Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)

In this module, we shall learn about Agriculture in India, Types of Farming in India, List of Agricultural Revolutions in India, Cropping Seasons, Major Crops in India, Green Revolution in India, Irrigation in India, Irrigation – Sources and Methods, Irrigation Development in India.

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Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)

Agriculture in India

Types of Farming in India

Subsistence and commercial farming

Subsistence Farming         

  • The majority of farmers in India practices subsistence farming. This means farming for their own consumption.
  • In other words, the entire production is largely consumed by the farmers and their family and they do not have any surplus to sell in the market.
  • In this type of farming, landholdings are small and fragmented.
  • Cultivation techniques are primitive and simple.
  • In other words, there is a total absence of modern equipment like tractors and farm inputs like chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides.
  • In this farming, farmers mostly cultivate cereals along with oilseeds, pulses, vegetables, and sugarcane.

Commercial farming

  • It is just the opposite of subsistence farming.
  • In this case, most of the produce is sold in the market for earning money.
  • In this system, farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, and High Yielding Varieties of seeds, etc.
  • Some of the major commercial crops grown in different parts of India are cotton, jute, sugarcane, groundnut, etc.
  • Rice farming in Haryana is mainly for commercial purposes as people of this area are predominantly wheat eaters.
  • However, in the East and North-Eastern states of India, rice cultivation would be large of subsistence type.

Intensive and Extensive Farming

  • The basic difference between these two types of farming is the amount of production per unit of land.
  • In comparison with temperate areas of the USA, Canada, and the former USSR, India does not practice extensive cultivation.
  • Intensive Farming records high production per unit of land. The best example of intensive cultivation is in Japan where the availability of land for cultivation is very limited. A similar kind of situation can be observed in the state of Kerala in India.

Plantation Farming

  • It is an estate where a single cash crop is grown for sale.
  • This type of agriculture involves the growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale.
  • Tea, coffee, rubber, banana, and spices are all examples of plantation crops.
  • Most of these crops were introduced in India by the Britishers in the 19th Century.

Mixed Farming

  • It is a situation in which both raising crops and rearing animals are carried on simultaneously.
  • Here farmers engaged in mixed farming are economically better off than others.
  • All classifications are based on the nature and purpose of farming. It may overlap.
  • For example Banana is a plantation type of farming. It can also be classified as commercial farming.

List of Agricultural Revolutions in India

RevolutionProduct relatedFather/Person associated with
Protein RevolutionHigher Production (Technology-driven 2nd Green revolution).Coined by PM Narendra Modi and FM Arun Jaitely.
Yellow RevolutionOilseed Production (Especially Mustard and Sunflower).Sam Pitroda
Black RevolutionPetroleum products.
Blue RevolutionFish ProductionDr. Arun Krishnan.
Brown RevolutionLeather / Cocoa / Non-Conventional Products.
Golden Fiber Revolution.Jute Production.
Golden RevolutionFruits / Honey Production / Horticulture DevelopmentNirpakh Tutej.
Grey RevolutionFertilizers.
Pink RevolutionOnion Production / Pharmaceuticals / Prawn Production.Durgesh Patel.
Evergreen RevolutionOverall Production of Agriculture.Started in 11th 5 year Plan.
Silver RevolutionEgg Production / Poultry ProductionIndira Gandhi.
Silver Fiber RevolutionCotton.
Red RevolutionMeat Production / Tomato Production.Vishal Tewari.
Round RevolutionPotato.
Green RevolutionFood Grains.Norman Borlong
M.S. Swaminathan.
William Goud (UK).
White Revolution (or, Operation Flood)Milk Production.Verghese Kurien.

Cropping Seasons

  • There are three distinct cropping seasons in the northern and interior parts of India, namely Kharif, Rabi, and Zaid.
Cropping SeasonMajor Crops Cultivated
Northern StatesSouthern States
Kharif (June-September)Rice, Cotton, Bajra, Maize, Jowar, ToorRice, Maize, Ragi, Jowar, Groundnut
Rabi (October – March)Wheat, Gram, Rapeseeds, and Mustard, BarleyRice, Maize, Ragi, Groundnut, Jowar
Zaid (April–June)Vegetables, Fruits, FodderRice, Vegetables, Fodder
  • Dryland farming is largely restricted to the regions having annual rainfall less than 75 cm. Major crops are ragi, bajra, moong, gram, and guar (fodder crops).
  • The regions, which have rainfall in excess of the soil moisture requirement of plants during the rainy season are known as wetland farming. Major crops are rice, jute, and sugarcane.
  • The cereals occupy about 54% of the total cropped area in India.
  • India produces about 11% of cereals of the world and ranks 3rd in production after China and U.S.A.
  • Indian cereals are classified as fine grains(e.g. rice, wheat, etc.) and coarse grains (e.g. jowar, bajra, maize, ragi,).

Cropping Pattern

  • Cropping pattern refers to the ratio of land under different types of crops at a particular duration of time.
  • A change in cropping pattern implies a change in the ratio of land under various crops.

Crop Rotation

  • Crop rotation refers to the practice of planting a series of various crops of different types so that the land is not exploited for only one type of mineral.
  • Generally, after a cereal crop, farmers prefer to grow pulses as they tend to fix the atmospheric nitrogen back into the soil with the help of nitrogen-fixing bacteria present in their root nodules.


  • Intercropping is the process of growing two or more crops together in order for them to achieve maximum yield through natural processes.

Nutrient Management

  • It is the practice in which farmers focus on providing proper nutrients to the soil in order to use it efficiently and in a way that is eco-friendly and gives optimum yield.

Types of Farming

  • On the basis of the main source of moisture for crops, farming can be classified as irrigated and rainfed.
  • On the basis of the adequacy of soil moisture during the cropping season, rainfed farming is further classified as dryland and wetland

