Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download
Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download
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The climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

In this module, we shall learn about the Characteristics of the Indian Climate, Factors Influencing Climate in India, The major seasons recognized in India, Mechanism of Monsoon, Some basic Terms Related to Pre Monsoon, Distribution of Rainfall in India, Indian Meteorological Department and Important Points to remember on The Climate of India.

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Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download is provided at the end of this post.

The Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download

Introduction

  • Weather is the temporary state of the atmosphere, while climate refers to the average of the weather conditions over a longer period of time.
  • Weather changes quickly, maybe within a day or week, but climate changes imperceptibly and may be noted after 50, 100 years, or even more.
  • The climate of India has distinct regional variations discernible by the pattern of winds, temperature, and rainfall; further, also in the form of the rhythm of seasons and the degree of wetness or dryness.

Characteristics of the Indian Climate

  • The climate of India may be broadly described as a tropical monsoon type.
  • The term “monsoon” is derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means a seasonal reversal in the wind direction.

The climatic conditions in India have the following characteristics:

The Reversal of Winds

  • The climate of India is characterized by the complete reversal of the wind system with the change of seasons.
  • During the winter season, the winds generally blow from northeast to southwest (land to sea)
  • While in the summer season the winds blow from southwest to northeast (sea to land).

Development of High and Low-Pressure Areas

  • During the winter season, due to low temperature, a high-pressure area is formed over the northern part of India.
  • On the other hand, during the summer season, due to high temperature, a thermally induced low-pressure area is formed over the north-western part of India.

 Seasonal and Variable Rainfall

  • The amount of annual rainfall received in various parts of India varies just not regionally, but also seasonally.
  • About 80 percent of the total rainfall is received during the short rainy season (June to September).
  • As the rainfall is in the form of heavy downpours, it creates problems of floods and soil erosion.
  • Sometimes there is continuous rainfall for many days and sometimes there is a long dry spell.

Multiple Seasons

  • A constant and continuous change of weather has been observed over India.
  • Although there are three main seasons summer, winter, and rainy, in many parts the number may go up to six seasons.
  • This multiplicity of seasons shows the quick-changing nature of weather conditions in India.

The Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) designates four official seasons: 

  • winter (From December to early April);
  • Summer or Pre-monsoon season (April to July in north-western India);
  • Monsoon or Rainy season (June-September); 
  • Post-monsoon season(October-December).
  • But traditionally, Indians note six seasons, each about two months long. These are spring (Sanskrit- Vasanta), late autumn (Hemanta), and winter (Shishira).
  • These are based on the astronomical division of the 12 months into six parts.
  • The ancient Hindu calendar also reflects these seasons in its arrangement of months.
  • India’s climate is affected by two seasonal winds — the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. 
  • The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas the south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal.
  • The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country. It is now possible to make a forecast about the monsoon rains successfully with developed models and trained manpower.

Factors Influencing Climate in India

Major factors that determine the climate of India are −

  • Northward shifting of the Westerly Jet (north of Himalayas)
  • Northward shifting of the ITCZ.
  • S-E trade winds from the S. hemisphere cross the equator and turn right due to Coriolis force.
  • Latitudinal Extent
  • Southern Seas
  • Northern Mountains
  • El – Nino
  • La – Nina
  • Westerlies in Northern part of India from the Mediterranean (in winters)
  • Easterlies due to Heating of Tibetian Plateau
  • Jet streams

The major seasons recognized in India:

Cold Weather Season (winter) – (December to February)

  • The sun’s rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result, the temperatures are quite low in northern India.

Hot Weather Season (summer) – (March to May)

  • In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.

Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) – (June to September)

  • This season is marked by the onset and advance of the monsoon.
  • The winds blow from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal towards the land.
  • They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

Season of Retreating Monsoon (autumn) – (October and November)

  • Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal.
  • This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
  • The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.

Monsoon

  • Generally, across the world, the monsoons are experienced in tropical area roughly between 20° N and 20° S.
  • The climate of India is described as the ‘monsoon’ In Asia, this type of climate is found mainly in the south and the southeast.

