
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Haryana
  119. ONGC’s Paltana Project which is this company’s first ever 726 MW commercial power project was located in which state?
    (A) Meghalaya
    (B) Assam
    (C) Tripura
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tripura
  120. Raniganj coal bed methane (CBM) acreage is located in which of the following state?
    (A) Jharkhand
    (B) West Bengal
    (C) Bihar
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) West Bengal
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  121. Which among the following is the most optimum place to source Geothermal Energy?
    (A) Konkan coast
    (B) Ladakh district
    (C) Aravali hills
    (D) Coromandal Coast
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ladakh district
  122. Integrated Kashang Hydroelectric Project & Sainj Hydroelectric Project which are being supported by Asian Development Bank are located in which of the following state?
    (A) Jammu & Kashmir
    (B) Himachal Pradesh
    (C) Uttarakhand
    (D) Punjab
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Himachal Pradesh
  123. Which among the following states primarily depends upon the thermal power?
    (A) Kerala
    (B) West Bengal
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) West Bengal
  124. Which of the following is a non-renewable resource?
    (A) Coal

    (B) Forests
    (C) Water
    (D) Wildlife
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Coal
  125. Which among the following is not a renewable source of energy?
    (A) Solar energy

    (B) Biomass energy
    (C) Hydro-power
    (D) Geothermal energy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Biomass energy
  126. Identify the non-renewable energy resource from the following:
    (A) Coal

    (B) Fuel cells
    (C) Wind power
    (D) Wave power
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Coal
  127. Which of the following is a disadvantage of most renewable energy sources?
    (A) Highly polluting

    (B) High waste disposal cost
    (C) Unreliable supply
    (D) High running cost
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Unreliable supply
  128. Photovoltaic energy is the conversion of sunlight into:
    (A) Chemical energy

    (B) Biogas
    (C) Electricity
    (D) Geothermal energy
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chemical energy
  129. Horizontal axis and vertical axis are the types of:
    (A) Nuclear reactor

    (B) Wind mills
    (C) Biogas reactor
    (D) Solar cell
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Windmills
  130. Which among the following is not an adverse environmental impact of tidal power generation?
    (A) Interference with spawning and migration of fish

    (B) Pollution and health hazard in the estuary due to blockage of the flow of polluted water into the sea
    (C) Navigational hazard
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) None of the above
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  131. Steam reforming is currently the least expensive method of producing:
    (A) Coal

    (B) Biogas
    (C) Hydrogen
    (D) Natural gas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Hydrogen
  132. A fuel cell, in order to produce electricity, burns:
    (A) Helium

    (B) Nitrogen
    (C) Hydrogen
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Hydrogen
  133. Fuel cells are:
    (A) Carbon cell

    (B) Hydrogen battery
    (C) Nuclear cell
    (D) Chromium cell
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Hydrogen battery
  134. Both power and manure are provided by:
    (A) Nuclear plants

    (B) Thermal plants
    (C) Biogas plants
    (D) Hydroelectric plant
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Biogas plants
  135. The outermost layer of the earth is:
    (A) Magma

    (B) Mantle
    (C) Crust
    (D) Solid iron core
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Crust
  136. Common energy source in Indian villages is:
    (A) Electricity

    (B) Coal
    (C) Sun
    (D) Wood and animal dung
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Wood and animal dung
  137. The one thing that is common to all fossil fuels is that they:
    (A) Were originally formed in the marine environment

    (B) Contain carbon
    (C) Have undergone the same set of geological processes during their formation
    (D) Represent the remains of one living organisms
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Contain carbon
  138. The process that converts solid coal into liquid hydrocarbon fuel is called:
    (A) Liquefaction

    (B) Carbonation
    (C) Catalytic conversion
    (D) Cracking
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Liquefaction
  139. Lignite, bituminous, and anthracite are different ranks of:
    (A) Nuclear fuel

    (B) Coal
    (C) Natural gas
    (D) Biogas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Coal
  140. Crude oil is:
    (A) Colourless

    (B) Odourless
    (C) Smelly yellow to black liquid
    (D) Odourless yellow to black liquid
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Smelly yellow to black liquid
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  141. BTU is the measurement of:
    (A) Volume

    (B) Area
    (C) Heat content
    (D) Temperature
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Heat content
  142. The first controlled fission of an atom was carried out in Germany in:
    (A) 1920

    (B) 1928
    (C) 1925
    (D) 1938
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1938
  143. Boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactors are:
    (A) Nuclear reactor

    (B) Solar reactor
    (C) OTEC
    (D) Biogas reactor
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Nuclear reactor
  144. The diverse flora and fauna of the planet are under great threat mainly due to:
    (A) Global Warming

    (B) Lack of water availability
    (C) Insensitivity to our environment
    (D) Increasing pollution
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Insensitivity to our environment
  145. Which one of the following is an endangered species of Manipur?
    (A) Blue Sheep

    (B) Asiatic Buffalo
    (C) Sangai (brow anter deer)
    (D) Cattle
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sangai (brow anter deer)
  146. “The species that are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur” are known as:
    (A) Normal species

    (B) Vulnerable species
    (C) Extinct species
    (D) Rare species
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Extinct species
  147. Which one of the following is a medicinal plant used to treat some types of cancer?
    (A) Himalayan Yew

    (B) Himalayan Oak
    (C) Madhuca insignis
    (D) Hubbardia heptaneuron
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Himalayan Yew
  148. In which year, the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented?
    (A) 1970