Major Crops in India

  • In southern states and West Bengal, the climatic conditions facilitate the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year.
  • In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman,’ and ‘boro’.
  • India contributes more than 20% of the world’s rice production and ranks 2nd after China.
  • About one-fourth of the total cropped area of India is under rice cultivation.
  • West Bengal, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh are the leading rice-producing states.
  • India produces about 12% of the total wheat production in the world.
  • About 85% of the total area under this crop is concentrated in the north and central regions of the country, i.e., the Indo-Gangetic Plain, MalwaPlateau, and the Himalayan regions especially up to 2,700 m altitude.
  • About 14% of the total cropped area in the country is under wheat
  • Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh are wheat-producing states.
  • The coarse cereals together occupy about 16.50% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Maharashtra alone contributes to more than half of the total Jowar production of the country.
  • Bajra occupies about 5.2% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Haryana are the leading Bajraproducer states.
  • Maize is a food as well as fodder crop grown under semi-arid climatic conditions and over inferior soils.
  • Maize occupies about 3.6% of the total cropped area of India.
  • Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh are the leading maize producers in the country.
  • Pulses are the legume crops, which increase the natural fertility of soils through nitrogen fixation.
  • With one-fifth of the total production of pulses in the world, India is a leading producer.
  • Pulses occupy about 11% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • The cultivation of pulses in the country is largely concentrated in the drylands of Deccan and central plateaus and northwestern parts.
  • Gram and Toor are the main pulses cultivated in India.
  • Gram covers only about 2.8% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Rajasthan are the main producers of gram.
  • Toor(Arhar) is also known as red gram or pigeon pea.
  • Toor occupies only about 2% of the total cropped area of India.
  • Maharashtra alone contributes to about one-third of the total production of toor.
  • Groundnut, rapeseed and mustard, soybean, and sunflower are the main oilseed crops grown in India.
  • Oilseeds occupy about 14% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Drylands of Malwa plateau, Marathwada, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Telangana, Rayalseema region of Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka plateau are the major oilseeds growing regions of India.
  • India produces about 18.8% of the total groundnut production in the world.
  • Groundnut covers about 3.6% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra are the leading groundnut producer states in India.
  • Rapeseed and mustard comprise several oilseeds such as rai, sarson, toria,and taramira.
  • Rapeseed and mustard oilseeds together occupy only 2.5% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • Rajasthan alone contributes to about one-third of production (of oilseeds) while Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh other leading producers.
  • Sunflower cultivation is concentrated in the regions of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and adjoining areas of Maharashtra.
  • India grows both the short-staple (Indian) cotton as well as the long-staple (American) cotton called narmain in north-western parts of the country.
  • India accounts for about 8.3% of the world’s total production of cotton.
  • India ranks 4th in the world for the production of cotton after China, U.S.A., and Pakistan.
  • Cotton occupies about 4.7% of the total cropped area in the country.
  • The major cotton growing areas in India are parts of Punjab, Haryana, and northern Rajasthan in the north-west; Gujarat and Maharashtra in the west; and plateaus of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu in the south.
  • Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana are the leading cotton-producing states.
  • India produces about three-fifths of the total jute production of the world.
  • West Bengal contributes about three-fourths of the total production of jute in the country.
  • India is the second-largest producer of sugarcane after Brazil.
  • Sugarcane occupies 2.4% of the total cropped area in the country and contributes about 23% of the world’s production of sugarcane.
  • Uttar Pradesh produces about two-fifth of sugarcane in the country; other leading producers are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Tea is a plantation crop and used as a major beverage in India.
  • Black tea leaves are fermented whereas green tea leaves are not fermented.
  • Tea leaves have a rich content of caffeine and tannin.
  • Tea is grown over the undulating topography of hilly areas and well-drained soils in humid and sub-humid tropics and sub-tropics.
  • In India, tea plantation started in the 1840s in the Brahmaputra valley of Assam, which still is a major tea growing area in the country.
  • With 28% of the world’s total production, India is a leading producer of tea.
  • India ranks third among tea exporting countries in the world after Sri Lanka and China.
  • Assam accounts for about 53.2% of the total cropped area and contributes more than half of the total production of tea in the country; West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the other leading tea producers.
  • There are three varieties of coffee− arabica, robusta, and liberica.
  • India generally grows superior quality coffee i.e. arabica, which is in great demand in the International market
  • India produces only about 3.2% coffee of the world’s total production and ranks 7th after Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, and Mexico.
  • Coffee in India is cultivated in the highlands of the Western Ghats in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Karnataka alone contributes more than two-third to the total production of coffee in India.
  • New seed varieties of wheat (from Mexico) and rice (from the Philippines) known as high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were introduced during the mid-1960s in India (Green Revolution).

Green Revolution in India


  • The Green Revolution was started in India by then Prime Minister Late Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, who gave the slogan of “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan”, according to which, to make the country powerful from a security point of view, is the responsibility of the soldiers while making it self-sufficient in the field of food grains, is the responsibility of the farmers.

Achievements of the Green Revolution

  • Increase in Production per Hectare:
    • By the Green revolution, the productivity of agricultural land has increased by new agricultural implements.
  • Self-Dependence
    • The use of developed and modern agricultural implements is given more importance under the Green revolution, which has made a sufficient increase in the agricultural produce of the country.
  • Commercialization of Agriculture
    • Agriculture no longer remains a means of livelihood but now farming is done also for profit-making. In this way, the process of its development has increased naturally.
  • Use of Fertilizers
    • Now each such farmer of the village has started using chemical fertilizers, who feared its use.
  • Irrigation Facilities in Wider Areas
    • Due to the expansion of small irrigation plans under the Green revolution, the total irrigated area has increased.
  • Use of Insecticides
    • After the Green revolution, there has been a sufficient increase in the use of insecticides.
  • Rural Electrification
    • Under the Green revolution, the rural electrification program has been implemented for raising the standard of rural life and providing electricity for agricultural purposes.
    • At the time of implementation of the first plan, electricity was available only in 3000 villages, but now almost 70% of the villages of the entire country have electricity.
    • To provide funds for the supply of electricity in the villages, the Rural Electrification Corporation is also established.


  • A fertilizer is any material artificial or natural which can be used to enhance soil productivity and increase the yield.
  • Uses of fertilizers –
    • Used to supply additional nutrients to the crop.
    • Required to increase yield.
    • Improves fertility of crop.


  • It is a type of fertilizer that contains living microorganisms and is useful for enhancing the growth of the crop.


  • Manure is the natural form of fertilizer that is obtained by decomposing dead plants and organisms or from their feces.

Compost and Vermicomposting

  • It is the product of the composting process in which various species of worms, such as red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms are used to obtain a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste for manure purposes.

Green manure

  • It is a kind of fertilizer in which growing plants are plowed back into the soil and are used to provide necessary nutrients to the soil.
  • Uses of manure –
    • Used as fertilizer in agriculture.
    • Adds nutrients to the soil.
    • It is eco-friendly and so doesn’t damage the soil productivity.
    • It is a much better alternative for chemical fertilizers.

Agricultural Problems in India

  • About 57% of the land is covered by crop cultivation in India; however, in the world, the corresponding share is only about 12%.
  • On the other hand, the land-human ratio in the country is only 0.31 ha, which is almost half of that of the world as a whole i.e. 0.59 ha.
  • However, major problems of the Indian agriculture system are –
    • Dependence on erratic monsoon;
    • Low productivity;
    • Constraints of financial resources and indebtedness;
    • Lack of proper land reforms;
    • Small farm size and fragmentation of landholdings;
    • Lack of commercialization; under-employment; and
    • Degradation of cultivable land.
  • Further, lack of development of rural infrastructure, withdrawal of subsidies and price support, and impediments in availing of the rural credits may lead to interregional and inter-personal disparities in rural areas.
  • Intensive Agricultural District Program(IADP) and Intensive Agricultural Area Program (IAAP) were launched to overcome the agricultural problems in India.
  • Planning Commission of India initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce regionally balanced agricultural development in the country.