Out of a total of 4 seasonal divisions of India, monsoon occupies 2 divisions, namely.

  • The southwest monsoon season – Rainfall received from the southwest monsoons is seasonal in character, which occurs between June and September.
  • The retreating monsoon season – The months of October and November are known for retreating monsoons.

Factors Influencing South-West Monsoon Formation

  • The differential heating and cooling of land and water create a low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.
  • The shift of the position of Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over the Ganga plain (this is the equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It is also known as the monsoon-trough during the monsoon season).

Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone

  • The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ,) is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes.
  • This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge.
  • This convergence zone lies more or less parallel to the equator but moves north or south with the apparent movement of the sun.
  • The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high-pressure area affect the Indian Monsoon.
  • The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level.
  • The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.
  • Tropical Easterly Jet (African Easterly Jet).
  • Southern Oscillation (SO):
    • Normally when the tropical eastern south Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure.
    • But in certain years, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions and the eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean.
    • This periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the SO.

El Nino

  • This is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current.
  • ‘El Nino’ is a Spanish word meaning ‘the child’, and refers to the baby Christ, as this current starts flowing during Christmas.
  • The presence of the El Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperatures and the weakening of the trade winds in the region.

La Nina (The Girl in Spanish)

  • After El Nino when weather conditions return to normal, trade winds become strong
  • Hence they cause abnormal accumulation of cold water in the central & eastern pacific region
  • This creates a high-pressure region in the Pacific Ocean as compared to the Indian Ocean
  • Heavy rainfall – flood condition in Northern Australia – good monsoon in India
  • Very good fishing business at Peruvian coast – price crash
  • Drought in the Atacama
  • La Nina brings heavy monsoon showers in India due to N – E monsoon along with monsoon laden Pacific winds from the tropical Pacific Ocean although it marks an active hurricane season at Peru

Mechanism of Monsoon

The onset of the South-West Monsoon

  • The location of ITCZ shifts north and south of the equator with the apparent movement of the Sun.
  • During the month of June, the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer, and the ITCZ shifts northwards.
  • The southeast trade winds of the southern hemisphere cross the equator and start blowing in the southwest to a northeast direction under the influence of Coriolis force.
  • These winds collect moisture as they travel over the warm Indian Ocean.
  • In the month of July, the ITCZ shifts to 20°-25° N latitude and is located in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, and the south-west monsoons blow from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The ITCZ in this position is often called the Monsoon Trough.
  • The shift in the position of the ITCZ is also related to the phenomenon of the withdrawal of the westerly jet stream from its position over the north Indian plain, south of the Himalayas.
  • The easterly Jet Stream (Somali Jet) sets in along 15°N latitude only after the western jet stream has withdrawn itself from the region. This easterly jet stream is held responsible for the burst of the monsoon in India.
  • As these winds approach the land, their southwesterly direction is modified by the relief and thermal low pressure over northwest India. The monsoon approaches the Indian landmass in two branches:
    • The Arabian Sea branch – The monsoon winds originating over the Arabian Sea.
    • The Bay of Bengal branch – The Arakan Hills along the coast of Myanmar deflect a big portion of this branch towards the Indian subcontinent. The monsoon, therefore, enters West Bengal and Bangladesh from the south and southeast instead of from the south-westerly direction.
  • Another phenomenon associated with the monsoon is its tendency to have ‘breaks’ in rainfall. The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals. These breaks in the monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough.

Despite an overall unity in the general pattern, there are perceptible regional variations in climatic conditions within the country.