    (B) 1971
    (C) 1972
    (D) 1974
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1970
  149. Which one of the following was launched in 1973?
    (A) Project Tiger

    (B) Indian Wildlife Act
    (C) Wildlife Act
    (D) Indian Wildlife Protection Act
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Project Tiger
  150. Which one of the following is located in West Bengal?
    (A) Corbett National Park

    (B) Sundarbans National Park
    (C) Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary
    (D) Bandhangarh National Park
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sundarbans National Park
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  151. In which one of the following states are Periyar Tiger Reserves Located?
    (A) Rajasthan

    (B) Assam
    (C) Uttaranchal
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Kerala
  152. Which one of the following States has the largest area under permanent forest?
    (A) Uttar Pradesh

    (B) Jammu & Kashmir
    (C) Punjab
    (D) Madhya Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Madhya Pradesh
  153. Which one of the following is a great achievement of the Chipko Movement?
    (A) More trees are planted

    (B) Development in the Himalayan region
    (C) Successfully resisted deforestation
    (D) Soil erosion gets declined.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Successfully resisted deforestation
  154. What is Jhumming?
    (A) A type of Plant

    (B) a type of Agriculture
    (C) A type of Animal
    (D) a type of Bird
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) a type of Agriculture
  155. Narmada Sagar project is in the state of:-
    (A) Madhya Pradesh

    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Madhya Pradesh
  156. The percentage of forest cover in India is:-
    (A) 14.69%

    (B) 15.39%
    (C) 19.39%
    (D) 19.67%
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 19.39%
  157. Himalaya yew is found in:-
    (A) Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh

    (B) Assam
    (C) Orissa
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh
  158. Project Tiger was started in:-
    (A) 1953

    (B) 1963
    (C) 1973
    (D) 1983
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1973
  159. Simlipal is located in the state of:-
    (A) Bihar

    (B) Jharkhand
    (C) Orissa
    (D) W. Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Orissa
  160. Gangetic Dolphin is a type of:-
    (A) Endemic species

    (B) Rare species
    (C) Vulnerable species
    (D) Extinct species
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Vulnerable species
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  161. Buxa Tiger Reserve is seriously threatened by the mining of:-
    (A) Coal

    (B) Copper
    (C) Dolomite
    (D) Iron
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Dolomite
  162. Taxol a chemical compound is used to treat the patient of:-
    (A) T.B

    (B) Cancer
    (C) Fever
    (D) Aids
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cancer
  163. Pink-headed duck is a type of:-
    (A) Vulnerable species

    (B) Rare species
    (C) Endemic species
    (D) Extinct species
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Extinct species
  164. When did the joint forest management come into existence:-
    (A) 1958

    (B) 1968
    (C) 1978
    (D) 1988
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 1988
  165. What is the name given to the species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur:-
    (A) Endemic species

    (B) Rare species
    (C) Endangered species
    (D) Extinct species
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Extinct species
  166. How many species of Fauna are found in India till today?
    (A) 81000

    (B) 47000
    (C) 15000
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 81000
  167. Which of the commercially valuable species have damaged the natural forests in South India?
    (A) Chir pine

    (B) Teak Monoculture
    (C) Himalayan Oak
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) None of them
  168. Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve community participation?
    (A) Joint forest Management

    (B) Beej Bachao Andolan
    (C) Chipko Movement
    (D) Demarcation of wildlife Sanctuaries
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Demarcation of wildlife Sanctuaries
  169. Who among the following is in charge of the management of forests and wildlife resources of India?
    (A) World Wildlife Foundation

    (B) Geological Survey of India
    (C) Forest Department
    (D) Non-government organizations
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Forest Department
  170. Which of the following states has the largest area under permanent forests?
    (A) Jammu and Kashmir

    (B) Madhya Pradesh
    (C) Uttarakhand
    (D) Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Madhya Pradesh
    Resources of India (Notes+MCQ)
  171. Which of the following program are involved in managed of forests by local communities?
    (A) NGO

    (B) JFM
    (C) AIF
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) JFM
  172. In which of the following tiger reserves have the local communities fought for the conservation of the forests?
    (A) Manas Tiger Reserve

    (B) Periyar Tiger Reserve
    (C) Simlipal Bio Reserve
    (D) Sariska Tiger Reserve
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sariska Tiger Reserve
  173. What are the Species that are found in some particular “Areas, usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers?
    (A) Vulnerable

    (B) Endemic
    (C) Extinct
    (D) Endangered
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Endemic
  174. What are the Forests and wastelands belonging to both private individuals and government are known as?
    (A) Sacred groves

    (B) Reserved forest
    (C) Protected forests
    (D) Unclassed forests
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Unclassed forests
  175. Which of the following is not one of the reasons for the depletion of forests?
    (A) Mining

    (B) Multi-purpose river valley projects
    (C) Grazing
    (D) Creation of shelterbelts
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Creation of shelterbelts
  176. What was the aim of the Chipko Movement?
    (A) Human rights

    (B) Political rights
    (C) Agriculture expansion
    (D) Forest conservation
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Forest conservation
  177. Which one of the following belongs to vulnerable species?
    (A) Blackbuck

    (B) Crocodile
    (C) Indian rhino
    (D) Blue sheep
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Blue sheep
  178. Which of the following types of species are known as the extinct species?
    (A) Species whose population levels are normal

    (B) Those population has declined
    (C) Species with a small population
    (D) Species which are not found
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Species which are not found

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