  • The breeding, rearing, and transplantation of fish by artificial means is called pisciculture, in other words, fish farming.
  • It is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture.
  • It involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food.
  • A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery.
  • Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, catfish, tilapia, and cod.

When it comes to agriculture activity, the following names are available for certain activities in India:

  • Horticulture: Vegetable Farming
  • Fruiticulture: Fruit Farming
  • Floriculture: Flower Farming
  • Aviculture: Bird Farming
  • Animal Husbandry
  • Apiculture: Bee Farming
  • Pisciculture: Fish Farming
  • Aquaculture: Aqua Farming
  • Sericulture: Silk Farming
  • Viniculture: Grapes Farming
  • Fungiculture: Mushroom Farming
  • Arboriculture: Tree Farming
  • Citriculture: Citrus Fruit Farming
  • Vermiculture: Vermi Farming
  • Moriculture: Mulberry Farming

(Note: Horticulture is also known as Olericulture; Aquaculture is also known as Mariculture; Aquaculture is similar to pisciculture but not the same!; Viticulture comes under Viniculture; Tissue culture comes under Bio-Technology. It can be Plant tissue culture or Animal tissue culture)

Irrigation in India


  • The monsoonal rainfall in India is concentrated only in four months and more than 50% of the net sown area is rainfed only.
  • Irrigation is thus essential to overcome spatial and temporal variation of rainfall.
  • Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times we have been constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation.
  • Not surprisingly, we have continued this tradition in modern India by building dams in most of our river basins.
  • Before we look at these methods of irrigation in detail, let’s have a look at some of the hydraulic structures used in ancient India!

Some Hydraulic Structures used in Ancient India:

  • In the first century BC, Sringaverapura near Allahabad had a sophisticated water harvesting system channeling the flood water of the river Ganga.
  • During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes, and irrigation systems were extensively built.
  • Evidence of sophisticated irrigation works has also been found in Kalinga (Orissa), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc.
  • In the eleventh century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built.
  • In the 14thcentury, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to the Siri Fort Area.

Coming back to irrigation in present-day India, let’s look at some important facts and figures before we move forward:

Some important facts and figures:

  • The net irrigated area = 66.1 million hectares.
  • Total/Gross Irrigated Area = 92.6 million hectares.
  • Irrigation Intensity in India = (Gross Irrigated Area ÷Gross Sown Area) * 100
    = (92.6 ÷ 194.4) *100
    = 47.6%
  • More than 50% of the country’s cropped area depends exclusively on rainfall, most of which is concentrated in a few months of the year.
  • Even where the annual overall precipitation is high, the available moisture is not adequate to support multiple cropping.

Irrigation – Sources and Methods

The main sources of irrigation in India are: Canals, Wells (and tubewells), and Tanks

Canal Irrigation

  • A canal is an artificial watercourse constructed for water supply and irrigation.
  • There are two types of canals:
    1. Inundation Canals – These are taken out from the rivers without any regulating system like weirs etc at their head. Such canals are useful only during the rainy season
    2. Perennial Canals – These are those which are taken off from perennial rivers by constructing a barrage across the river. Most of the canals at present in India are perennial.
  • Canals can be an effective source of irrigation in areas of low relief, deep fertile soils, a perennial source of water, and an extensive command area. Therefore the main concentration of canal irrigation is in the northern plains.
  • The canals are practically absent from the peninsular plateau region because of rocky terrain. However, the coastal and the delta regions in South India have some canals for irrigation.
  • The percentage of canal irrigation area to total irrigated area in the country has fallen from about 40% in 1950-51 to less than 25% at present.
  • The states UP, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Bihar account for about 60% of the canal irrigated area in the country.
  • Merits of canal irrigation:
  • Perennial Source
  • Provides safety from droughts
  • Brings fertile sediments to the fields
  • Economical to serve a large area
  • Demerits:
    • Canal water soaks into the ground and leads to waterlogging, increases salinization, and leads to marshy conditions leading to malaria and flooding
    • Wastage of water.
  • States under Canal irrigation
    • Canals are the second most important source of irrigation in India after wells and tube wells.
    • The Canals are irrigating those lands which have large plains, fertile soils, and perennial rivers.
    • The plains of North India are mostly canal irrigated.
    • Other parts are coastal low lands and some parts of Peninsular India. The states are Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, West Bengal, Punjab Rajasthan, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and UP.

Wells (and Tube Wells)

  • A well is a hole dug in the ground to obtain the subsoil water. An ordinary well is about 3-5 meters deep but deeper wells up to 15 meters are also dug.
  • This method of irrigation has been used in India from time immemorial. Various methods are used to lift the groundwater from the well. Some of the widely used methods are the Persian wheel, reht, charas or mot, and dhinghly (lever), etc.
  • A tube well is a deeper well (generally over 15 meters deep) from which water is lifted with the help of a pumping set operated by an electric motor or a diesel engine.
  • Well irrigation is gradually giving way to energized tube wells. But there are many wells still in use where electricity is not available or the farmers are too poor t0 afford diesel oil.
  • This method of irrigation is popular in those areas where sufficient sweet groundwater is available.
  • It is particularly suitable in areas with permeable rock structure which allows accumulation of groundwater through percolation. Therefore wells are seen more in areas with alluvial soil, regur soil, etc., and less seen in rocky terrain or mountainous regions.
  • These areas include a large part of the great northern plains, the deltaic regions of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Cauvery, parts of the Narmada and the Tapi valleys and the weathered layers of the Deccan trap and crystalline rocks and the sedimentary zones of the peninsula
  • However, the greater part of peninsular India is not suitable for well irrigation due to rocky structure, uneven surface, and lack of underground water.
  • Large dry tracts of Rajasthan, the adjoining parts of Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat, and some parts of Up have brackish groundwater which is not fit for irrigation and human consumption and hence unsuitable for well irrigation
  • At present irrigation from wells and tubewells accounts for more than 60% of the net irrigated area in the country.
  • UP has the largest area under well irrigation which accounts for 28% of the well-irrigated area of the country. U.P., Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh account for about three-fourths of the total well-irrigated area
  • Merits of well irrigation
    • Simplest
    • Cheapest
    • Well is an independent source of irrigation and can be used as and when the necessity arises. Canal irrigation, on the other hand, is controlled by other agencies and cannot be used at will.
    • Some groundwater salts are useful for crops
    • Does not lead to salinization and flooding problems
    • There is a limit to the extent of canal irrigation beyond the tail end of the canal while a well can be dug at any convenient place.
  • Demerits
    • Only a limited area can be irrigated. Normally, a well can irrigate 1 to 8 hectares of land.
    • Not suitable for dry regions
    • Overuse may lead to lowering of the water table
  • States under Well Irrigation
    • Well Irrigation is common in alluvial plains of the country except for the deserts of Rajasthan. Plains of UP, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu are the states which are more prominently under the well irrigation.

