Industries in India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

In this module, we shall learn about the Classification of Industries in India, Types of Industries in India, Iron and Steel Industry in India, Cotton- Textile Industry, Jute Textiles, Sugar Industry, Petrochemical Industry, Fertiliser Industry, Information Technology Industry in India, Industrial Policy in India, Industrial Regions in India, and 85+ MCQ on Industries in India.

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Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)

The industry refers to economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals, or the provision of services. Thus we have the iron and steel industry (production of goods), the coal mining industry (extraction of coal), and the tourism industry (service provider).

Classification of Industries

Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size, and ownership.

Raw Materials

Industries may be agro-based, mineral-based, marine-based, and forest-based depending on the type of raw materials they use.

  • Agro-based industries use plant and animal-based products as their raw materials.
    • Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products, and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries.
  • Mineral-based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries.
    • Iron made from iron ore is the product of a mineral-based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials, and railway coaches.
  • Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials.
    • Industries processing seafood or manufacturing fish oil are some examples.
  • Forest-based industries utilize forest produce as raw materials.
    • The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture, and buildings.

Size

Size can be classified into small scale and large scale industries.

Small Scale Industries

  • Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans.
    • Basket weaving, pottery, and other handicrafts are examples of a cottage industry.

Large Scale Industries

  • Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large-scale industries.
    • Production of automobiles and heavy machinery are large scale industries.

Ownership (Industrial Sectors)

Industries can be classified into the private sector, state-owned or public sector, joint sector, and the cooperative sector.

  • Private-sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Steel Authority of India Limited.
  • Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of a joint sector industry.
  • Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers, or both. Anand Milk Union Limited (AMUL) and Sudha Dairy are success stories of a co-operative venture.

Location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, capital, transport, and labor, etc.
The establishment of the iron and steel industry in Bhilai (Chhattisgarh) and Rourkela (Odisha) was based on the decision to develop backward tribal areas of the country.

Types of Industries in India

Iron and Steel Industry

  • The major raw materials for the iron and steel industries are iron ore, coking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese, and fire clay.
  • Major iron and steel industries in India are –
    • The Tata Iron and Steel plant (TISCO); (The Rivers Subamarekha and Kharkai provide water to the plant.)
    • The Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO); (Water is obtained from the Barakar River, a tributary of the Damodar.)
    • Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works Ltd. (VISL); (Karnataka; Jog Falls)
    • Rourkela Steel Plant; (Water is obtained from the Koel and Sankh rivers.)
    • Bhilai Steel Plant;
    • Durgapur Steel Plant; and
    • Bokaro Steel Plant.
  • Some other major iron and steel industries are –
    • Vizag Steel Plant, in Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, is the first port based plant which started operating in 1992.
    • The Vijaynagar Steel Plant at Hosapete in Karnataka was developed by using indigenous technology.
    • The Salem Steel Plant in Tamil Nadu was commissioned in 1982.
  • The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in the year 1959 in the Sundargarh district of Odisha in collaboration with Germany.
  • The Bhilai Steel Plant was established in 1959 with Russian collaboration in the Durg district of Chhattisgarh.
  • Durgapur Steel Plant was established in 1962 in West Bengal, in collaboration with the government of the United Kingdom
  • Bokaro steel plant was set up in 1964 at Bokaro with Russian collaboration.
  • India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world and the 3rd largest finished steel consumer in the world after China & the USA.
  • China remained the world’s largest crude steel producer in 2018 (928 mt) followed by India(106 mt), Japan (104 mt), and the USA (87 mt).
  • The Government has taken various steps to boost the sector including the introduction of National Steel Policy 2017 and allowing 100 percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the steel sector under the automatic route.

Cotton- Textile Industry

  • India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz, and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.
  • In 1854, the first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai.
  • At present, the major centers of the cotton textile industry are Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore, and Ujjain.
  • Tamil Nadu has the largest number of mills; however, most of them produce yarn rather than cloth.
  • Davangere, Hubballi, Ballari, Mysuru, and Bengaluru are important cotton-growing regions in Karnataka.