Retreating Monsoon Season

  • The retreating southwest monsoon season is marked by clear skies and a rise in temperature.
  • The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive. This is commonly known as the ‘October heat’.
  • In the second half of October, the mercury begins to fall rapidly, particularly in northern India.
  • The weather in the retreating monsoon is dry in north India but it is associated with rain in the eastern part of the Peninsula. Here, October and November are the rainiest months of the year.
  • The widespread rain in this season is associated with the passage of cyclonic depressions which originate over the Andaman Sea and manage to cross the eastern coast of the southern Peninsula. These tropical cyclones are very destructive.
  • A bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast is derived from these depressions and cyclones.
  • Unlike the rest of the country, which receives rain in the southwest monsoon season between June and September, the northeast monsoon is crucial for farming and water security in the south.
  • Copious rain in the northern coast of Tamil Nadu is October- November is due to Western disturbances.
Mango Showers
  • The pre-monsoon showers in the Indian states of Karnataka and Kerala that help in the ripening of mangoes
  • Also known as April rains or Summer showers, they are a result of thunderstorms over the Bay of Bengal
  • These summer rains normally come in the second half of the month of April
  • The showers prevent the mangoes from dropping prematurely from trees and are crucial for the mango cultivators of South India
Cherry Blossom
  • In Karnataka and associated region, the local thunderstorms are called cherry blossoms
  • Caused due to the meeting of humid sea winds and hot dry local wind
  • Pre-monsoon Showers which occur in the month of April & May
  • These showers help in the ripening of coffee plants
Kal Baishakhi
  • Pre-monsoon Showers
  • Known as Kal Baisakhi at Bengal & Assam
Norwesters
  • The shallow cyclonic disturbances that travel to India from the Mediterranean sea and Persian gulf
  • Cause rainfall in the East India viz. Assam, West Bengal, & Orissa during the winter season

Distribution of Rainfall in India

  • The rainfall in India is seasonal, uncertain and unevenly distributed
  • Mainly pours down during the South-West Monsoon period
  • On the basis of the quantity of rainfall, we can divide India into five major rainfall regions viz.
Very low rainfall region
  • Less than 30 cms annually
  • Regions → Karakoram Ranges, Northern Kashmir, Western Kutch & Rajasthan Region (Thar Region)
Low rainfall region
  • 30 cms to 60 cms annually
  • Regions → Zaskar range, parts of Punjab and Haryana, Central Rajasthan, Western Gujarat, and the rain-shadow areas of the Western Ghats
Moderate rainfall region
  • 60 cms to 100 cms annually
  • Found over greatest part of India
  • Most of the rain is from the South-West Monsoon winds
Heavy rainfall region
  • 100 cms to 200 cms annually
  • Regions → Western coast, Eastern coastal belt, Foothills of the Himalayas & a part of north-east India
Very heavy rainfall
  • Over 200 cms annually
  • Regions → Western side of the Western Ghats, foothills of Himalayas, Meghalaya plateau (Shillong plateau) and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands
  • Mawsynram in the Meghalaya plateau gets the heaviest rainfall in the world

Indian Meteorological Department

  • The IMD is the national meteorological service of the country and it is the chief government agency dealing in everything related to meteorology, seismology, and associated subjects.
  • It was formed in 1875.
  • Currently, the Director-General of Meteorology (DGM) of the IMD is Dr. K J Ramesh.
  • The IMD is under the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. The current minister in charge is Dr. Harsh Vardhan, who is the Union Minister for the Earth Sciences Ministry and the Science and Technology Ministry.
  • Its main objective is to provide meteorological information for weather-sensitive activities like Aviation, Shipping, Agriculture, offshore fishing, and oil exploration and industries.
  • It also issues warning against severe weather conditions like cyclone, dust storm, heavy rainfall, cold and heat waves.
  • The department records earthquakes and conducts research.
  • Information provided by IMD is useful for general public to know about the weather forecast.
  • The Oceansat provides data regarding shoals of fishes to IMD and it is very useful for the fishermen.
  • IMD participates in various international research which studies monsoon mechanism. Various forecasting helps farmers to plan their agricultural activities.