Tank irrigation

  • A tank is a reservoir for irrigation, a small lake or pool made by damming the valley of a stream to retain the monsoon rain for later use.
  • It accounts for approximately 3% of the net irrigated area in India.
  • Tank Irrigation is popular in the peninsular plateau area where Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the leading states.
  • Andhra Pradesh has the largest area (29%) of tank irrigation in India followed by Tamil Nadu (23%).

Tank Irrigation in India

  • It is practiced mainly in the peninsular region due to the following reasons:
    • The undulating relief and hard rocks make it difficult to dig canals and wells
    • There is little percolation of water due to hard rock structure and groundwater is not available in large quantities.
    • Most of the rivers are seasonal; there are many streams that become torrential during the rainy season – so the only way to use this water is to impound it by constructing bunds and building tanks. Also, it is easy to collect rainwater in natural or artificial pits because of impermeable rocks.
    • Scattered nature of agricultural fields
  • Merits
    • Most of the tanks are natural and do not involve a cost for their construction
    • Independent source for an individual farmer or a small group of farmers
    • longer life span
    • can be used for fishing also
  • Demerits
  • Depends on rain and these tanks may dry up during the dry season
  • Silting of their beds
  • Require large areas
  • Evaporation losses
  • Sometimes there might be a need to lift the water to take it to the field
  • The Major States under Tank irrigation
    • The Tank irrigation is more in the rocky plateau area of the county, where the rainfall is uneven and highly seasonal.
    • The Eastern Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Interiors of Tamil Nadu, and some parts of Andhra Pradesh have more land under tank irrigation.

Irrigation Development in India

  • Creation for irrigation potential of 10 million hectares was targeted under Bharat Nirman during 2005-06 to 2008-09.
  • The target was proposed to be met through the completion of on-going major and medium irrigation projects, and extension, renovation, and modernization of existing projects.
  • As per information provided by State Governments, the total irrigation potential created during the period is 7.31 million hectares against the target of 10 million hectares.

Some Irrigation and Multipurpose Projects

  1. Bargi Project (Madhya Pradesh): It is a multipurpose project consisting of a masonry dam across the Bargi river in the Jabalpur district and a left bank canal.
  2. Beas Project (Joint venture of Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan): It consists of Beas-Sutlej Link and Beas Dam at Pong.
  3. Bhadra Project (Karnataka): A multipurpose project across the river Bhadra.
  4. Bhakra Nangal Project (Joint project of Haryana, Punjab, and Rajasthan): India’s biggest, multipurpose river valley project comprises a straight gravity dam across the Sutlej river at Bhakra, the Nangal dam, the Nangal hydel channel, two powerhouses at Bhakra dam, and two power stations at Ganguwal and Kotla.
  5. Bhima Project (Maharashtra): Comprises two dams, one on the Pawana river near Phagne in Pune district and the other across the Krishna river near Ujjaini in Sholapur district.
  6. Chambal Project (Joint project of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan): The project comprises Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam, and Jawahar Sagar dam.
  7. Damodar Valley Project (West Bengal and Bihar): A multipurpose project for the unified development of irrigation, flood control, and power generation in West Bengal and Bihar. It comprises multipurpose dams at Konar, Tilaiya, Maithon and Pancher; hydel power stations at Tilaiya, Konar, Maithon and Panchet; barrage at Durgapur; and thermal powerhouses at Bokaro, Chandrapura, and Durgapur. The project is administrated by the Damodar Valley Corporation.
  8. Dulhasti Power Project (Jammu & Kashmir): It is a 390 MW power project in the Kishtwar region of Jammu & Kashmir on the Chenab river. Work for this project started in 1981. The foundation stone was laid on April 15, 1983, by the then Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. Work on this project was suspended due to threats of kidnapping and killings by Kashmiri militants resulting in a long delay in the completion of the project.
  9. Farakka Project (West Bengal): The project was taken up for the preservation and maintenance of the Calcutta port and for improving the navigability of the Hoogly. It comprises a barrage at Jangipur across the Bhagirathi and a feeder channel taking off from the Ganga at Farakka and tailing into the Bhagirathi below the Jangipur barrage.
  10. Gandak Project (Joint project of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh): Nepal also derives irrigation and power benefits from this project.
  11. Ghataprabha Project (Karnataka): A project across Ghataprabha in Belgaum and Bijapur districts.
  12. Hirakund (Odisha): World’s longest dam, is located on the Mahanadi river.
  13. Jayakwadi Project (Maharashtra): A masonry spillway across the river Godavari.
  14. Kahalgaon Project (Bihar): The 840-MW Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Project, a joint venture between National Thermal Power Corporation and the Russian State Enterprise Foreign Economic Association, was on August 12, 1996, commissioned and put into commercial operation.
  15. Kakrapara Project (Gujarat): On the Tapti river near Kakrapara, in Surat district.
  16. Kangsabati Project (West Bengal): The project, put in operation in 1965, is located on the Kangsabati and Kumari rivers.
  17. Karjan Project (Gujarat): A masonry dam across Karjan River near Jitgarh village in Nandoo Taluka of Bharuch district.
  18. Kosi Project (Bihar): A multipurpose project, which serves Bihar and Nepal.
  19. Koyna Project (Maharashtra): It is built on a tributary of the river Krishna with a capacity of 880 MW. It feeds power to the Mumbai-Pune industrial belt.
  20. Krishna Project (Maharashtra): Dhom dam near Dhom village on Krishna and Kanhar dam near Kanhar village on Varna river in Satna district.
  21. Kukadi Project (Maharashtra): Five independent storage dams, i.e. Yodgaon, Manikdohi, Dimbha, Wadaj, and Pimpalgaon Jog. The canal system comprises (i) Kukadi left bank Canal, (ii) Dimbha left bank canal, (iii) Dimbha right bank canal, (iv) Meena feeder, and (v) Meena branch.
  22. Kundoh Project (Tamil Nadu): It is in Tamil Nadu whose initial capacity of 425 MW has since been expanded to 535 MW.
  23. Let Bank Ghaghra Canal (Uttar Pradesh): A link channel taking off from the left bank of Ghaghra river of Girja barrage across Sarju.
  24. Madhya Ganga Canal (Uttar Pradesh): A barrage across Ganga in Bijnore district.
  25. Mahanadi Delta Scheme (Odisha): The irrigation scheme will utilize releases from the Hirakud reservoir.
  26. Mahanadi Reservoir Project (Madhya Pradesh): It has three phases: (1) Ravishankar Sagar Project and feeder canal system for the supply of water of Bhilai Steel Plant and Sandur dam across Sandur village. (2) Extension of Mahanadi feeder canal. (3) Pairi dam.
  27. Mahi Project (Gujarat): A two-phase project, one across the Mahi river near Wanakbori village and the other across Mahi river near Kadana.
  28. Malaprabha Project (Karnataka): A dam across the Malaprabha in Belgaum district.
  29. Mayurakshi Project (West Bengal): An irrigation and hydro-electric project comprise the Canada dam.
  30. Minimato Bango Hasdeo Project (Madhya Pradesh): This project is located at Hasdeo Bango river in Korba district and envisages the construction of a masonry dam. A hydel power plant of 120 MW capacity has been commissioned on the Bango dam.
  31. Nagarjunasagar (Andhra Pradesh): On the Krishna river near Nandikona village (about 44 km from Hyderabad).
  32. Panam Project (Gujarat): A gravity masonry dam across Panam river near Keldezar village in Panchmahal district.
  33. Parambikulam Aliyar (Joint venture of Tamil Nadu and Kerala): The integrated harnessing of eight rivers, six in the Annamalai Hills and two in the plains.
  34. Pochampad (Andhra Pradesh): Across Godavari river.
  35. Pong Dam (Punjab): It is an important hydro-electric project located on the Beas river.
  36. Rajasthan Canal (Indira Gandhi Canal- Rajasthan): The Project uses water released from the Pong dam and provides irrigation facilities to the north-western region of Rajasthan, i.e., a part of the Thar desert. It consists of the Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167 km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan) and the 445 km Rajasthan main canal entirely in Rajasthan.
  37. Rajghat Dam Project (Madhya Pradesh): The Rajghat Dam and Rajghat Hydro Electric Projects are Inter-State projects of MP and UP. The Rajghat Dam is almost complete. All three units of Rajghat Hydro-Electric Project had been synchronized during 1999 and power generation has been continuing ever since.
  38. Ramganga (Uttarakhand): A dam across Ramganga, a tributary of the Ganga river located in the Garhwal district. The project has, besides reducing the intensity of floods in central and western Uttar Pradesh, provided water for the Delhi water supply scheme.
  39. Ranjit Sagar Dam (Thein Dam) (Punjab): A multi-purpose highest dam in the country, built on the Ravi river for the benefit of Punjab, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir.
  40. Rihand Project (Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh): It is the largest man-made lake in India on the borders of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh with a capacity of 300 MW annually.
  41. Sabarmati (Gujarat): A storage dam across the Sabarmati river near Dhari Village in Mehsana district and wasna barrage near Ahmedabad.
  42. Salal Project (Jammu & Kashmir): With the successful completion of the 2.5-km long tailrace tunnel, the 690-MW Salal (Stage I and II ) project in Jammu and Kashmir became fully operational on August 6, 1996.
  43. Sharavathi Project (Karnataka): It is located at the Jog Falls with a capacity of 891 MW. It primarily feeds Bengaluru industrial region and also Goa and Tamil Nadu.
  44. Sone High-Level Canal (Bihar): An extension on the Sone Barrage project.
  45. Tawa Project (Madhya Pradesh): A project across the Tawa river, a tributary of the Narmada in Hoshangabad district.
  46. Tehri Dam Project (Uttarakhand): Earth and rock-fill dam on Bhagirathi river in Tehri district.
  47. Tungabhadra Project (Joint Project of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka): On the Tungabhadra River.
  48. Ukai Project (Gujarat): A multipurpose project across the Tapti river near Ukai village.
  49. Upper Krishna Project (Karnataka): A project consisting of Narayanpur dam across the Krishna river and a dam at Almatti.
  50. Uri Power Project (Jammu & Kashmir): It is located on the river Jhelum in the Uri Tehsil of Baramulla district in Jammu & Kashmir. It is a 480-MW hydroelectric project which was dedicated to the nation on February 13, 1997.