Jute Textiles

  • India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands in second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.
  • The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra.
  • After Partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (erstwhile East Pakistan).

Sugar Industry

  • The sugar industry is the second most important agro-based industry in the country.
  • India is the largest producer of both sugarcane and cane sugar and contributes about 8 percent of the total sugar production in the world.
  • Development of the industry on modem lines dates back to 1903 when a sugar mill was started in Bihar. Subsequently, sugar mills were started in other parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  • With more than one-third of the total production, Maharashtra has emerged as a leading sugar producer in the country.
  • Uttar Pradesh is the second-largest producer of sugar.

Petrochemical Industry

  • Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provides raw materials for many new industries; hence, these are collectively known as petrochemical industries.
  • Petrochemical industries are categorized as polymers, synthetic fibers, elastomers, and surfactant intermediate industries.
  • Mumbai is the hub of the petrochemical industry.
  • Three organizations, which are working in the petrochemical sector under the administrative control of the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals are –
    • The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL);
    • The Petrofils Cooperative Limited (PCL);
    • The Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET).
    • The National Organic Chemicals Industries Limited(NOCIL), established as a private sector in 1961.

Fertiliser Industry

  • The fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K),
  • The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. India is the third-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers.         
  • At present, there are 10 public sector undertakings and one in the cooperative sector at Hazira in Gujarat under the Fertiliser Corporation of India.
  • The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. After Independence, the industry expanded. Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology, and production.

Information Technology

  • The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities for economic and social transformation.
  • The IT software and services industry accounts for almost 2% of India’s GDP.

Industrial Policy in India

  • The new Industrial Policy was implemented in 1991.
  • The new industrial policy has three main dimensions − liberalization, privatization, and globalization.
  • Within this new industrial policy, measures initiated are − abolition of industrial licensing; free entry to foreign technology; foreign investment policy; access to capital market; open trade; abolition of phased manufacturing program; and liberalized industrial location program.
  • Globalization means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy.

Industrial Regions in India

  • India has eight major industrial regions namely (as shown on the map given below) –
    • Mumbai-Pune Region,
    • Hugli Region,
    • Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu Region,
    • Gujarat Region,
    • Chhotanagpur Region,
    • Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region,
    • Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region, and
    • Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region.

Some Important Facts regarding Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)

  • In industries, accidents/disasters mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material.
  • One of the worst industrial disasters of all time occurred in Bhopal on 3 December 1984 around 00:30 a.m.
  • It was a technological accident in which highly poisonous Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union Carbide.
  • The official death toll was 3,598 in 1989. Thousands, who survived still suffer from one or many ailments like blindness, impaired immune system, gastrointestinal disorders, etc.
  • Emerging industries are also known as ‘Sunrise Industries’. These include Information technology, Wellness, Hospitality, and Knowledge.
  • Smelting: It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point