Points to remember on The Climate of India

  • The shower causing coffee flowers to blossom in Kerala and nearby areas is known as the blossom shower.
  • Nor Westersare the dreaded evening thunderstorms in Bengal and Assam.
  • During the south-west monsoon, the period after having rained for a few days, if rain fails to occur for one or more weeks, it is known as a break in the monsoon.
  • The notorious nature of Nor Westers can be understood from the local nomenclature of Kalbaisakhi, meaning a calamity of the month of Baisakh.
  • In Assam, Nor Westers are known as Bardoli Chheerha.
  • Hot, dry, and oppressing winds blowing in the Northern plains from Punjab to Bihar are known as Loo.
  • The rain in the southwest monsoon season begins rather abruptly.
  • Sudden onset of the moisture-laden winds associated with violent thunder and lightning, is often termed as the “break” or “burst” of the monsoon.
  • Tamil Nadu coast remains dry during the monsoon season because it is situated parallel to the Bay of Bengal branch of southwest monsoon.
  • The monsoon rainfall has a declining trend with increasing distance from the sea. For example, Kolkata receives 119 cm, Patna 105 cm, Allahabad 76 cm, and Delhi 56 cm.
  • The months of October and November are known as retreating monsoons
  • The advent of the south-west monsoon is known as the advancing monsoon.
  • As the south-west monsoon passes over the ocean surface (Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and the Bay of Bengal) it picks up moisture and causes rainfall in India.
  • The Windward side of Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall (more than 250 cm); however, as the distance increases from the sea, the amount and intensity of rainfall start decreasing.
  • The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon advances towards the eastern part of India and causes heavy rainfall. North-east India receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon season.
  • Cherapunji and Mawsynram (two places of Meghalaya) are the world’s wettest place.
  • Though there are great spatial variations in India; the average annual rainfall of India is 125 cm.
  • The whole of India has a monsoon type of climate, but because of the regional variations, there are various types of climate in India.

Multiple Choice Questions on Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

  1. Which of the following places have a cooler climate even during summers?
    (A) Allahabad

    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Mussoorie
    (D) Amritsar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mussoorie
  2. Which of the following places of India experiences an extreme type of climate?
    (A) Shillong

    (B) Bengaluru
    (C) Chennai
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Delhi
  3. Due to which of the following factors does Pune receive much lesser rainfall as compared to Mumbai?
    (A) It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats

    (B) It is located on the windward side of Western Ghats
    (C) Continentality
    (D) Distance from the sea
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) It is located on the leeward side of Western Ghats
  4. In which month the transition season changed from the hot rainy season to the dry winter season?
    (A) December to February

    (B) February to March
    (C) June to July
    (D) October to November
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) October to November
  5. In winter the western cyclonic disturbances originate from which sea?
    (A) Mediterranean Sea

    (B) Indian Ocean
    (C) Caspian Sea
    (D) Arabian Sea
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mediterranean Sea
  6. In which one of the following places could winter temperatures drop to minus 45°C:
    (A) Thiruvananthapuram

    (B) Shillong
    (C) Drass
    (D) Pahalgam.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Drass
  7. What generally happens to air temperature as we move from the equator to the poles?
    (A) It decreases

    (B) It increases
    (C) It remains constant
    (D) None of the above.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) It decreases
  8. Which of the following latitudes passes through the middle of our country giving it the characteristics of tropical as well as sub-tropical climate?
    (A) Tropic of Capricorn

    (B) Tropic of Cancer
    (C) the Equator
    (D) 82°30 N
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tropic of Cancer
  9. The Indian sub-continent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia due to which of the following factors?
    (A) The Tropic of Cancer

    (B) The surrounding seas
    (C) The Himalayas
    (D) Ocean currents.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) The Himalayas
  10. Which of the following atmospheric conditions govern the climate and associated weather conditions in India?
    (A) Pressure and surface winds

    (B) Upper air circulation
    (C) Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  11. Which one of the following receives the highest rainfall in the world?
    (A) Silchar

    (B) Mombasa
    (C) Mawsynram
    (D) Guwahati
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mawsynram
  12. The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:
    (A) Kaal Baisakhi

    (B) Trade winds
    (C) Loo
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Trade winds
  13. Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in the north-western part of India?
    (A) Cyclonic depression