Multiple Choice Questions on Agriculture & Irrigation system in India 

  1. Which of the following is the commercial crop in India?
    (A) Mustard

    (B) tobacco
    (C) Jute
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer:(D) All of the above
  2. Which Indian state produces the largest quantity of pulses?
    (A) Maharashtra

    (B) Uttar Pradesh
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Madhya Pradesh
  3. What is the correct descending order of rice-producing states in India?
    (A) Punjab, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh

    (B) Punjab, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh
    (C) Punjab, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh
    (D) West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Andhra Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Andhra Pradesh
  4. What is the correct descending order of food grain-producing states?
    (A) Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal

    (B) Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal
    (C) Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and West Bengal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal
  5. Which of the following is not matched correctly?
    (A) Rabi Crop………Mustard, Cucumber

    (B) Rabi Crop………Mustard, Barley
    (C) Zaid Crop………Moong, vegetables
    (D) Kharif Crop…..Cotton
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Rabi Crop………Mustard, Cucumber
  6. Which of the following statement is not correct?
    (A) India is the second-largest producer of fruits in the world

    (B) India is the biggest producer of vegetables in the world
    (C) Production of fruits, vegetables, and spices called horticulture.
    (D) Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of wheat in India
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) India is the biggest producer of vegetables in the world
  7. Which agency is responsible for the procurement, distribution, and storage of food grain production in India?
    (A) Ministry of Agriculture

    (B) Food Corporation of India
    (C) NAFED
    (D) TRIFED
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Food Corporation of India
  8. Who approves the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane?
    (A) Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs

    (B) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
    (C) Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Ministry of Agriculture
    (D) Agricultural Produce Market Committee
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
  9. Who regulates the markets in agricultural products in India?
    (A) Essential Commodities Act, 1955

    (B) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act enacted by States
    (C) Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937
    (D) Food Products Order, 1956 and Meat and Food Products Order, 1973
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act enacted by States
  10. Which sector is the backbone of the Indian economy?
    (A) Service Sector

    (B) Financial Sector
    (C) Tourism Sector
    (D) Agriculture Sector
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Agriculture Sector
    Agriculture is the pillar of the Indian economy because of its high share in employment and livelihood creation.
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  11. Which among the following is not a cereal?
    (A) Rice

    (B) Wheat
    (C) Gram
    (D) Maize
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Gram
    Foodgrains consist of cereals and pulses. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, etc. are included among the cereals whereas gram, moong, Masur, arhar, etc. are included among the pulses.
  12. Who announced the introduction of the National Food Security Act?
    (A) Pranab Mukherjee