  • The iron and Steel Industry is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw materials for other industries. Steel is often called the backbone of the modem industry.
  • All the important steel-producing centers such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads over four states – West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Kamataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steel centers utilizing local resources.
  • Pittsburgh: It is an important steel city of the United States of America.
  • The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages. Some of the raw material such as coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines in Minnesota, about 1,500 km from Pittsburgh.
  • Between these mines and Pittsburgh is one of the world’s best routes for shipping ore cheaply – the famous Great Lakes waterway.
  • Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area. Ohio, the Monogahela, and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply.
  • The first textile mill in the country was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818 but it closed down after some time.
  • Ahmedabad was therefore often referred to as the ‘Manchester of India’.
  • It is an important textile center of Japan, also known as the ‘Manchester of Japan’.
  • The textile industry in Osaka depends completely upon imported raw materials.
  • The information technology industry deals in the storage, processing, and distribution of information. The major hubs of the IT industry are Silicon Valley, California, and Bengaluru, India.
  • Silicon Valley is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America.
  • The state government of Kamataka was the first to announce an IT Policy in 1992.
  • Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.
  • India has world-class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of fabric as it cannot use much of the high-quality yam produced in the country.
  • We have a large share in the world trade of cotton yam, accounting for one-fourth of the total trade. However, our trade-in garments are only 4 percent of the world’s total.
  • Our spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibers we produce.
  • The weaving, knitting, and processing units cannot use much of the high-quality yam that is produced in the country.
  • There are some large and modem factories in these segments, but most of the production is in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
  • This mismatch is a major drawback for the industry. As a result, many of our spinners export cotton yam while apparel/garment manufactures have to import fabric.
  • The iron and steel industry is the basic industry since all the other industries – heavy, medium, and light, depend on it for their machinery.
    • Iron ore, coking coal, and limestone are required in the ratio of approximately 4:2:1. Some quantities of manganese, are also required to harden the steel.
  • It is the largest producer of sponge iron. m 2010-11 per capita consumption of steel in the country was only around 49 kg per annum against the world average of 182 kg.
  • Mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well.
  • They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
  • An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex – from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling, and shaping.  
  • Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through the Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
  • In the 1950s China and India produced almost the same quantity of steel.
    • Today, China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel.
  • In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel which accounted for 2.25 percent of the global steel trade.
  • Chotenagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.
  • It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.                                
  • Though India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to
    • High costs and limited availability of coking coal
    • Lower productivity of labor
    • Irregular supply of energy and
    • Poor infrastructure.
  • Aluminum Smelting: Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable, and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils, and wires. It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc, and lead in a number of industries.
  • India is the world’s 7th largest tourism economy in terms of GDP.

Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)

Multiple Choice Questions on Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)

  1. Which among the following does not belong to India’s major large scale industries?
    (A) Cotton textile industry
    (B) Iron and steel industry
    (C) Jute industry
    (D) Khadi and village industry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Khadi and village industry
    Explanation: Under the chairmanship of K.C. Pant, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission, a committee was set up on strengthening the khadi and village industries sector.
  2. When did India globally become the 7th largest vehicle manufacturer?
    (A) 2007
    (B) 2008
    (C) 2009
    (D) 2010
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 2009
    Explanation:
    The government claimed that India has become the seventh-largest vehicle producing nation in the world in 2009 which was six years ahead of the set target by the auto mission plan.
  3. Which unit of Hindustan Copper Ltd. is the first copper smelting unit in India?
    (A) Malanjkhand Copper Project (MP)
    (B) Khetri Copper Complex (Rajasthan)
    (C) Indian Copper Complex (Jharkhand)
    (D) Tajola Copper Project (Maharashtra)
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Malanjkhand Copper Project (MP)
    Explanation:
    Malanjkhand Copper Project was established in 1982. The initial project has been set up by Hindustan Copper Ltd to exploit the copper ore through an open-pit mine.
  4. Which is called the heavy engineering industry?
    (A) Heavy Electricals
    (B) Heavy Machinery
    (C) Glass
    (D) Iron and steel
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Heavy Machinery
    Explanation:
    Heavy Machinery is also called the heavy engineering industry. The major plants are located at Ranchi, Visakhapatnam, and Durgapur.
  5. Who manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world?
    (A) India
    (B) Bangladesh
    (C) Thailand
    (D) Myanmar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) India
    Explanation: India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. This industry is located mainly in West Bengal, followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  6. When was the first modern paper mill in the country set up?
    (A) 1827
    (B) 1832
    (C) 1846
    (D) 1854
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1832
    Explanation:
    Paper and Paper Board is a forest-based industry. In 1832 the first modern paper mill in the country was set up at Serampore in West Bengal.
  7. Which among the following does not belong to the list of leading sugarcane-producing States?
    (A) Uttar Pradesh
    (B) Andhra Pradesh
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Madhya Pradesh
    Explanation:
    The leading sugarcane-producing States are the leading sugar producers as well. They are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, and Jharkhand. There are more than 250 sugar mills in India, with the largest number located in Uttar Pradesh including Uttarakhand followed by Maharashtra.
  8. Which is the largest sponge iron producer in the world?
    (A) Algeria
    (B) India
    (C) Iran
    (D) Saudi Arabia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) India
    Explanation:
    India has been the largest sponge iron producer in the world since 2002.
  9. Which is the most important company in machine tools?
    (A) HMT Machine Tools
    (B) PMT Machine Tools
    (C) Guindy Machine Tools
    (D) Praga Tools
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) HMT Machine Tools
    Explanation:
    HMT was founded in 1953. It is located in Jammu & Kashmir.
  10. Which is the largest shipbuilding unit in India?
    (A) Cochin shipyard
    (B) Hindustan shipyard
    (C) Goa shipyard
    (D) Garden Reach shipyard
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cochin shipyard
    Explanation:
    Cochin Shipyard was incorporated in 1972.
  11. When was the ‘Policy Package for Setting up Credit to Small and Medium Enterprises’ announced?
    (A) August 2005
    (B) February 2007
    (C) March 2009
    (D) November 2010
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) August 2005
    Explanation:
    On August 10, 2005, a ‘Policy Package for Setting up Credit to Small and Medium Enterprises’ was announced with the objective to double the credit flow to the sector within a period of five years.
  12. When was the “Package for Promotion of Micro and Small Enterprises” announced?
    (A) August 2005
    (B) February 2007
    (C) March 2009
    (D) November 2010
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) February 2007
    Explanation:
    In February 2007, a “Package for Promotion of Micro and Small Enterprises” was announced. This includes measures addressing concerns of credit, fiscal support, cluster-based development, infrastructure, technology, and marketing. Capacity building of MSME Associations and support to women entrepreneurs are the other important attributes of this package.
  13. When was the cotton textile industry established in Mumbai?
    (A) 1854
    (B) 1855
    (C) 1948
    (D) 1956
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1854
    Explanation: The first successful modem cotton textile mill was established by entrepreneur C.N. Dewar.
  14. When was the first Industrial Policy introduced?
    (A) 1855
    (B) 1948
    (C) 1956
    (D) 1961
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1948
    Explanation: The first Industrial Policy was introduced by the Government of India.
  15. When was the first modern cotton textile mill set up?