    (B) Western disturbances
    (C) Retreating monsoon
    (D) South-west monsoon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Retreating monsoon
  14. Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:
    (A) Early July

    (B) Early June
    (C) Early May
    (D) Early August
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Early July
    Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download
  15. Which one of the following characterizes the cold-weather season in India?
    (A) Warm days and warm nights

    (B) Warm days and cold nights
    (C) Cool days and cold nights
    (D) Cold days and warm nights
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Warm days and cold nights
  16. Which of the following terms refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years)?
    (A) Atmosphere

    (B) Annual range of temperature
    (C) Climate
    (D) Monsoon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Climate
  17. Which of the following is not an element of weather and climate?
    (A) Atmospheric pressure

    (B) Temperature
    (C) Humidity
    (D) Altitude
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Altitude
  18. Which of the following is not one of the causes of river pollution?
    (A) Dumping of garbage

    (B) Aquatic organisms and algae
    (C) Discharge of untreated sewage
    (D) Discharge of industrial effluents
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Discharge of untreated sewage
  19. In which of the following places of India precipitation is in form of snowfall?
    (A) Shillong

    (B) Drass
    (C) Chandigarh
    (D) Haridwar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Drass
  20. Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature?
    (A) Pahalgam

    (B) Leh
    (C) Thiruvananthapuram
    (D) Jaisalmer
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Jaisalmer
  21. Which of the following is the rainiest station?
    (A) Shillong

    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Chennai
    (D) Kolkata
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Shillong
  22. Which one of the following is the driest station?
    (A) Mumbai

    (B) Leh
    (C) Bengaluru
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Leh
  23. Most parts of India receive rainfall during which of the following months?
    (A) December to February

    (B) March to May
    (C) June to September
    (D) October to November
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) June to September
  24. In which of the following months does the Tamil Nadu coast get most of its rainfall?
    (A) December to February

    (B) March to May
    (C) June to September
    (D) October to November
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) October to November
    Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download
  25. The climate of India is mainly tropical because:
    (A) of the location of the Himalayas in its North
    (B) a major part of India lies within the tropics

    (C) of the overpowering influence of India Ocean
    (D) of the seasonal influence of jet streams
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) of the location of the Himalayas in its North
  26. Longitude is geographically significant to India because:
    (A) it determines the Indian standard time
    (B) it has a bearing on the tropical climate of India
    (C) it divides’ India into eastern and western zones
    (D) it enables determining local time in eastern India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) it determines the Indian standard time
  27. The climate of India is:
    (A) tropical climate

    (B) sub-tropical climate
    (C) savanna type of climate
    (D) subtropical monsoon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) subtropical monsoon
  28. Which type of climate(s) prevail(s) in the long corridor (Leeward side) of the Western Ghats and the Nilgiri Hills?
    (A) Tropical wet and dry climate

    (B) Tropical wet and dry with winter rain
    (C) Tropical semi-arid steppe
    (D) Subtropical monsoon rainforest
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tropical semi-arid steppe
  29. Which of the following does not have influence over the climate in India?
    (A) Nearness to the Equator
    (B) Presence of Indian Ocean
    (C) Monsoons
    (D) Ocean currents
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Ocean currents
  30. The place in India receiving the lowest rainfall is
    (A) Leh

    (B) Jaisalmer
    (C) Bikaner
    (D) Jodhpur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Leh
  31. The western disturbances which cause winter rain in India originate in
    (A) Pakistan

    (B) Bay of Bengal
    (C) West Asia
    (D) Himalayas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) West Asia
  32. How do the western disturbances affect the crops in north India?
    (A) They cause heavy damage to the standing crops

    (B) They bring in locusts which destroy the crops
    (C) They are beneficial to the crops by causing winter rain
    (D) They help in keeping the plants warm to some extent in winter
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) They are beneficial to the crops by causing winter rain
  33. How do the Central Asian highlands affect the Indian climate?
    (A) The low pressure in these areas intensifies the cold during the winter