    (B) Manmohan Singh
    (C) P.Chidambaram
    (D) Arun Jaitley
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pranab Mukherjee
    On July 6, 2009, Finance Minister Mr.Pranab Mukherjee announced the introduction of the National Food Security Act under which BPL families in rural and urban areas will be entitled by law to 25 kg. of wheat or rice per month at Rs. 3 per kg.
  13. When was NFSM launched?
    (A) Mid of 9th Five-Year Plan

    (B) End of 10th Five-Year Plan
    (C) Mid of 11th Five-Year Plan
    (D) End of 11th Five-Year Plan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) End of 11th Five-Year Plan
    : The Ministry of Agriculture has launched NFSM by the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan (2007-08-2011-12) with an allocation of Rs. 4882.5 crore to increase the production of rice, wheat, and pulses by 10, 8, and 2 million tonnes, respectively.
  14. Who announced the launch of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana?
    (A) Narendra Modi

    (B) Dr. Manmohan Singh
    (C) Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    (D) I.K.Gujral
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Dr. Manmohan Singh
    Former Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh announced the launch of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana at the 53rd meeting of NDC with a Central allocation of Rs. 25,000 crore to increase the share of investment in agriculture in their state plans so as to hike agriculture and allied sector’s growth from the existing 2% to 4%. 7,810.87 crore was the allocation under RKVY for the year 2011-12.
  15. Which among the following does not belong to welfare schemes for the farmers?
    (A) Kisan Credit Card Scheme

    (B) SHG Bank Linkage Programme
    (C) National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
    (D) Employee Referral Scheme
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Employee Referral Scheme
    To encourage employees to refer friends and relatives for employment in the organization, an employee referral scheme is implemented in several companies.
  16. When did the Government present Kisan Credit Card Scheme?
    (A) April 1853

    (B) August 1998
    (C) July 1991
    (D) November 1995
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) August 1998
    KCC scheme was introduced in the Banks in August 1998. The aim of the Kisan Credit Card Scheme (KC(C) is to provide adequate and timely support from the banking system to the farmers for their short-term credit needs during their cultivation for purchase of inputs etc., during the cropping season.
  17. When was On-Farm Water Management Scheme launched?
    (A) July 2000

    (B) March 2002
    (C) March 2004
    (D) January 2004
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) March 2002
    On-Farm Water Management Scheme was launched in March 2002 with the objective of exploiting ground/surface water, efficient water utilization for increasing crop production in Eastern India.
  18. When were Kisan Call Centres established?
    (A) July 2000

    (B) March 2002
    (C) March 2004
    (D) January 2004
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) January 2004
    On January 21, 2004, the Department of Agriculture & Cooperation (DA(C), Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India established Kisan Call Centers across the country to deliver extension services to the farming community. The aim is to respond in the local language to issues embossed by farmers.
  19. When was Micro Irrigation launched?
    (A) March 2002

    (B) March 2004
    (C) January 2004
    (D) January 2006
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) January 2006
    To alter the heavy use of water and available resources, micro-irrigation was launched in January 2006.
  20. When was the new agricultural policy established?
    (A) July 2000

    (B) March 2002
    (C) March 2004
    (D) January 2004
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) July 2000
    The new agricultural policy favors private participation through contract farming and land leasing arrangements. The policy supports the development of genetically-modified food crop varieties.
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  21. Which of the following is the largest fertilizer producer in India?
    (A) Coromande International Ltd.

    (B) Indian Farmers Fertiliser Corporation Limited
    (C) Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Ltd.
    (D) Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertlizers Ltd.
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Indian Farmers Fertiliser Corporation Limited
    Indian Farmers Fertiliser Co-operative Limited (IFFCO) was registered on November 3, 1967 as a Multi-unit Co-operative Society.
  22. Jalpriya is a variety of—
    (A) Maize

    (B) Jowar
    (C) Paddy
    (D) Barley
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Paddy
  23. Sugarcane + Potato is an intercropping system of—
    (A) Autumn season

    (B) Zaid season
    (C) Spring season
    (D) Rainy season
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Autumn season
  24. Deficiency symptoms of calcium on plants first appear at—
    (A) Lower leaves

    (B) Middle leaves
    (C) Terminal leaves
    (D) All leaves
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Terminal leaves
  25. Maya is the variety of—
    (A) Potato

    (B) Gram
    (C) Pea
    (D) Mustard
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Mustard
  26. The weed that causes Asthma is—
    (A) Hirankhuri

    (B) Bathua
    (C) Parthenium
    (D) Krishna Neel
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Parthenium
  27. Which crop requires the maximum amount of nitrogen?
    (A) Potato

    (B) Wheat
    (C) Barley
    (D) Sugarcane
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Sugarcane
  28. The first dwarf variety of paddy developed in India is—
    (A) Jaya

    (B) Saket-4
    (C) Govind
    (D) Narendra-97
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Govind
  29. Sprinkler irrigation is suitable, where the soil has—
    (A) Clayey texture

    (B) Loamy texture
    (C) Undulating topography
    (D) All of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of these
  30. Covered smut of barley is a disease of—
    (A) Externally seed-borne

    (B) Internally seed-borne
    (C) Air-borne
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Internally seed-borne
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  31. Which of the following cakes is not edible?
    (A) Castor cake

    (B) Mustard cake
    (C) Sesame cake
    (D) Groundnut cake
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Castor cake
  32. In India, about 142 million hectares of land is under—
    (A) Cultivation

    (B) Wasteland
    (C) Forest
    (D) Eroded land
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Cultivation
  33. The headquarters of the Indian Meteorological Department was established in 1875 at—
    (A) New Delhi

    (B) Hyderabad
    (C) Pune
    (D) Calcutta
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Calcutta
  34. The moisture condensed in small drops upon the cool surface is called—
    (A) Hail

    (B) Dew
    (C) Snow
    (D) Fog
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Dew
  35. How many agro-climatic zones (ACZ) are found in India?
    (A) 16
    (B) 18
    (C) 15
    (D) 20
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 15
  36. Pudding is done to—
    (A) Reduce percolation of water

    (B) Pulverise and level soil
    (C) Kill weeds
    (D) All of the above
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) All of the above
  37. The Community Development Programme (CDP) was started in India on—
    (A) 2nd October 1950

    (B) 2nd October 1952
    (C) 2nd October 1951
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 2nd October 1952
  38. The main unit of the Integrated Rural Development Programme is—
    (A) Family

    (B) Village
    (C) Block
    (D) District
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Village
  39. The first Kshetriya Gramin Bank (KGB) was opened in India is—
    (A) 1972

    (B) 1980
    (C) 1975
    (D) 1969
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 1975
  40. The main function of NABARD is—
    (A) Farmers’ loaning

    (B) Agricultural research
    (C) Refinancing to agricultural financing institutions
    (D) Development of agriculture
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Refinancing to agricultural financing institutions
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  41. Rent theory of profit was given by—
    (A) Hawley