    (A) 1818
    (B) 1854
    (C) 1855
    (D) 1948
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1818
    Explanation: The first modern cotton textile mill was set up at Fort Glaster near Kolkata.
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  16. Which Indian state has the largest production of cotton mill cloth, as per 2010-11?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Punjab
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gujarat
    Explanation: Gujarat is the leading state with the production of cotton mill cloth with 33% share followed by Punjab with 11.1% share and Maharashtra with a 9.9% share.
  17. Which is the Manchester of Uttar Pradesh?
    (A) Agra
    (B) Allahabad
    (C) Kanpur
    (D) Lucknow
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Kanpur
    Explanation: Kanpur is one of North India’s main commercial and industrial centers.
  18. Which city is known as the Manchester of South India?
    (A) Madurai
    (B) Coimbatore
    (C) Erode
    (D) Salem
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Coimbatore
    Explanation: It is a heavily industrialized city with textile factories, engineering firms, automobile parts manufacturers, health care facilities, and technical educational institutions.
  19. Which is the Indian state with the highest number of power-looms?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Madhya Pradesh
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Maharashtra
    Explanation: Maharashtra is the leading Indian state with the highest number of power looms followed by Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh.
  20. Which one of the following silk varieties stands first in total production of silk in India, as per 2012-13?
    (A) Eri
    (B) Mulberry
    (C) Raw Silk
    (D) Tasar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mulberry
    Explanation: Mulberry with 79.1% share stands first in total production of silk in India followed by Eri with 13.5%, Tasar with 5.7%, and raw silk with a 0.6% share.
  21. When was the first iron and steel unit on modern lines was established?
    (A) 1830
    (B) 1907
    (C) 1919
    (D) 1923
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1830
    Explanation: A foreigner named Joshua Marshall Heath set up a small plant at Porto Novo on Madras Coast.
  22. When was Tata Iron and Steel Company formed?
    (A) 1907
    (B) 1919
    (C) 1923
    (D) 1973
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1907
    Explanation:
    TISCO was set up at Sakchi, Jamshedpur.
  23. Which one of the following is highest in Nitrogenous fertilizer production?
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gujarat
    Explanation: Gujarat is the largest Nitrogenous fertilizer producing state with over 25% share followed by Uttar Pradesh with 17%, Maharashtra with 11%, Tamil Nadu with 9%, Andhra Pradesh with 3.5%, and Orissa with 3% share.
  24. Which one of the following is highest in Phosphoric fertilizer production?
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Gujarat
    Explanation: Gujarat is the largest Phosphoric fertilizer producing state with over 25% share followed by Tamil Nadu with 16%, Orissa with 11.6%, Andhra Pradesh with 11%, Maharashtra with 7% and Uttar Pradesh with 3.4% share.
  25. Which is the state with the largest cement capacity?
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Andhra Pradesh
    Explanation: Andhra Pradesh is the state with the largest cement capacity followed by Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  26. Which is the state with the highest cement consumption?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Maharashtra
    Explanation: Maharashtra is the state with the highest cement consumption followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat.
  27. Which is the state with the highest number of large cement plants?
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Andhra Pradesh
    Explanation: Andhra Pradesh is the state with the highest number of large cement plants followed by Rajasthan & Tamil Nadu and Gujarat & Madhya Pradesh.
  28. Which one of the following leather products companies has the highest sales?
    (A) Bata India
    (B) Bharatiya Inter
    (C) Liberty Shoes
    (D) Relaxo Footwear
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bata India
    Explanation: Bata India is the leading leather products company followed by Relaxo Footwear, Mirza Tanners.
  29. Which is the leading producer of glass in India?
    (A) Maharashtra
    (B) Uttar Pradesh
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Tamil Nadu
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Uttar Pradesh
  30. When was the Royal Bengal Paper Mills set up?
    (A) 1816
    (B) 1870
    (C) 1912
    (D) 1913
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 1870
    Explanation: The Royal Bengal Paper Mills was set up at Ballyganj near Kolkata.
  31. Which is the largest producer of paper in India?
    (A) Andhra Pradesh
    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Maharashtra
    Explanation: Maharashtra is the largest producer of paper in India followed by Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal.
  32. Which one of the following paper companies has the highest sales in India?
    (A) Ballarpur Industries
    (B) JK Paper
    (C) Tamil Newsprint
    (D) West Coast Paper
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil Newsprint
    Explanation: Tamil Newsprint is the leading paper company in India followed by JK Paper and West Coast Paper.
  33. Which is the largest producer of Lac in India?
    (A) Chhattisgarh