    (B) The atmospheric pressure in this region has an effect on the Indian atmosphere in summer
    (C) Dry continental air is blowing towards India throughout
    (D) The atmospheric pressure in this region has an impact on the onset of monsoon in India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) The atmospheric pressure in this region has an impact on the onset of monsoon in India
  34. The amount and Intensity of monsoon rainfall is determined by the frequency of
    (A) western disturbances

    (B) dust storms
    (C) cyclones
    (D) tropical depressions
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) tropical depressions
    Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download
  35. Rajasthan receives very little rain because
    (A) it is too hot

    (B) there is no water available and thus the winds remain dry
    (C) the monsoons fail to reach this area
    (D) the winds do not come across any barrier to cause the necessary uplift to cool the winds
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) the winds do not come across any barrier to cause the necessary uplift to cool the winds.
  36. Nagpur gets scanty rainfall because it is located with reference to Sahyadri Mountains, towards …..
    (A) Windward Side

    (B) Seaward Side
    (C) Onshore Side
    (D) Leeward Side
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Leeward Side
  37. During the South-West Monsoon, Tamil Nadu remains dry because
    (A) It is located in a rain shadow area Temperature is so high that wind does not get

    (B) cooled
    (C) Winds do not reach this area
    (D) There is no mountain in this area
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) It is located in a rain shadow area Temperature is so high that wind does not get.
  38. The average annual temperature of a meteorological station is 26 degrees C, its average annual rainfall is 63 cm and the annual range of temperature is 9 degrees C. The station in question is …..
    (A) Allahabad
    (B) Chennai
    (C) Cherapunji
    (D) Kolkata
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Chennai
  39. Which state receives rainfall from north-east monsoons?
    (A) Karnataka
    (B) Kerala
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Meghalaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil Nadu
  40. Which state receives rainfall from retreating monsoons?
    (A) Karnataka
    (B) Kerala
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Meghalaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil Nadu
  41. Which states receive rainfall from Northwesters’ or ‘Kal Baisakhi’?
    (A) Tamil Nadu
    (B) Meghalaya
    (C) Punjab
    (D) West Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) West Bengal
  42. Which states/region receives winter rainfall by western disturbances?
    (A) Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan & Gujarat
    (B) Punjab, Delhi & Haryana
    (C) Meghalaya, Assam, Mizoram
    (D) WB, Bihar, Jharkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Punjab, Delhi & Haryana
  43. Which region/state does not receive much rainfall in the south-west monsoon season?
    (A) Kerala coast
    (B) Coromandel coast
    (C) Andhra Pradesh coast
    (D) Tamil Nadu coast
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Tamil Nadu coast
  44. Which parts of India get rainfall by western disturbances during winter?
    (A) North-eastern part
    (B) North-western part
    (C) South-western part
    (D) Southern point
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) North-western part
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  45. The state has the highest rainfall by North-East Monsson is?
    (A) Kerala
    (B) Meghalaya
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) West Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Tamil Nadu
  46. Which state receives rainfall from the southwest monsoon?
    (A) Bihar
    (B) Assam
    (C) Jharkhand
    (D) Meghalaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jharkhand
  47. Six-eight months rainy season prevail in part of which state?
    (A) Karnataka & Kerala
    (B) Tamil Nadu & Karnataka
    (C) Assam & Kerala
    (D) Meghalaya & Kerala
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Assam & Kerala
  48. The western disturbances which bring rainfall to the northwest region of India occur during:
    (A) Dry weather season
    (B) Rainy Season
    (C) Cold weather season
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Cold weather season
  49. The southwest monsoon reaches West Bengal in which month?
    (A) Mid-September
    (B) Early June
    (C) Mid-July
    (D) Mid-June
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Early June
  50. Southwest monsoon reaches Kerala coast in which month?
    (A) End of May
    (B) Early June
    (C) Mid-July
    (D) Mid-September
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) End of May
  51. Southwest monsoon reaches Konkan coast in which month?
    (A) End of May
    (B) Early June
    (C) Mid-July
    (D) Mid-September
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Early June
  52. Southwest monsoon extends over the entire country by which month?