    (B) C.P. Blacker
    (C) Tanssig
    (D) F.A. Walker
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) F.A. Walker
  42. The period of 11th Five Year Plan is—
    (A) 2000-2005

    (B) 2002-2007
    (C) 2007-2012
    (D) 2008-2012
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 2007-2012
  43. Acid rain contains mainly—
    (A) PO4

    (B) NO2
    (C) NO3
    (D) CH4
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) NO2
  44. Milk fever is caused due to the deficiency of—
    (A) P

    (B) Ca
    (C) Mg
    (D) K
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Ca
  45. Milk sugar is a type of—
    (A) Glucose

    (B) Sucrose
    (C) Lactose
    (D) Fructose
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Lactose
  46. Azotobacter fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil by—
    (A) Symbiotically

    (B) Non-symbiotically
    (C) Both (A) and (B)
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Symbiotically
  47. Rock phosphates are used in—
    (A) Saline soil

    (B) Sodic soil
    (C) Acidic soil
    (D) Neutral soil
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Acidic soil
  48. Kinnow is the hybrid variety of—
    (A) Citrus

    (B) Orange
    (C) Mandarin
    (D) Lemon
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Mandarin
  49. The permanent preservative, which is used for the preservation of fruit and vegetables, is—
    (A) Sodium chloride

    (B) Potassium metabisulphite
    (C) Potassium sulfate
    (D) Sugar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Potassium metabisulphite
  50. Whiptail disease of cauliflower is caused by a deficiency of—
    (A) Nitrogen

    (B) Boron
    (C) Molybdenum
    (D) Zinc
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Molybdenum
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  51. The word ‘Agriculture’ is derived from—
    (A) Greek

    (B) Latin
    (C) Arabic
    (D) French
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Latin
  52. Which of the following are short-day crops?
    (A) Maize, Lobia, Bajra

    (B) Wheat, Mustard, Gram
    (C) Moong, Soybean, Bajra
    (D) Wheat, Soybean, Bajra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Wheat, Mustard, Gram
  53. In which state, are there the biggest area, highest production, and number of Sugar Mills in relation to Sugarcane?
    (A) Maharashtra
    (B) Bihar
    (C) Uttar Pradesh
    (D) Andhra Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Maharashtra
  54. Which is not prepared by potato?
    (A) Acetic Acid

    (B) Paper
    (C) Wine
    (D) Fanina
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Paper
  55. Uttar Pradesh is occupying which place in India, for Guava production?
    (A) Second

    (B) First
    (C) Third
    (D) Fifth
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Second
  56. What is the main function of zinc in the plants?
    (A) Synthesis of nitrogen

    (B) Synthesis of phosphorus
    (C) Required for synthesis of Tryptophos
    (D) To increase the activity of the boron
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Required for synthesis of Tryptophos
  57. Which of the following factors does not affect nitrification?
    (A) Air

    (B) Seed
    (C) Temperature
    (D) Moisture
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Seed
  58. Which is the correct sequence of soil erosion?
    (A) Rill – Sheet – Gulley

    (B) Gulley – Sheet – Rill
    (C) Sheet – Rill – Gulley
    (D) Sheet – Gulley – Rill
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Sheet – Rill – Gulley
  59. The credit for the success of Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK) goes to—
    (A) Dr. R. S. Paroda

    (B) Dr. Chandrika Prasad
    (C) Dr. Mohan Singh Mehta
    (D) Dr. Mangla Rai
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Dr. Mangla Rai
  60. Which of the following soil type is most suitable for garlic cultivation?
    (A) Loamy sand

    (B) Sandy loam
    (C) Loam
    (D) Clay
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Sandy loam
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  61. The main reason for the Irish Famine in Potato was—
    (A) Late Blight disease

    (B) Bacterial Blight disease
    (C) Blast disease
    (D) Ear Cockle disease
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Late Blight disease
  62. Which of the following pesticides has been banned in India?
    (A) Rogor

    (B) DDT
    (C) Metasystox
    (D) Dimecron
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) DDT
  63. Wheat is a—
    (A) Cash crop

    (B) Cereal crop
    (C) Covered crop
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cereal crop
  64. Autumn sugarcane is planted in the month of—
    (A) February-March

    (B) July
    (C) October
    (D) December
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) October
  65. In plain, Rajma is cultivated during—
    (A) Kharif

    (B) Rabi
    (C) Zaid
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Kharif
  66. The first V.K. (Krishi Vigyan Kendra) in India was established in—
    (A) Bombay

    (B) Port Blair
    (C) Pondicherry
    (D) Madras
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Pondicherry
  67. Maximum photosynthesis takes place in—
    (A) Blue light

    (B) Red light
    (C) Violet light
    (D) Green light
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Green light
  68. Farm Planning means—
    (A) Farm Budgeting

    (B) Cropping pattern
    (C) Type of enterprises
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cropping pattern
  69. Bending of plants towards light is called—
    (A) Phototropism

    (B) Vernalisation
    (C) Photo-respiration
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Phototropism
  70. Germination is inhibited by—
    (A) Red light

    (B) Blue light
    (C) U.V. light
    (D) I.R. light
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) U.V. light
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  71. Cow and buffalo belong to the family—
    (A) Bovidae

    (B) Suidae
    (C) Equidae
    (D) Cammelidae
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Bovidae
  72. Which place is occupied by India in egg production?
    (A) First

    (B) Second
    (C) Third
    (D) Fourth
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) First
  73. The main function of biofertilizer is—
    (A) To increase the chemical process

    (B) To increase the physiological process
    (C) To increase the biological process
    (D) To increase the photosynthesis process
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) To increase the physiological process
  74. Which type of soil is found near the canal banks?
    (A) Acidic and alkaline

    (B) Acidic
    (C) Alkaline
    (D) None of these
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Alkaline
  75. Which one is not a biofertilizer?
    (A) Multiflex

    (B) PSB
    (C) Vermicompost
    (D) NADEP
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Multiflex
  76. In which form is nitrogen absorbed by paddy under waterlogged conditions?
    (A) NH4ion

    (B) Nitrate ion
    (C) NO2 ion
    (D) N2
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Nitrate ion
  77. Which of the following is produced the highest in India?
    (A) Mango

    (B) Banana
    (C) Papaya
    (D) Grapes
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mango
  78. Red soil is poor in which of the following nutrients?
    (A) Phosphorus and Sulphur

    (B) Phosphorus and Nitrogen
    (C) Nitrogen and Zinc
    (D) Nitrogen and Potassium
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Nitrogen and Potassium
  79. A farming system in which airable crops are grown in alleys formed by trees or shrubs, to establish soil fertility and to enhance soil productivity, is known as—
    (A) Relay cropping
    (B) Multiple cropping
    (C) Alley cropping
    (D) Mixed cropping
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Alley cropping
  80. The origin of litchi is—
    (A) India