    (B) Jharkhand
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jharkhand
    Explanation: Jharkhand with 50% is the leading Lac producer followed by Madhya Pradesh with 25% and Chhattisgarh with 15%.
  34. Which is the largest sugar producer in India?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Karnataka
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Maharashtra
    Explanation:
    Maharashtra is the largest sugar producer followed by Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.
  35. Which out of the following is a mineral-based industry?
    (A) Sugar
    (B) Tea
    (C) Coffee
    (D) Petrochemicals
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Petrochemicals
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  36. Which is the only industry in India which is self-reliant?
    (A) Textile industry
    (B) Iron and Steel
    (C) Electrical
    (D) Sugar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Textile industry
  37. Where was the first textile mill established?
    (A) Kolkata
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Gujarat
    (D) Lucknow
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mumbai
    Explanation: Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company was the first cotton mill to be established in Bombay, India on 7 July 1854 at Tardeo by Cowasjee Nanabhoy Davar (1815-73) and his associates. The first Indian cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloster near Kolkata, albeit this mill was a failure.
  38. Which industry provides employment to weavers at home as a cottage industry?
    (A) Silk
    (B) Handspun Khadi
    (C) Jute
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Handspun Khadi
  39. Which country has the largest installed capacity of spindles in the world?
    (A) Japan
    (B) Philippines
    (C) China
    (D) India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) China
  40. Why is there a need to always import cotton?
    (A) Obsolete machinery
    (B) Increasing demand
    (C) Shortage in the home market
    (D) Poor quality in the domestic market
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Obsolete machinery
  41. What challenges does the Jute industry face in India?
    (A) Poor labor turnover
    (B) Low productivity of labor
    (C) Poor market price
    (D) Competition from synthetic substitutes
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Competition from synthetic substitutes
  42. Why is there a tendency of the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in Maharashtra?
    (A) More water resources
    (B) Soil is more fertile
    (C) More land for cultivation
    (D) Higher sucrose content of cane
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Higher sucrose content of cane
  43. Which out of the following industries helps in the manufacture of telephones, computers, radars, etc.?
    (A) Aluminium
    (B) Information Technology
    (C) Steel
    (D) Electronics
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Electronics
  44. Which country is the largest producer and consumer of steel in the world?
    (A) China
    (B) Japan
    (C) India
    (D) United States
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) China
  45. Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?
    (A) Aluminium Smelting
    (B) Steel
    (C) Jute
    (D) Cement
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Aluminium Smelting
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  46. Which one of the following industries uses silica as a raw material?
    (A) Steel
    (B) Cement
    (C) Coal
    (D) Aluminium
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cement
  47. Where was the first cement plant set up?
    (A) Mumbai
    (B) Chennai
    (C) Kolkata
    (D) Pondicherry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chennai
  48. Which city in India has emerged as the ‘electronic capital’ of India?
    (A) Chennai
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Bangalore
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Bangalore
  49. What is the major contribution of the Electronics industry to the country?
    (A) Maximised wealth formation
    (B) Reduced poverty
    (C) Improved standard of living
    (D) Encouraged employment
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Encouraged employment
  50. Air pollution is caused because of the high proportion of undesirable gases such as:
    (A) methane
    (B) hydrogen
    (C) sulfur dioxide
    (D) carbon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) sulfur dioxide
  51. When does thermal pollution take place?
    (A) Sun heats up the lakes and ponds
    (B) Hot water from factories drains into rivers and ponds
    (C) When hot oil drains into rivers and lakes
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Hot water from factories drains into rivers and ponds
  52. Public sector plants market their steel through:
    (A) TISCO
    (B) Tata Steel
    (C) SAIL
    (D) GAIL
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) SAIL
  53. A mechanical means of treating industrial effluents:
    (A) sedimentation
    (B) rainwater harvesting
    (C) recycling of wastewater
    (D) biologically
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) sedimentation
  54. Smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, refineries, etc. can be reduced by using:
    (A) coal
    (B) oil
    (C) gas
    (D) either (B) or (C)
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) either (B) or (C)
  55. Which of the following agencies has the power to declare an industrial unit as a potentially sick unit?
    (A) BIFR