    (A) Mid- May
    (B) Mid- June
    (C) Mid-July
    (D) Mid-August
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Mid-August
  53. Northeast monsoon cause rainfall in Southeastern part of peninsular India during which month?
    (A) May- June
    (B) July- August
    (C) September- November
    (D) November-December
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) November-December
  54. Tamil Nadu coast gets most of its rainfall during which month?
    (A) September & October
    (B) October & November
    (C) November and December
    (D) None of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) October & November
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  55. Which part receives heavy rainfall during the months of October and November?
    (A) Deccan Plateau
    (B) Malwa Plateau
    (C) Chhotanagpur Plateau
    (D) Meghalaya Plateau
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Malwa Plateau
  56. The monsoon reaches Kolkata in which month?
    (A) 21 May
    (B) 21 June
    (C) 21 July
    (D) 21 August
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 21 June
  57. Monsoons start retreating from Punjab plains by which month?
    (A) Mid- August
    (B) Mid- September
    (C) Mid- October
    (D) None
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Mid- September
  58. Which places receive rainfall less than 20 cm?
    (A) Rajasthan
    (B) Jammu & Kashmir
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Jharkhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Jammu & Kashmir
  59. Which place/state receives an average annual rainfall of 1050 cm?
    (A) West Bengal
    (B) Punjab
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Meghalaya
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Meghalaya
  60. Which region receives annual rainfall less than 50 cm in a year?
    (A) Trivandrum
    (B) Bangalore
    (C) Mawsynram
    (D) Leh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Leh
  61. In certain parts of Khasi & Jaintia hills, annual rainfall is about :
    (A) 1000 cm
    (B) 1050 cm
    (C) 900 cm
    (D) 800 cm
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 1000 cm
  62. Which is considered to cause adverse effects on the Indian monsoon?
    (A) El Nino
    (B) La Nina
    (C) Both (A) and (B)
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) El Nino
  63. On the basis of rainfall patterns, India has been divided into how many numbers of rainfall regions?
    (A) 52
    (B) 62
    (C) 72
    (D) 82
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 62
  64. Which is the rainiest station?
    (A) Shillong
    (B) Mumbai
    (C) Bangalore
    (D) Ladakh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Shillong
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  65. Which is the driest station?
    (A) Leh
    (B) Ladakh
    (C) Jodhpur
    (D) Jaisalmer
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Leh
  66. The western coasts of India receive very high rainfall in summer mainly due to
    (A) Tropical location
    (B) Nearness to sea
    (C) Western Ghats
    (D) Himalayas
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) the Western Ghats
  67. South-West monsoon contributes to India’s total rainfall up to the extent of
    (A) 80-90 percent
    (B) 50-60 percent
    (C) 100 percent
    (D) 75 percent
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) 80-90 percent
  68. With the onset of the monsoon, day temperature
    (A) Increases owing to the flow of hot wind

    (B) Decreases owing to cloudiness and rainfall
    (C) Does not vary much
    (D) Decreases owing to cold winds from the north.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Decreases owing to cloudiness and rainfall
  69. Which of the following regions has the highest variability of rainfall?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Kerala coast
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Eastern Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gujarat
  70. Which of the following stations receives the maximum annual range of temperature?
    (A) Madras
    (B) Bombay
    (C) Delhi
    (D) Trivandrum
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Delhi
  71. Which of the following stations receives the highest annual rainfall?
    (A) Kolkata
    (B) Patna
    (C) Allahabad
    (D) Delhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kolkata
  72. T.C means:
    (A) Inter transitional center
    (B) Intertropical convergence
    (C) Inter trade center
    (D) Inter transfer center
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Intertropical convergence
  73. Which of the following regions of India receives winter rainfall by western disturbances?
    (A) Tamil Nadu coast
    (B) Andhra coast
    (C) Orissa coast
    (D) Punjab coast
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Punjab coast
  74. Which of the following regions has the highest variability of rainfall?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Kerala coast
    (C) West Bengal
    (D) Eastern Uttar Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Gujarat

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