    (B) Philippines
    (C) China
    (D) Burma
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) China
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  81. Which among the following has the function of recommending Minimum Support Prices for various commodities to the Government?
    (A) National Farmers Commission
    (B) Agriculture Cost & Price Commission
    (C) Central Statistical Organization
    (D) Department of Agriculture
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Agriculture Cost & Price Commission
  82. Sona, PB 18, and Kalyan were the High Yielding Variety Seeds used in the HYVS program for which among the following crops?
    (A) Wheat
    (B) Rice
    (C) cotton
    (D) Maize
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Wheat
  83. What does the word Olericulture refer to ____?
    (A) Cultivation of Fruits
    (B) Cultivation of Vegetables
    (C) Cultivation of Oil Seeds
    (D) Cultivation of Cash Crops
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Cultivation of Vegetables
  84. Inter-racial hybridization program between japonicas and Indica varieties of which among the following crops was initiated during 1950-54?
    (A) Wheat
    (B) Rice
    (C) Sugarcane
    (D) Cotton
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Rice
  85. Pusa hybrid 4 is a variety of:
    (A) Potato
    (B) Tomato
    (C) Banana
    (D) Brinjal
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Tomato
  86. Which among the following is the closest to the meaning of “Silviculture”?
    (A) Cultivation of Silk Worms
    (B) Cultivation of Textile Crops
    (C) Forest Development
    (D) Cultivation of Timber
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Forest Development
  87. The first state in India to launch a policy to establish Special Agriculture Zones (SAZs):
    (A) Uttar Pradesh

    (B) Gujarat
    (C) Haryana
    (D) Uttarakhand
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Uttarakhand
  88. At which among the following places, National Research Centre for Citrus is located?
    (A) Nagpur

    (B) Kanpur
    (C) Surat
    (D) Aurangabad
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Nagpur
  89. National Research Centre for Grapes is located at which among the following places?
    (A) Nasik

    (B) Pune
    (C) Ahmadabad
    (D) Kolhapur
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Pune
  90. In which year National Seed Policy was announced?
    (A) 2000

    (B) 2002
    (C) 2004
    (D) 2006
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) 2002
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  91. Which among the following variety accounts for maximum production of silk in India?
    (A) Mulberry

    (B) Muga
    (C) Eri
    (D) Tasar
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Mulberry
  92. Sant Kabir Award has been launched for the people who are related to ___?
    (A) Cotton Textile Industry

    (B) Woolen Industry
    (C) Handloom Industry
    (D) Village Industries
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Handloom Industry
  93. Which among the following is the largest foodgrain producing state of India?
    (A) Uttar Pradesh

    (B) Punjab
    (C) Madhya Pradesh
    (D) Rajasthan
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Uttar Pradesh
  94. Kharif crop is ____________?
    (A) Sown in July and harvested in October

    (B) Sown in October and harvested in March
    (C) Sown in March and Harvested in July
    (D) Sown in September and harvested in February
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Sown in July and harvested in October
  95. In some parts of our country, apart from Rabi and Kharif, the Zaid crop is grown from March to June. Which among the following comes under Zaid crop?
    (A) Barley
    (B) Soya Bean
    (C) Muskmelon
    (D) Lady finger
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Muskmelon
  96. In which among the following states of India is prevalent the Shetkari Bazar, a concept of direct marketing by the producer (farmer) to consumers?
    (A) Gujarat
    (B) Maharashtra
    (C) Rajasthan
    (D) Punjab
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Maharashtra
  97. Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), a collaborative food information initiative has been launched by ___?
    (A) World Food Programme
    (B) Food and Agriculture Organization
    (C) G-20
    (D) World Bank
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) G-20
  98. The Krishi Karman Awards are given to ___.
    (A) States
    (B) District Agriculture Boards
    (C) Panchayats
    (D) Individuals
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) States
  99. Which of the following places India’s First Agricultural University was established?
    (A) Pantnagar

    (B) Kanpur
    (C) Lucknow
    (D) Kolkata
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (A) Pantnagar
  100. Which among the following range is the most suitable for the cultivation of all crops?
    (A) 30 °C – 40 °C

    (B) 35 °C -40 °C
    (C) 15 °C to 25 °C
    (D) 15 °C to 40 °C
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) 15 °C to 40 °C
    Agriculture & Irrigation system in India (Notes+MCQ)
  101. Approximately what area of India’s Total Land Area is cultivable?
    (A) 45%

    (B) 50%
    (C) 55%
    (D) 60%
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 55%
  102. G. Ranga Award is related to which of the following fields?
    (A) Architecture

    (B) Social Service
    (C) Science
    (D) Agriculture
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Agriculture
  103. “Golden Mahasheer” is a variety of which of the following?
    (A) Sheep

    (B) Goat
    (C) Fish
    (D) Dolphin
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Fish
  104. In which of the following fields Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award is given?
    (A) Technology

    (B) Social Service
    (C) Agriculture
    (D) Literature
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Agriculture
  105. In which state / Union Territory is located “Kuttanad” a place which is with the lowest altitude in India and is one of the places in the world, where agriculture is carried out below sea level?
    (A) Tamil Nadu
    (B) Kerala
    (C) Andaman & Nicobar Islands
    (D) Lakshadweep
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kerala
  106. Central Seed Testing and Referral Laboratory (CSTL) is located at:
    (A) Bhopal

    (B) Varanasi
    (C) Lucknow
    (D) Dehradun
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Varanasi
  107. Which of the following organizations gives the “World Food Prize”?
    (A) World Health Organization

    (B) World Food Organization
    (C) United Nations
    (D) None of them
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) None of them
    Explanation: Presented by the World Food Prize Foundation
  108. In which of the following state “Vechur cow”, the smallest cattle breed in the world is found?
    (A) Karnataka

    (B) Kerala
    (C) Tamil Nadu
    (D) Maharashtra
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (B) Kerala
  109. “Everything else can wait, but not agriculture.” Which among the following leaders is noted for the above famous statement in context with agriculture in India?
    (A) Sardar Balwant Singh

    (B) Sardar Patel
    (C) Jawaharlal Nehru
    (D) Mahatma Gandhi
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) Jawaharlal Nehru
  110. What is the approximate average fertilizer consumption in India per hectare of land?
    (A) 120 kg

    (B) 135 kg
    (C) 140 kg
    (D) 150 kg
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (C) 140 kg
  111. Deoni breed of cattle is generally found in which among the following states of India?
    (A) Haryana

    (B) Rajasthan
    (C) Maharashtra
    (D) Andhra Pradesh
    Correct Answer
    Correct Answer: (D) Andhra Pradesh

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