    (B) MRTPC
    (C) FICCI
    (D) IRBI
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) BIFR
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  56. The most important small-scale industry in India is that of:
    (A) textiles

    (B) jute
    (C) jewelry
    (D) handloom
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) handloom
  57. Why is steel called the backbone of modern industries?
    (A) Steel is cheaper

    (B) Steel is available everywhere in the world
    (C) Everything we use is related to steel
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Everything we use is related to steel
  58. Name the natural fibers used in the textile industry?
    (A) Wool

    (B) Silk
    (C) Linen
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  59. Which place is called the ‘Manchester of India’?
    (A) Bhopal

    (B) Ahmedabad
    (C) Madras

    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ahmedabad
  60. The leading producer of coffee is
    (A) Brazil

    (B) India
    (C) Sri-lanka
    (D) Columbia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Brazil
  61. Production of tea requires
    (A) a cool climate and high rainfall
    (B) the hot climate and high rainfall
    (C) a cool climate and low rainfall
    (D) the hot climate and low rainfall
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) cool climate and high rainfall
  62. Which of the following comes under primary activities?
    (A) Agriculture

    (B) Manufacturing
    (C) Transportation
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Agriculture
  63. ‘Hindustan Aeronautics Limited’ is a
    (A) Private sector industry

    (B) Public sector industry
    (C) Joint sector industry
    (D) co-operative sector industry
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Public sector industry
  64. Cotton textile industry requires
    (A) Warm climate

    (B) Moist climate
    (C) both ‘a’ and ‘b’
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) both ‘a’ and ‘b’
  65. The following is an important textile center of Japan
    (A) Osaka

    (B) Hiroshima
    (C) Tokyo
    (D) Nagoya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Osaka
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  66. The following is also known as the ‘Sunrise industry’?
    (A) Iron and steel industry

    (B) Cotton textile
    (C) Information technology
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  67. The resources which are found everywhere are known as
    (A) Ubiquitous
    (B) Non-renewable resources

    (C) Human-made resources
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Ubiquitous
  68. Which country has no known mineral deposits?
    (A) Hungry

    (B) Austria
    (C) the Netherlands
    (D) Switzerland
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Switzerland
  69. ______ is a leading producer of copper.
    (A) Chile
    (B) Peru

    (C) Argentina
    (D) Brazil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Chile
  70. The largest producer of bauxite in the world is
    (A) China

    (B) USA
    (C) Russia
    (D) Australia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Australia
  71. The largest producer of mica in the world is
    (A) Australia

    (B) India
    (C) China
    (D) Canada
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) India
  72. Kolar in ________ has deposits of gold in India.
    (A) Tamil Nadu

    (B) Kerala
    (C) Andhra Pradesh
    (D) Karnataka
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Karnataka
  73. Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from
    (A) quartz
    (B) bauxite

    (C) cuprite
    (D) Magnetite
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) quartz
  74. ‘Bauxite’ is an ore of
    (A) Iron

    (B) Copper
    (C) Aluminium
    (D) Mica
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Aluminium
  75. Which of the following country is the largest producer of coal?
    (A) India

    (B) USA
    (C) China
    (D) Australia
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) China
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)
  76. The first country in the world to develop hydroelectricity is
    (A) China

    (B) Norway
    (C) England
    (D) USA
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Norway
  77. Which country is the largest producer of Iron and Steel in the world?
    (A) India
    (B) China
    (C) USA
    (D) UK
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) China
  78. Salem steel plant is located in:
    (A) Andhra Pradesh

    (B) Tamil Nadu
    (C) Karnataka
    (D) Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tamil Nadu
  79. Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Bhadrawati are important centers of:
    (A) Cotton textile industries

    (B) Iron and steel industries
    (C) Watchmaking industries
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Iron and steel industries
  80. Which of the following is not a raw material for the iron & steel industry?
    (A) Iron ore

    (B) Coal
    (C) Silicon
    (D) Limestone
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Silicon
  81. Manchester in England is famous for:
    (A) Textiles

    (B) Iron & Steel
    (C) Aluminium
    (D) Copper
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Textiles
  82. Which city is known as “Manchester of Japan”?
    (A) Tokyo

    (B) Osaka
    (C) Hokido
    (D) Kinki
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Osaka
  83. TISCO is situated in-
    (A) Bihar

    (B) Jharkhand
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Orissa
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jharkhand
  84. The important centers of the Iron and steel industry in India are:
    (A) Bhilai, Durgapur, Jaipur, Kanpur, Bhadrawati

    (B) Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela
    (C) Vijaynagar, Salem, Bokaro, Delhi, Mumbai
    (D) Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Chandigarh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela
  85. Which among the following was the steel plant of India is sometimes called India’s First Swadeshi Steel Plant?
    (A) Bengal Iron Works Company
    (B) TISCO
    (C) IISCO
    (D) Bokaro Steel Plant
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Bokaro Steel Plant
    Industries in India (Notes+MCQ)

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